They are intended to be living documents and are occasionally updated. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are normally acceptable to the World Bank Group, and that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities at reasonable costs by existing technology. When host country regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in the EHS Guidelines, projects will be required to achieve whichever is more stringent. The General EHS Guidelines contain information on cross-cutting environmental, health, and safety issues potentially applicable to all industry sectors. This document should be used together with the relevant Industry Sector Guideline s.
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- Sunflower Oil Dubai
- Conversion of no/low value waste frying oils into biodiesel and polyhydroxyalkanoates
- Evaluating the rancidity and quality of discarded oils in fast food restaurants
- 5 gallon vegetable oil
- List of vegetable oils
- Vegetable oil
- Treatment of Post-consumer Vegetable Oils for Biodiesel Production
- BUTTER AND DAIRY SPREADS
- Choosing a lubricant for deep drawing
Sunflower Oil Dubai
Samples of the discarded frying oils were collected randomly from 50 fast food restaurants in Tehran, Iran. Their physicochemical properties were assessed and compared to the standard values. The majority of discarded oil from fast food restaurants were overdegraded containing hazardous secondary oxidative products, and also, the consumption of nonstandard frying oil has increased in fast food restaurants.
Policymakers should develop guidelines to determine whether and when frying oils should be discarded and consider the consumption of overdegraded oils as a public health hazard. Frying is one of the most common methods used for preparation of foods throughout the world.
Fast food is termed as a food obtained from restaurants and other catering establishments, where the aim is to provide a fast service and rapid customer turnover at reasonable prices. The physical and chemical properties of edible oil influence the degree of oxidation and hydrolysis reactions, which occur during frying.
It is known that the frying oils used continuously or repeatedly at high temperatures in the presence of oxygen and water are subject to thermal oxidation, polymerization, and hydrolysis, and the resultant decomposition products can adversely affect the flavor and color of the foods. Their stability depends on the composition of fatty acids and natural antioxidants, as well as the frying temperature Crosa et al.
Peroxide is the first compound that is produced after oxidation of fats and oils. It can have negative impacts on human health and may contribute to different diseases such as cardiovascular diseases CVDs , cancers, allergies, and obesity Pizzino et al.
During deep frying, different reactions occur depending on the factors such as replenishment of fresh oil, frying condition, and the original quality of the frying oil. Two irreversible processes including hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity determine the chemical stability of the frying oil, which affect the oil turnover during the frying process. Therefore, the quality of utilized frying oils and the factors that can influence their heat resistance are also important in order to monitor the quality of fried foods in fast food restaurants Sebastian et al.
Various criteria are being used to judge when the frying oils need to be discarded. In restaurants and food services, changes in the physical properties of frying oils are considered as an indicator of oil quality. There is no agreement among different authors on the limits of color changes in frying oils because changes in their color depend on the oil variety, duration of exposure to light and heat, and the food itself.
However, the information or protocol about discarded oils is limited. The presence of metals in vegetable oils depends on several factors. All measurements were replicated three times. Fatty acid methyl esters FAMEs were prepared from 0. The flask was swirled before the addition of saturated potassium iodide. The mixture was subjected to an excess of iodide via a saturated solution of potassium iodide 0.
The peroxides oxidized the iodide to iodine, and the iodine was titrated to a colorimetric endpoint blue color disappeared using 0. Free fatty acids FFA are often used to assess the quality of frying oils Chen et al. The high FFA values are due to triacylglycerol hydrolysis that takes place upon release of water from the food being fried. The determination of FFA is a simple titration to an endpoint of pH 8. The oil samples were treated with colorful filter aid earth, agitated for 2.
Total polar compounds was measured according to INSO The components of the oils and fats were determined by column chromatography under the conditions specified in the standard. To do this, the polar and nonpolar compositions of the test piece were separated by a column.
Then, the nonpolar compounds were washed and weighed. Kolmogorov—Smirnov's test was used for checking the normality of the data. Frying oil practices by fast food restaurants a. The results of the Kruskal—Wallis analysis showed that the physicochemical parameters of the discarded oils were not significantly different based on the frequency of oil filtrations, too. The mean of fatty acids in the discarded frying oil samples compared to the standards of the Iranian National Standardization Organization.
The mean of heavy metals in the discarded frying oils compared to the standards of the Iranian National Standardization Organization.
Physicochemical analysis of discarded frying oils from fast food restaurants in Tehran based on frequency of filtration. Rancidity measurements of the discarded frying oil samples from fast food restaurants. Correlation analysis of the physicochemical parameters of discarded frying oils from fast food restaurants in Tehran.
Values represent the Spearman's correlation coefficient r for the linear analysis. Different factors including price, acceptable shelf life, acceptable organoleptic properties, and nutritional value can affect the oil selection. The qualitative findings indicated that most of the fast food restaurants used to replenish the fryers with fresh oil during the frying and did oil filtration once a day.
The majority of fast food restaurants replaced their discarded oil completely with fresh oil twice a week due to its color change. In fast food restaurants, the oil's quality is usually monitored based on its color and odor, as well as the taste of fried food Sebastian et al.
The main source of information about the interviewees about fats and oils was the cooking course and training. Overall, it seems that the cooking course does not provide adequate information about desirable cooking practice and food safety.
The mean PV of the discarded oils examined in the present work was 3. This can be caused by many factors such as oil type, amount of antioxidants, storage life and conditions, and also temperature in the frying process. PV gives the initial evidence of rancidity in unsaturated fats.
It is also a measure of the extent to which an oil sample has undergone primary oxidation, especially during storage. It has been shown that an increase in temperature can cause a reduction in PV due to the decomposition of hydroperoxides. The amount of production and failure of hydroperoxides in oil depends on the temperature, time, and composition of the fatty acids. In fact, the primary oxidation products rapidly break down into secondary oxidation products, and thus, their total accumulation in the oil could be greatly underestimated Kubow, The United States Department of Agriculture and some European countries have regulatory guidelines on maximum FFA levels in frying oil, ranging from 1.
In this study, the maximum level of FFA content for discarded oil was 9. This measurement requires laboratory procedures and a number of simple instrumental methods suitable for use in a food processing factory.
Similar to the findings of De Abreu et al. In Europe and many other places of the world, TPC is used as a regulatory index for determining when frying oil should be discarded Sebastian et al. During the frying process, some polymerization of the fat may occur. In some cases, this leads to foam formation. Polymerization thermal or oxidative can affect the greasiness of fried foods.
The polymerization values of 0. In the present study, the mean of discarded oil viscosity was increased cp , which is an undesirable characteristic. Since oil is subject to mandatory pricing in Iran and the commercial price is relatively high and not cost benefit for the producers, its production has TFAs, as indicators of hydrogenated oils, in most of the discarded oil samples, may show that the usage of nonstandard frying oils for guilds and industrial applications.
The evaluation of fatty acid profiles in the studied discarded frying oils showed that in the formulation of fresh frying oils used in fast food restaurants, a larger volume of soybean oil than palm oil is used.
Since soybean oil has very low resistance due to having high amount of UFAs with dual bands and thus reduces the oxidative stability of the oil, it is not suitable for frying; also because of producing aldehydes, the probability of heart and cancer diseases increases. It seems that, because of easy access and low price, the usage of soybean oils in fast food restaurants has increased. Regarding the World Health Organization WHO recommendation to reduce the risk factors of NCDs, and due to increase in the incidence of CHD in Iran, it is necessary to design a comprehensive study for determining the total dietary intake of TFA from all risky sources among the Iranian population, as well as identifying its possible effects on human health Abedi et al.
A comparison between the given parameters showed the correlation of TPC value with viscosity and red color. The viscosity of an oil is dependent upon its TPC value and so are its electrical properties; therefore, it seems plausible that the viscosity of oil can be estimated from its electrical properties. This study indicated that the majority of discarded oil from fast food restaurants in Tehran were overdegraded containing hazardous secondary oxidative products.
Frying oil should be considered as a food item because fried foods will absorb a significant amount of oil, and there are many hazardous degradation products present in them. The high values of degradation products found in frying oils raise concerns about the safety of the foods served in some fast food restaurants in Tehran and anywhere in the world. Unfortunately, there are no such guidelines or regulatory standards for frying oils in most of countries.
There are several methods available for analyzing the heat abuse of oils. Usually, cooks decide on the quality of frying oils by visual observations such as color, excessive foaming, and smoking.
Another assessment is based on odor and taste of the fried foods, as well as the cost of buying fresh oil. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the quality of oils to avoid the health consequences of consuming foods fried in degraded oils. Hence, it is highly recommended to inspect the performance of oil quality in fast food restaurants and food industry establishments and create regulatory standards for the quality of frying oils Zargaraan et al.
To ensure that the rule is followed, eateries will be required to keep a log of their purchase and use of edible oils since This is a simple lesson from India that should be considered in fast food restaurants. Further research is needed to find such rapid multiparameter test kits in order to establish the quality of reused oil and the point at which it should be discarded in fast food restaurants and also more appropriate methods to monitor the quality of frying oils Bansal et al.
Using this method, it would be possible to monitor oil quality online; yet, it is necessary to develop policies and guidelines that can be used to determine whether the frying oil should be discarded or not.
It is necessary to train food operators in fast food restaurants in order to apply proper methods of cooking and frying foods. The present research results showed that the majority of fast food restaurants in Tehran use overdegraded frying oils, which are not discarded at the proper time. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between TPC, viscosity, and red color. Considering the potential toxicity of the products of oxidation and hydrolysis of frying oils, any further utilization of used frying oils could be noticed as the public health hazard.
It seems that, because of easy access and low price, the use of nonstandard oil, which is not suitable for frying in Iranian fast food restaurants, has increased. Prevention of oil exposure to extra heat, use of antioxidants, filtration or absorbents, pressure frying, avoidance of intermittent frying, and regular exchange of heated oil with fresh one are strategies that can be used by restaurant keepers to improve the condition.
Also, it would be better that policymakers design education programs concomitant with more vigilance from administrative organizations that may additionally help in the improvement. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose. This study received no specific grant from any funding sources commercial or nonprofit sectors.
The owners of fast food restaurants were hardly willing to collaborate. We are grateful for the fast food owners to help in conducting this study. Special thanks to Kazemzadeh M. Also, we would like to thank Sheibani E. Evaluating the rancidity and quality of discarded oils in fast food restaurants.
Food Sci Nutr.
In the early days of the edible oil processing industry, in the first half of the 19th century, there was little or no need for refining. Food fats e. It was the growth of the margarine industry in Europe at the end of the 19th century that resulted in the development of the edible oil deodorization process Table 1. These deodorizers operated under vacuum to facilitate stripping and protect the oil against oxidation and also used superheated steam as a stripping agent to avoid hydrolysis. Figure 1.
Conversion of no/low value waste frying oils into biodiesel and polyhydroxyalkanoates
Please visit our forum to see our information and discussion on scams or to receive assistance. Don't shortcut this step. Affirmed Organic Sunflower Oil is expeller squeezed, refined, faded, freshened up, and winterized from confirmed natural sunflower seeds per international standards and does not contain added substances or additives. We manufacture and exporter of Coconut Oil Extraction Machinewhich is specially designed to be used for Coconut, Copra.
Evaluating the rancidity and quality of discarded oils in fast food restaurants
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water. In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times. Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication. Pliny the Elder reported that fats such as lard were used to lubricate the axles of carts.
5 gallon vegetable oil
Edible Oil production is able to process different qualities of products depending on the needs of the market. For some cases the clients may only need the process of Vegetable Oil Extraction , but in order to have the premium quality oil, the Vegetable Oil Refining process will be required. Degumming reduces the phosphatides content in some crude oils soybean, sunflower, rapeseed etc. The free acids contain in oil can be either alkali neutralize.
They are excellent substitutes for mineral base chemicals and represent a new generation of environmentally friendly basic materials. By applying chemical know-how these oleochemicals feedstocks are converted into a wide range of chemical products for use in. Some of the more traditional like candles, paints and linoleum are already well developed, while some others are still being explored and have not yet achieved critical market penetration. Technical applications The oleochemical industry makes secondary resources out of vegetable fats and oils: e. Fatty acids, Fatty acids esters, Fatty alcohols and Glycerine. By applying chemical know-how these oleochemicals feedstocks are converted into a wide range of chemical products for use in cosmetics, paints and inks, lubricants, biofuels, textile and leather, plastics, rubber, soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals and many other industries. Many potential outlets for non-food oilseed have been already identified. The potential of these products is very high in comparison with other bio-based products. Beneficial recycling of used vegetable oils.
List of vegetable oils
One of the most common metalworking methods is drawing, which involves forming flat sheet metal into "cup-shaped" parts. If the depth of the formed cup is equal to or greater than the radius of the cup, the process is called deep drawing. Deep drawing involves placing a sheet metal blank over a shaped die and pressing the metal into the die with a punch see Figure 1. The piece produced may be cylindrical or box-shaped with straight or tapered sides or with a combination of straight, tapered, or curved sides. The punch must provide enough force so that the metal is drawn over the edge of the die opening and allowed to flow into the die. The sheet metal blank must be strong and ductile enough to avoid breaking in areas where the metal flows from the punch face to the sides of the punch.
Fuji Oil Europe is a manufacturer of vegetable oils and fats for the food industry and is a part of Fuji Oil Holdings Inc. The Belgian plant is strategically located at the seaport of Ghent and has a large range of processing technologies available, from high quality refining over fractionation to interesterification and hydrogenation. This state-of-the art plant is designed to produce a wide range of products, many of which tailor-made. These semi-finished products for the food industry are mostly tailor-made. The combinations for our cocoa fillings and compounds are almost unlimited: with or without milk solids, with or without nuts, tempering needed or not, with sugar or with sugar replacers. Only the most functional and most performing fats are selected according to the application of the customer. This is unique in the business. Contacteer ons. Home About us. Fuji Oil Europe, supplier of innovative food ingredients.
Treatment of Post-consumer Vegetable Oils for Biodiesel Production
Fat and oil processing , method by which animal and plant substances are prepared for eating by humans. The oil and fat products used for edible purposes can be divided into two distinct classes: liquid oils, such as olive oil , peanut oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil; and plastic fats , such as lard , shortening , butter , and margarine. The physical nature of the fatty material is unimportant for some uses, but the consistency is a matter of consequence for other products. As a dressing on green salads, for example, a liquid oil is used to provide a coating on the ingredients; a plastic fat such as lard or butter would be unsuitable.
BUTTER AND DAIRY SPREADS
Current Air Quality Issues. The current energy model based on petroleum shows signs of exhaustion, which is aggravating, as besides energy source petroleum is used extensively for the production of plastics, clothing, fertilizers and medicine, moving a true "Petroleum Civilization" [ 1 ]. Ally the question of exhaustion of petroleum reserves and its derivatives and the search for renewable energy sources, is also highlighted the issue of waste, which daily becomes one of major problems for humanity.
Choosing a lubricant for deep drawing
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries. Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin.
Cooking oil consists of edible vegetable oils derived from olives, peanuts, and safflowers, to name just a few of the many plants that are used. Liquid at room temperature, cooking oils are sometimes added during the preparation of processed foods.