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Industrial ware the equipment is cryogenic, compressor, refrigeration, autogenous, gas purification,

Industrial ware the equipment is cryogenic, compressor, refrigeration, autogenous, gas purification,

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Proceedings 10 Cryo

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Published by Icaris Ltd. Holho 8 00 Praha 8 Czech Republic www. Bondarenko V. Baust, Pres. Hecht Linde-LE. Schippl nexans. International Institute of Refrigeration IIR , boulevard Malesherbes Paris, France ABSTRACT The second half of 19th century showed both a sharp increase in the demand for cold storage, refrigerated transport, needs of various factories and in the development of successful refrigerating machines.

The IIR had then to adapt to new challenges such as the protection of the environment, to new uses of refrigeration and scientific progress.

The first part of the text describes the creation the IIR, with the history of artificial cold, the event and the first years of this new international body. The second part explains what the IIR is today, the changes that have appeared regarding the challenges, the organization and the actions. They had come to attend the formal opening of the First International Congress of Refrigeration.

The Congress, which lasted a week and attracted a total of participants from 40 countries, was a resounding success. Representatives from the worlds of science, commerce, industry and government exchanged views on low temperatures, refrigeration technology, food, applications of artificial cold in trade and industry, and legislative issues.

The Congress culminated in the founding of the International Association of Refrigeration in January It became an international organization, the International Institute of Refrigeration, in While it was electrical engineering that had taken the world by storm in the last quarter of the 19th century, the baton passed to the cold industry in the early years of the new century.

Buyers included breweries and ice-cream factories, cold storage and refrigerated transport companies, hospitals for the conservation of dead bodies , dairy, chocolate, rubber and perfume factories, dyeworks and factories producing liquid carbonic acid, ammonia or air. Those involved in building mineshafts and subway tunnels soon saw the potential of artificial cold in their line of business: refrigerant pipes could be used to create a wall of frozen ground, after which it became far easier to dig out the space inside.

In short, artificial cold was a growing market. The demand was perhaps greatest among breweries producing lager, which ferments at C, unlike the C of many English beers. The advent of railways and steamships boosted trade in natural ice from Scandinavia and Canada, but suppliers could not keep pace with the growing demand. Furthermore, rising concern about The producers of natural ice lowered their prices in a fruitless effort to reverse the tide.

The first machine to produce a continuous output of ice was invented by the French businessman Ferdinand Carr. His idea was to release ammonia from a water solution by heating it, to condense the vapour under pressure until it was liquefied, and then to allow this liquid to evaporate and expand in a sealed space.

This would extract heat from an adjoining space with water, which would immediately freeze. The vapour would be absorbed by the aqua ammonia, after which the cycle would be repeated. A prototype was placed in a brewery in Marseille in Carrs ice machine became rather famous when it was displayed at the Paris World Exposition of He was already doing a brisk trade before then: the Confederates had bought several machines from him during the American Civil War After some adjustments made by Mignon and Rouart in Paris, the vapour absorption device was one of the best-selling refrigerators in the years , especially in France.

After that it was superseded by the vapour-compression refrigerator, which is based on a far simpler construction.

This system, which is still applied in household refrigerators, artificial ice rinks and industrial plants today, was invented by the French engineer Charles Tellier, earning him the title le pre du froid. It uses a closed cycle. A compressor is used to compress methyl ether which was later replaced by methyl chloride, sulphur dioxide, carbonic acid gas, and above all ammonia ; a water-cooled condenser turns this into liquid, which evaporates in the space to be refrigerated in a system of pipes the main difference with regard to Carrs system and thus extracts heat from it.

Tellier built his first refrigerator in Paris in Four years later he installed an improved version, using methyl chloride as the coolant, in an ice factory in Marseille, France. Commercially speaking, the most successful machines were compression refrigerators using ammonia, launched in after theoretical studies carried out by the scientifically trained Carl von Linde. The Gesellschaft fr Lindes Eismachinen A.

By the German company had sold about a thousand machines, and around the turn of the century the Wiesbaden factory was sending off one or two of its refrigerators every day[1].

A major innovation made possible by the new refrigerators was the export of frozen meat from Australia, New Zealand and South America to Europe. Cooling the meat with ice proved not to be an option; steamships were still slow in the s, and clippers also took over days to cross the ocean.

The problem had to be solved with machines. In , Tellier built a compression refrigerator on board the French ship Le Frigorifique. This steam-powered three-master sailed from Marseille to Buenos Aires with a cargo of frozen meat, to return to Le Havre a year later. Though not a commercial success, the voyage had demonstrated that shipping frozen meat across the oceans was technically feasible. Bulk transportation imposed more stringent demands, and the problem with Telliers machine was that if built on a larger scale, it sometimes broke down.

Besides this, the toxicity of the coolants and the risk of explosion deterred ship owners from taking the plunge. It was another type of refrigerator that made them change their minds: the air expansion machine patented by the Scottish butchers Bell and Coleman in This cooled the produce by the rapid expansion of compressed air, and in spite of poor efficiency large steam engines were needed to compress the necessary quantities of air and problems with frozen water vapour, the sailing vessel Strathleven transported 34 tons of Things moved very fast after this.

In , Argentina exported tons of frozen meat to England alone. Low-temperature science, too, progressed in leaps and bounds. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed the liquefaction of each of the permanent gases in turn.

In , the polish team Zymunt von Wroblewski and Karol Olszewski went a step further, by inducing the blue liquid of oxygen to boil gently. James Dewar, working in the Royal Institution, London, became the first to produce liquid hydrogen, in , after which Heike Kamerlingh Onnes won the race for liquid helium in Leiden on 10 July, [2]. A Congress of this kind had been held in Vienna in , to coincide with World Exposition there, but it had focused on brewers and their need for natural ice.

At the beginning of the 20th century, artificial cold produced by refrigerators revolutionized agriculture all over the world and offered an immense economic potential concerning national and international food trade by using large-scale refrigerators. The engineer J. The initiative soon attracted a wide-ranging and distinguished band of supporters including lInstitut de France, the French Parliament, the Collge de France, lAcadmie de Mdecine, major transport companies. No-one interested in cold could afford to miss the Premier Congrs International des Industries Frigorifiques, which was finally held at the Sorbonne University on October , under the more appealing and inclusive name of Premier Congrs International du Froid, or First International Congress of Refrigeration[3].

The broad aim was to exchange ideas and discoveries in the field of cold technology. To keep the Congress manageable, it was divided into six sections: low temperatures, refrigeration installations, applications of cold to foodstuffs, applications in other industries, applications in trade and transport, and a final section that would examine the relevant legislation.

The name of the Congress made it clear that it was not to be a one-off initiative. Ideas for an international institute for cold and science, or for training courses in refrigeration technology, to be founded in Paris, soon proved overambitious. Instead, the preparatory committee offered to set up an International Association of Refrigeration.

Its remit would be to perform research on scientific, technological and industrial applications, to set up a library covering all aspects of the field, to publish articles and inform its members, to provide courses, set up excursions, and organize a biennial Congress on the subject of cold, to be held in a different country each time. National committees were formed to ensure that all went smoothly.

The latter coordinated the submission of reports for Paris, and once the Association of Refrigeration actually got off the ground, they were to have seats on its Executive Committee. During the opening session on Monday October 5, , the French minister of Agriculture, Joseph Ruau, emphasized that agriculture, being the dominant factor in the economic growth in the second half of the 19th century, profited a lot from the science of cold and its technical applications.

After Ruaus speech, the national committee chairmen Kamerlingh Onnes, who represented the Dutch government, took the opportunity to define the mission of the International Association of Refrigeration: to bring together all knowledge bearing on low temperature[4].

He also emphasized that research on artificial cold and its applications was of importance to all countries and all social classes. The congress on refrigeration, said Kamerlingh Onnes, could help to expand international solidarity that precious treasure of humanity. In conclusion, he emphasized the importance of studying the physical properties of matter at extremely low temperatures.

This would further clarify the relationship between matter and electricity, thus preserving the dream of energy reservoirs of a size that passes imagination. The French physicist Jacques-Arsne dArsonval, who spoke on behalf of the scientific community during the opening ceremony, also emphasized the importance of pure research.

All your machines, he said, addressing the technicians around the hall, rely on thermodynamic principles. The scientific community in turn derived great benefit from experience gained in industry: a science-and-technology spiral avant la lettre. During the closing session, he placed Kamerlingh Onnes in the limelight: his liquid helium made him the star of the Congress. In the avalanche of recommendations that the Congress adopted on its final day, applied cold technology predominated, but there were also follow-up proposals to the goal that Kamerlingh Onnes had formulated at the opening session.

The most striking was: Given the crucial interest attached to pursuing and coordinating scientific and practical work in the field of low temperatures, the Congress emits the wish of the foundation of an International Association for the promotion of scientific and other studies, with its head office in Paris, which would pursue its study of the whole field of refrigeration and at the same time continue to strengthen the already specialized work centres.

It was founded on January 25, in the presence of delegates from 35 countries. Lebon was appointed President of the new association, and De Loverdo became its director. The Paris Congress led to the establishment of six international committees.

Vice-president Kamerlingh Onnes was chosen to chair the first committee, which was to focus on scientific matters, and which also included Louis Cailleted, Charles-Edouard Guillaume of the Bureau des Poids et Mesures and James Dewar.

While the Association started life with a few dozen members, by the time of the 2nd Congress of Refrigeration, held on October in Vienna, Austria, it had Argentina contributed most, with members all because of its frozen meat and the United States at , also had a strong contingent. The second congress attracted over participants. A proposal was adopted to set up a grants system enabling young physicists to perform research relevant to cold technology in Leidens cryogenic laboratory.

The 3rd International Congress of Refrigeration was held in September in the dual venues of Washington and Chicago[5]. This was triggered by the resignation of the president, Andr Lebon, on December 12, Following this, the director of the Association convened a meeting of the Executive Committee on February 6, The meeting in the Crdit Foncier Discussions on restructuring designed to place the Association on a solid financial basis were postponed until the end of the peace talks in Versailles.

This had a far more tightly-knit organizational structure, based on that of the International Institute of Agriculture in Rome: instead of individual members it had participating countries in six categories, paying fixed contributions. And these rules are still valid in

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronics, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the authors. Published by Icaris Ltd.

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Depreciation Rates

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US20090095477A1 - Heating systems for heating subsurface formations - Google Patents

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 13th Exhibition Cryogen-Expo. Industrial Gases - 2014: final video

Ты же выглянула из того окна позади нас, - значит, можешь выглянуть и из этого .

Олвин прижался лицом к гладкому, странно теплому материалу и стал вглядываться внутрь. Сначала он ничего не мог разобрать. Затем, загородив глаза ладонями, чтобы унять льющийся с боков ослепительный свет, он различил тысячи и тысячи слабенько светящихся точек, висящих в пустоте. Они образовывали решетку -- столь же непостижимую для него и лишенную всякого смысла, какими для древний людей были звезды.

Он неотрывно смотрел на этот рисунок в течение нескольких минут и не заметил, чтобы цветные эти огоньки меняли свои места или яркость. Впрочем, подумал Олвин, загляни он в свой собственный мозг, то понял бы не. Машина представлялась инертной и неподвижной, потому что он не мог наблюдать сам процесс ее мышления. Только теперь он начал смутно догадываться о силах и энергии, обеспечивающих существование города. Всю свою жизнь он, как нечто само собой разумеющееся, воспринимал, скажем, чудо синтезирования, которое из века в век обеспечивало все нужды Диаспара.

Тысячи раз наблюдал он этот акт творения, редко отдавая себе отчет в том, что где-то должны существовать прототипы всего, что он видит входящим в его мир.

US8536497B2 - Methods for forming long subsurface heaters - Google Patents

Устье этой шахты там, наверху перестало зиять. Опасность, что кто-нибудь случайно ступит в провал, перестала существовать. Олвин мимолетно подумал о том, не материализовалась ли внезапно какая-то другая каменная плита, чтобы заменить ту, на которой плыли сейчас они с Хедроном, но затем решил, что вряд .

И еще он прихватил с собой в изгнание самый совершенный продукт галактической науки -- робота, который, спустя столько времени всплыл теперь здесь, у Шалмирейна, неизвестно откуда, перед изумленными Олвином и Хилваром. Никто так до конца и не исчерпал все таланты и функции этой машины.

Просто интуиция, -- ответил Хцлвар. Он мог бы добавить еще кое-что, но сдержался. Такие вещи как-то не предназначались для передачи, и, хотя Олвин конечно же не стал бы смеяться над его мечтой, он не решился обсудить проблему даже со своим другом. Это было больше чем мечта, в этом он был уверен, и она отныне постоянно станет преследовать. Каким-то образом она завладела его сознанием еще во время того неописуемого, ни с кем не разделенного контакта, который случился у него с Вэйнамондом там, у Семи Солнц.

Знал ли сам Вэйнамонд, какой должна быть его одинокая судьба. Наступит день, когда энергия Черного солнца иссякнет и оно освободит своего узника. И тогда на окраине Вселенной, когда само время начнет спотыкаться и останавливаться, Вэйнамонд и Безумный Разум должны будут встретиться среди остывших звезд.

complex industrial systems of men, materials, and equipment; Cf. T+ Drawing-room equipment and supplies Chemical purification see TD+ Dusts, fumes, and mists; particulate matter. Cf. QC Meteorology. Gases. For refrigerator plumbing see THR3 Autogenous soldering Compressor stations.

Великие, - сказало существо. - С планет вечного дня. Они придут. Учитель обещал. Эти слова ничего не проясняли. Но прежде чем Элвин смог продолжить свой допрос, снова вмешался Хилвар. Его расспросы были столь терпеливы, полны сочувствия и в то же время глубоки, что Элвин предпочел не прерывать их, несмотря на свое нетерпение. Он не желал признавать, что Хилвар интеллектуально превосходит .

Мой спутник - Элвин. - Какое у вас. - Чистое любопытство. К некоторому удивлению Элвина дверь тут же открылась. По опыту он знал, что шутки с машинами всегда ведут к непониманию и к необходимости все начинать сначала. Машина, вопрошавшая Хедрона, должна была быть весьма изощренной и занимать высокое место в иерархии Центрального Компьютера. Других преград не было, но Элвин подозревал, что они миновали ряд проверок, скрытых от постороннего взгляда.

Короткий коридор вывел их сразу в огромное круглое помещение с углубленным полом, а на этом полу находилось нечто столь удивительное, что Элвин на миг потерял голову от восторга.

С первыми проблесками рассвета они свернули лагерь. Холм окропился росой, и сверкающие бриллианты на стебельках и листьях восхитили Элвина. Его обворожил скрип мокрой травы под ногами. Обернувшись, он увидел собственный след - темную полосу среди искрящейся земли.

В этом непривычном ощущении не было, впрочем, ничего неприятного -- скорее даже наоборот. Хилвар наблюдал за ним с улыбкой, и Олвин еще успел подумать: не испытывает ли его друг на нем свою способность к внушению.

И он припомнил - казалось, как давно это. - зоологические цели, стоявшие перед их экспедицией в Шалмирану.

Они опустили корабль на землю метрах в тридцати от купола, невдалеке от ожидавшего их робота, и открыли люк. Элвин знал, что замок воздушного шлюза не откроется, пока мозг звездолета не убедится в пригодности атмосферы для дыхания. На секунду ему показалось, что произошла ошибка - воздух был очень разрежен и едва давал пищу легким.

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