Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide  which is white, shiny and opaque see tin-glazing for the chemistry ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery , but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.
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Majolica, Faience, and DelftwareVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Dinnerware Is Handmade For 5-Star Restaurants - The Making Of
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain. One such mysterious mark is the capital A found on a rare group of 18th-century British porcelains.
Once considered Italian, the group has been tentatively associated with small factories or experimental works at Birmingham, Kentish Town in London, and Gorgie near Edinburgh. The most recent theory is that they were made with clay imported from Virginia by two of the partners in the Bow porcelain factory. If so, the 'A' might refer to George Arnold, a sleeping partner in the firm.
This is because the first 'baking' implied in its original usage would have been to fuse raw materials, not for firing the shaped ware. Unless made from materials that vitrify at high kiln temperatures, biscuit ceramics are porous.
To make them impervious to liquids, they require a glaze and a second 'glost' firing. But sometimes porcelain figures and ornamental wares are left in the unglazed biscuit state for aesthetic reasons.
These porcelain figures were much more expensive than glazed and enamelled versions, as there was no covering to mask imperfections. Although white, porous and difficult to clean, biscuit porcelain was fashionable for the decoration of dining tables in 18th-century France and Britain.
At that time Europeans were unable to manufacture porcelain, which was an expensive and highly prized material. As the passion for collecting china intensified, greater efforts were made to discover the secrets of its manufacture.
Animal bone ash was first added to porcelain at the Bow factory in the s, but its use in a hard-paste mixture was favoured by Josiah Spode in the s, just as the importation of Chinese porcelain ceased to be significant. For most people, 'delftware' conjures up images of the blue and white pottery made in the Dutch town of Delft. The term in fact describes all 'tin-glazed earthenwares' made in the Netherlands and the British Isles.
Tin-glazed earthenware, which normally has a white glaze and painted decoration, has been produced in many countries and has many different names.
Italian tin-glazed pottery is known as maiolica. It was a popular product and traded widely. By the 14th century, fleets of Venetian ships appeared in the English Channel every year, carrying cargoes of maiolica bound for England, France and the Netherlands. These ships were known as Flanders galleys, and it is doubtless from this name that 'galleyware' the original English term for tin-glazed earthenware, derives.
Although production of tin-glazed earthenware began in the Netherlands and England in the 16th century, it was not actually made in Delft until around By the late 17th century, Delft had become the most famous centre of production. Variations on the name 'delftware' have since become common in Britain for both English and Dutch pottery of this type. Wares known to have been made in the town itself are now simply called 'Delft'. The term encaustic, literally meaning 'burnt in', is given to several quite different artistic processes.
In ceramics it usually describes objects, often tiles, with decoration inlaid into their surface using clay of a contrasting colour. Wedgwood, however, also used the term to describe Greek-style vases with decoration painted onto their surface using coloured clay slip. Medieval inlaid tiles were decorated by stamping the clay with a carved wooden block. The indentations were then filled with white pipe clay.
In the 19th century, these tiles were called 'encaustic'. Today the term normally refers to Victorian inlaid tiles. These were made in a similar way, but instead of stamping the design into the tile, the clay was pressed into a mould with the design in relief at the bottom.
Once the tile was removed from the mould, the indentations could be filled with a contrasting clay. Mechanised processes using powdered clay to form the tile body and inlaid design were also used by some manufacturers. This is the word used for cheap earthenware ornaments modelled only on the front and slim enough to fit the narrowest shelf. Staffordshire potters used the word 'images' for these ceramics. In the grim and troubled mid 19th century, the working population of Britain was so hungry for folk heroes that even a small-time but particularly vicious 18th-century highwayman like Dick Turpin could be raised in the public imagination to the romantic status of Robin Hood.
His figure was often paired with that of Tom King, another highwayman whom Turpin shot and killed by mistake. It is perhaps doubtful whether King would have wished to be immortalised alongside his killer! Another popular hero, forgotten today, was Tom Sayers, a Pimlico prize-fighter whose bare-fist fight with the New-Yorker John Heenan at Farnborough in attracted a crowd of over 12, In the fourth of 37 rounds Sayers dislocated his arm, while the American was virtually blind by the time the fight was declared a draw after two hours and six minutes.
Huge numbers of these imaginary portraits were made to adorn humble cottage mantelpieces. They seem now to have a childlike charm, perhaps because they were actually made by children, who produced up to small figures a day for as little as two shillings 10p a week. It was used in contrast to an alternative method of decoration, known as 'petit feu'. Often boldly painted, the result could be both highly decorative and very economical. As tough porcelain and imported printed English earthenwares became readily available in France towards the end of the 18th century, faience declined until only reproductions and souvenirs continued to be made.
These pioneers were the first true studio potters. Its other desirable qualities are whiteness, translucency, resonance and non-porosity.
Its moulded details are often crisper than those in other wares. The recipe and firing technique was invented in the 6th century in China, where there was plenty of kaolin china clay and petuntse fusible feldspar rock , its two ingredients. China kept the recipe and method of production a closely guarded secret while Europe struggled to discover the ingredients.
In , after years of research, the physicist E. Like the Chinese, the Meissen factory hoped to keep the secret to themselves, but industrial espionage by rival 'arcanists' led to the dissemination of this 'secret knowledge'.
The small rural town of Iznik nestles picturesquely on a lakeside in Western Anatolia. Here in the early 16th century an 'Imperial ware' was made for the Istanbul court of the Ottoman Sultan - the richest, most powerful monarch in Europe.
European collectors in the mid 19th century thought that such fine pottery could only have been made in Persia or Iran, as it is today. They saw the Persians as the only truly 'artistic' race of the Islamic world, and the 'artless' Arabs and Turks as barbarian nomads. As more information became available, it was suggested that these wares were made in Damascus or the island of Rhodes, where much later Iznik ware was found.
Convoluted stories explained the presence of Persian potters in these distant lands, and it was argued that 'Rhodian' wares were made by shipwrecked Persian sailors. Only in the s did scholars accept that Iznik ware was Ottoman, giving due recognition at last to the Turkish potters for some of the world's most beautiful and striking designs.
Machines called jiggers and jolleys are used to make tableware in ceramics factories. The derivation of these strange names is unclear, though the word 'jigger' is actually used to describe all kinds of quite different mechanical devices used in many different occupations, including billiards, golf and printing. By the s, the machines were in regular use in the potteries. Their arrival was not welcomed by the workforce.
Men in particular were opposed to their introduction, but found that if they refused to work them, women were employed in their place. The two devices are similar, both consisting of a profile which is used in conjunction with a plaster mould fitted to a rotating head. This can be seen in the diagram on the left.
Kakiemon is the name given to a class of finely potted Japanese porcelains painted in a distinctive palette and repertoire of designs, which were made from the late 17th century and which have been associated with the Kakiemon family of potters.
By extension it is also applied to the copies of these patterns made in 18th-century Europe, notably at Meissen, Chantilly, Chelsea and Bow. The British versions were once thought to have been made after Meissen prototypes, but it now seems many were copied from Japanese originals. The trade in these Japanese porcelains was at its height in the first two decades of the 18th century, and many inventories contain references to 'old Japan', meaning these porcelains.
Lustre is a very sophisticated decorative technique in which pigment containing oxides of copper and silver is painted onto a fired glazed pot. The pot is then given a low-temperature firing in which the air-supply is restricted. This produces carbon monoxide, which hungrily extracts oxygen from every available source, forming the more stable carbon dioxide. In this reducing atmosphere, the pigments are stripped of oxygen and reduced to a microscopically thin layer of metal bonded to the surface of the glaze.
The lustre thus shines with metallic glints and mother-of-pearl reflections. First seen on glass in Egypt in the 8th century, lustre production moved to Iraq, back to Egypt, then, in the 12th century, to Syria and Iran. Shortly after, it arrived in Spain, where production continued into the 20th century. True reduced lustre should not be confused with the less demanding and more uniform industrial technique invented in the early 19th century.
In the late 19th century, true reduced lustre became a passion once again among collectors and some art-potters. The term 'maiolica' was used in 15th-century Italy for lustrewares imported from Spain. It is usually said that the name derives from Majorca, an island that played an important part in this trade. Recently it's been argued that the name derives from 'obra de Mallequa', the term for lustred ware made in Valencia under the influence of Moorish craftsmen from Malaga.
The name was soon adopted for Italian-made lustre pottery copying Spanish examples, and during the 16th century, its meaning shifted to include all tin-glazed earthenware. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, Italian Renaissance maiolica became increasingly popular among collectors and museums in Britain.
At first it was referred to, romantically, as Raffaelle ware or Urbino ware, but soon also with the anglicised term 'majolica'. In the mid 19th century, the term 'majolica ware' was also used by the Minton factory for their newly introduced, painted tin-glazed earthenwares. But at the Great Exhibition of Minton launched colourful lead-glazed earthenwares in neo-Renaissance or naturalistic forms called 'Palissy-ware'.
Gradually the title 'Palissy' was dropped and by the s the name 'majolica' was instead commonly used to describe this popular colourful ware. In the early s, the curators of the South Kensington Museum returned to the original Italian 'maiolica' with an 'i' to describe all Italian tin-glazed earthenware, doubtless to stress the Italian pronunciation and to avoid confusion with contemporary majolica.
Ceramic figures of Nobody combine a surprisingly ancient joke with a uniquely English pun. The joke concerns the denial of guilt: 'Who did that?
Homer's Odysseus escaped Polyphemus by giving his name as 'No-man'. A medieval monk created a mock-saint Saint Nemo by finding all references to 'nemo' in the Bible e. In 16th-century Germany, 'Niemand' was blamed by bad servants for household breakages.
The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience. Italian tin-glazed earthenware, at least the early forms, is called maiolica in English, Dutch wares are called Delftware , and their English equivalents English delftware , leaving "faience" as the normal term in English for French, German, Spanish, Portuguese wares and those of other countries not mentioned it is also the usual French term, and fayence in German. The name faience is simply the French name for Faenza , in the Romagna near Ravenna , Italy, where a painted majolica ware on a clean, opaque pure-white ground, was produced for export as early as the fifteenth century.
A-Z of Ceramics
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain.
Что касается самого Джезерака, то, вопреки собственным ожиданиям, он сумел побороть свой страх. Что-то от безрассудства - а может быть, храбрости.
- Элвина проникло и в его мировоззрение, открыв новые горизонты. Он не верил, что сам сможет выйти за пределы Диаспара, но уже понимал импульс, побудивший Элвина совершить. Вопрос Президента застал его врасплох, но Джезерак быстро овладел .
За последние несколько часов он дал нам такой объем знаний по истории, который превышает все, что, как мы предполагали, может существовать. Олвин глядел на нее в полном изумлении.
Здесь не было заметных глазу выходов, но в некоторых местах узор на полу указывал на боковые коридоры. При подходе к зеркалам в этих точках отражения как бы расплывались в светящуюся арку, через которую можно было ступить в другой коридор. Алистра окончательно потеряла счет всем изгибам и поворотам, когда они наконец вышли в длинный, совершенной прямой туннель, продуваемый холодным постоянным ветром.
Он простирался горизонтально на сотню метров в обе стороны, и у его дальних концов виднелись крошечные круги света. - Мне здесь не нравится, - пожаловалась Алистра. - Вероятно, она никогда не испытывала настоящего холода в своей жизни. Элвин почувствовал себя виноватым.
До сих пор до нас добирались только самые лучшие из ваших людей. Этот ответ содержал в себе столько бессознательного превосходства и в то же время был основан на столь ложных предпосылках, что Олвин почувствовал, как подступившее раздражение совершенно вытеснило в нем -- Все это совершенно не так,-- без околичностей заявил.
-- Я глубоко убежден, что во всем Диаспаре не найдется ни единого человека, который бы покинул город -- если бы даже и захотел, если бы даже он знал, что ему есть куда отправиться.
Поэтому, если вы разрешите мне вернуться, на Лизе это ну никак не скажется.
Для того, чтоб этого не случилось, достаточно было соответствующим образом настроить оповеститель. В его ушах послышался нежный звон, стена чисел задрожала, цифры слились вместе, и Джезерак вернулся в мир грубой действительности. Он сразу же узнал Хедрона и не был особенно рад .
Олвин его почти не слышал. Он был глубоко погружен в собственные мысли, стараясь припомнить все, что ему приходилось слышать о Шалмирейне.
Впрочем, вспоминать было почти нечего. По прошествии столь невообразимо долгого времени никто уже не смог бы отсеять правду от вымысла. С уверенностъю можно было говорить только о том, что битва при Шалмирейне ознаменовала рубеж между победами Человека и началом его долгого упадка.
Где-то в этих вот горах, думалось Олвину, могут лежать ответы на те загадки, которые мучили его на протяжении всех этих долгих лет. -- А сколько нам понадобится времени, чтобы добраться до крепости. -- поинтересовался он у Хилвара. -- Я там никогда не был, но полагаю, что это куда дальше, чем я намеревался пройти.
Потом он вспомнил предупреждение Центрального Компьютера и беспокойно спросил: - А как насчет моральных препятствий, стоявших перед тобой при преодолении приказов Учителя. - Я установил, почему именно они были наложены. Когда ты подробно изучишь его жизнь - а теперь у тебя есть возможность это сделать - ты увидишь, что он изображал из себя чудотворца. Ученики верили ему, и это добавляло Учителю могущества. Но, конечно, все эти чудеса имели простое объяснение - если они вообще не выдумка.
Меня удивляет, что вроде бы разумные люди позволяли обманывать себя подобным образом. - Так что же, Учитель был обманщиком.
Элвин задумчиво смотрел на экран. - Ты полагаешь, мне следует вернуться. - произнес. - Это было бы разумно. Наше везение не может длиться долго, а кто знает, какие еще сюрпризы приготовили для нас эти Это звучал голос осторожности и здравого смысла, и Элвин сейчас был готов прислушиваться к нему в большей степени, нежели несколько дней .
Перед ними предстала широкая долина, там и сям испятнанная этими дразнящими, непроницаемыми куполами. В центре ее был виден -- перепутать это было невозможно ни с чем -- шрам от огромного взрыва, разметавшего обломки во всех направлениях на многие мили и проплавившего в поверхности планеты глубокий кратер.
И рядом с этим кратером валялись останки космического корабля. Они приземлились совсем близко от места этой древней трагедии и медленно, щадя дыхание, двинулись к гигантскому остову, возвышающемуся над .
Должно быть, время прошло быстрее, чем он думал; несколько удивленный, Элвин взглянул на индикатор. Озадаченный и немного обеспокоенный, он прижался лицом к боковой стенке машины. Скорость все еще размывала стены туннеля, превращая их в бесформенную серую полосу, но теперь он время от времени замечал какие-то отметины, которые исчезали столь же быстро, как и появлялись.
Матрицы всех без исключения синтезируемых предметов были заморожены в этом вечном сознании, и требовалось только выражение человеческой воли, чтобы они стали вещной реальностью. Мир и в самом деле далеко ушел с той поры, как первые пещерные люди час за часом терпеливо оббивали куски неподатливого камня, излаживая себе наконечники для стрел и ножи.
А. Что у нас есть такого, чего они могли бы домогаться.