All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals , each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is highly resistant to heat, so for many years it was used as a building material. Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer. Archaeological studies have found evidence of asbestos being used as far back as the Stone Age to strengthen ceramic pots,  but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties. Asbestos was widely used during the 20th century until the s when public recognition of the health hazards of asbestos dust led to its outlawing in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries.
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Glass fiberVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fibre Glass Manufacturing
All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals , each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is highly resistant to heat, so for many years it was used as a building material.
Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer. Archaeological studies have found evidence of asbestos being used as far back as the Stone Age to strengthen ceramic pots,  but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties. Asbestos was widely used during the 20th century until the s when public recognition of the health hazards of asbestos dust led to its outlawing in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries.
Despite the severity of asbestos-related diseases, the material has been used widely all around the world, and most pres buildings are thought to contain asbestos. It was adopted via the Old French abestos, which in turn got the word from Greek via Latin , but in the original Greek, it actually referred to quicklime. It is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to have been wrongly used by Pliny for asbestos, who popularized the misnomer.
Asbestos was referred to in Greek as amiantos , meaning "undefiled", because it was not marked when thrown into a fire. This is the source for the word for asbestos in many languages, such as the Portuguese amianto. It had also been called "amiant" in English in the early 15th century, but this usage was superseded by "asbestos". People have used asbestos for thousands of years to create flexible objects, such as napkins, that resist fire. In the modern era, companies began producing asbestos consumer goods on an industrial scale.
Now people recognize the health hazard that asbestos dust poses, and it is banned or strictly regulated around the world. The term asbestos is traceable to Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder 's manuscript Natural History , and his use of the term asbestinon , meaning "unquenchable". Wealthy Persians amazed guests by cleaning a cloth by exposing it to fire.
For example, according to Tabari , one of the curious items belonging to Khosrow II Parviz, the great Sassanian king r. Such cloth is believed to have been made of asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush. Charlemagne , the first Holy Roman Emperor — , is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos.
Marco Polo recounts having been shown, in a place he calls Ghinghin talas , "a good vein from which the cloth which we call of salamander, which cannot be burnt if it is thrown into the fire, is made Some archaeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, and prevent them being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres.
Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact, ancient literature indicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch. It is possible that they used the term asbestos for soapstone , because the two terms have often been confused throughout history. The large-scale asbestos industry began in the midth century. Early attempts at producing asbestos paper and cloth in Italy began in the s, but were unsuccessful in creating a market for such products.
Canadian samples of asbestos were displayed in London in , and the first companies were formed in England and Scotland to exploit this resource. Asbestos was first used in the manufacture of yarn, and German industrialist Louis Wertheim adopted this process in his factories in Germany.
Industrial-scale mining began in the Thetford hills , Quebec , from the s. Sir William Edmond Logan was the first to notice the large deposits of chrysotile in the hills in his capacity as head of Geological Survey of Canada. Samples of the minerals from here were displayed in London, and excited much interest. Asbestos production began in the Urals of the Russian Empire in the s, and in the Alpine regions of Northern Italy with the formation in Turin of the Italo-English Pure Asbestos Company in , although this was soon swamped by the greater production levels from the Canadian mines.
The U. The use of asbestos became increasingly widespread towards the end of the 19th century, when its diverse applications included fire-retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat-, fire-, and acid-resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound. In Japan, particularly after World War II , asbestos was used in the manufacture of ammonium sulfate for purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings during the s , and used for energy efficiency reasons as well.
Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in and went through ups and downs until about , when production began to drop dramatically. In , Montague Murray noted the negative health effects of asbestos.
In the early s, researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos-mining towns. The first such study was conducted by H. Montague Murray at the Charing Cross Hospital , London , in , in which a postmortem investigation of a young man who had died from pulmonary fibrosis after having worked for 14 years in an asbestos textile factory, discovered asbestos traces in the victim's lungs.
Adelaide Anderson , the Inspector of Factories in Britain, included asbestos in a list of harmful industrial substances in Similar investigations were conducted in France and Italy, in and , respectively. The first diagnosis of asbestosis was made in the UK in Pathologist William Edmund Cooke testified that his examination of the lungs indicated old scarring indicative of a previous, healed, tuberculosis infection, and extensive fibrosis , in which were visible "particles of mineral matter Henry, His Majesty's Medical Inspector of Factories, Cooke concluded that they "originated from asbestos and were, beyond a reasonable doubt, the primary cause of the fibrosis of the lungs and therefore of death".
As a result of Cooke's paper, parliament commissioned an inquiry into the effects of asbestos dust by E. Merewether, Medical Inspector of Factories, and C. Price , a factory inspector and pioneer of dust monitoring and control. Similar legislation followed in the U. Approximately , people in the United States have died, or are terminally ill, from asbestos exposure related to ship building. In the Hampton Roads area, a shipbuilding center, mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate.
There were approximately 4. The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure. In the late s, court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers since the s and had concealed them from the public. In Australia, asbestos was widely used in construction and other industries between and From the s there was increasing concern about the dangers of asbestos, and its use was phased out.
Mining ceased in The use of asbestos was phased out in and banned entirely in December The dangers of asbestos are now well known in Australia and there is help and support for sufferers from asbestosis or mesothelioma. Serpentine minerals have a sheet or layered structure. Chrysotile commonly known as white asbestos is the only asbestos mineral in the serpentine group. In the United States, chrysotile has been the most commonly-used type of asbestos. According to the U.
In the European Union and Australia, it has been banned as a potential health hazard  and is no longer used at all. Amphiboles including amosite brown asbestos and crocidolite blue asbestos were formerly used in many products until the early s. The use of all types of asbestos in the amphibole group was banned in much of the Western world by the mids, and in Japan by Cigarette manufacturer Lorillard Kent's filtered cigarette used crocidolite asbestos in its "Micronite" filter from to While mostly chrysotile asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake pads , shoes, and clutch discs , contaminants of amphiboles were present.
Since approximately the mids, brake pads, new or replacement, have been manufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic and aramid fiber Twaron or Kevlar —the same material used in bulletproof vests. Artificial Christmas snow, known as flocking, was previously made with asbestos. The use of asbestos in new construction projects has been banned for health and safety reasons in many developed countries or regions, including the European Union, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, and New Zealand.
A notable exception is the United States, where asbestos continues to be used in construction such as cement asbestos pipes.
Prior to the ban, asbestos was widely used in the construction industry in thousands of materials. Some are judged to be more dangerous than others due to the amount of asbestos and the material's friable nature.
Sprayed coatings, pipe insulation and Asbestos Insulating Board AIB are thought to be the most dangerous due to their high content of asbestos and friable nature.
Many older buildings built before the late s contain asbestos. In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive have issued guidance called HSG describing how surveys should be completed although other methods can be used if they can demonstrate they have met the regulations by other means. In the UK, the removal and disposal of asbestos and of substances containing it are covered by the Control of Asbestos Regulations In older buildings e. Being aware of asbestos locations reduces the risk of disturbing asbestos.
Removal of asbestos building components can also remove the fire protection they provide, therefore fire protection substitutes are required for proper fire protection that the asbestos originally provided. Some countries, such as India , Indonesia, China, Russia and Brazil , have continued widespread use of asbestos. Millions of homes, factories, schools or sheds and shelters continue to use asbestos. Cutting these sheets to size and drilling holes to receive 'J' bolts to help secure the sheets to roof framing is done on-site.
As New York City 's World Trade Center collapsed following the September 11 attacks , Lower Manhattan was blanketed in a mixture of building debris and combustible materials.
This complex mixture gave rise to the concern that thousands of residents and workers in the area would be exposed to known hazards in the air and in the dust, such as asbestos, lead, glass fibers, and pulverized concrete. In May , after numerous cleanup, dust collection, and air monitoring activities were conducted outdoors by EPA, other federal agencies, New York City, and the state of New York, New York City formally requested federal assistance to clean and test residences in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site for airborne asbestos.
Vermiculite is a hydrated laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate which resembles mica. It can be used for many industrial applications and has been used as insulation. Some deposits of vermiculite have been found to be contaminated with small amounts of asbestos. One vermiculite mine operated by W. Grace and Company in Libby, Montana exposed workers and community residents to danger by mining vermiculite contaminated with asbestos, typically richterite , winchite , actinolite or tremolite.
Grace and Company's loose-fill vermiculite was marketed as Zonolite but was also used in sprayed-on products such as Monokote. Talc can sometimes be contaminated with asbestos due to the proximity of asbestos ore usually tremolite in underground talc deposits. In , tests in a certified asbestos-testing laboratory found the tremolite form of amphibole asbestos used to be found in three out of eight popular brands of children's crayons that were made partly from talc: Crayola , Prang, and RoseArt.
Overall, 32 different types of crayons from these brands used to contain more than trace amounts of asbestos, and eight others contained trace amounts. The Art and Creative Materials Institute , a trade association which tested the safety of crayons on behalf of the makers, initially insisted the test results must have been incorrect, although they later said they do not test for asbestos.
The mining company, R T Vanderbilt Co of Gouverneur, New York , which supplied the talc to the crayon makers, states that "to the best of our knowledge and belief" there is no asbestos in its talc.
Six mineral types are defined by the EPA as "asbestos" including those belonging to the serpentine class and those belonging to the amphibole class. All six asbestos mineral types are known to be human carcinogens.
This widely read global reference tool is one of the most authoritative sources for timely information on industrial minerals and rocks, the markets they serve, and their multitude of uses. Changes in the global economy have greatly impacted the mining, processing, and marketing of industrial minerals. Additionally, the development of new technologies and a globalization of the customer base have driven fast-paced innovation in processing, packaging, transporting, and end use. The new edition examines these important and diverse changes and their complex ramifications in the world of industrial minerals and rocks. Industrial Minerals and Rocks is divided into three parts.
Fiberglass Safety and Health Concerns
C arbon fibre is increasingly celebrated as a wonder material for the clean economy. Its unique combination of high strength and low weight has helped drive the wind power revolution and make planes more fuel efficient. Carbon fibre turbine blades can be longer and more rigid than traditional fibreglass models, making them more resilient at sea and more efficient in less breezy conditions. But carbon fibre has a dirty secret: the hi-tech material is wasteful to produce and difficult to recycle. To become the strong, light composite material industries love, carbon fibre is combined with a plastic polymer resin.
Carbon fibre: the wonder material with a dirty secret
Reviewed: October 24th Published: January 23rd Fibre-reinforced polymer FRP , also Fibre-reinforced plastic , is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been sometimes used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic, and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Dr. John Hadley: A Toxicologist’s Review of Fiber Glass and Mineral Wool Insulation Fibers
NCBI Bookshelf. Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts. Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated in the Monograph , and have been taken into consideration in the present evaluation. Asbestos is the generic commercial designation for a group of naturally occurring mineral silicate fibres of the serpentine and amphibole series. The conclusions reached in this Monograph about asbestos and its carcinogenic risks apply to these six types of fibres wherever they are found, and that includes talc containing asbestiform fibres. Erionite fibrous aluminosilicate is evaluated in a separate Monograph in this volume. Specific chemical and physical properties are also presented. Common names, CAS numbers, synonyms, non-asbestos mineral analogues, idealized chemical formulae, selected physical and chemical properties of asbestos minerals. The silicate tetrahedron SiO 4 is the basic chemical unit of all silicate minerals. The number of tetrahedra in the crystal structure and how they are arranged determine how a silicate mineral is classified.
Asbestos Products and Companies List
As a manager with Johns-Manville and its successor, the Manville Corporation, for more than 30 years, I witnessed one of the most colossal corporate blunders of the twentieth century. This blunder was not the manufacture and sale of a dangerous product. Hundreds of companies make products more dangerous than asbestos—deadly chemicals, explosives, poisons—and the companies and their employees thrive.
Glass fiber or glass fibre is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. In , Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk fibers. Glass fibers can also occur naturally, as Pele's hair. Glass wool , which is one product called "fiberglass" today, was invented in — by Russell Games Slayter of Owens-Corning , as a material to be used as thermal building insulation. Glass fiber when used as a thermal insulating material, is specially manufactured with a bonding agent to trap many small air cells, resulting in the characteristically air-filled low-density "glass wool" family of products. Glass fiber has roughly comparable mechanical properties to other fibers such as polymers and carbon fiber. Although not as rigid as carbon fiber, it is much cheaper and significantly less brittle when used in composites. Glass fibers are therefore used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products; to form a very strong and relatively lightweight fiber-reinforced polymer FRP composite material called glass-reinforced plastic GRP , also popularly known as "fiberglass".
What Is Asbestos?
Asbestos is not illegal in the United States and is still widely used in many electrical insulations, roofing, and fireproofing materials. Asbestos is still widely used in building materials like insulation, plaster, wallboard, vinyl and laminate flooring, siding, and cement pipe. Asbestos Products and Companies List. This list is not intended to be an exhaustive one. Benjamin Foster Co. Asbestos Insulation Distributor and Contractor A.
How to manage and control asbestos in the workplace
Genevieve Mills. As health concerns rose about asbestos throughout the 20th century, leading to its general banning and phasing out as insulation in many countries worldwide, fiberglass production steadily increased and its use replaced asbestos in many applications. Asbestos concerns centered around the particulate air contamination it led to, which caused lung diseases like asbestosis, lung cancer, and others. However, now, with higher amounts of fiberglass insulation nationwide, there have also been higher concerns about its possible health hazards. Fiberglass is a synthetic material. It consists of a plastic matrix that is most often made of a thermosetting polymer such as epoxy, polyester resin, vinylester, or a thermoplastic. This matrix is reinforced with glass fibers.
Is insulation dangerous?
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