It is used as a filling in baking, or commonly molded into shapes and coated with corn starch. This is the modern version of a medicinal confection made from Althaea officinalis , the marshmallow plant. The word "marshmallow" comes from the mallow plant species Althaea officinalis , a herb native to parts of Europe, North Africa, and Asia which grows in marshes and other damp areas. The plant's stem and leaves are fleshy and its white flower has five petals. It is not known exactly when marshmallows were invented, but their history goes back as early as BC. Ancient Egyptians were said to be the first to make them, and eating them was a privilege strictly reserved for gods and for royalty, who used the root of the plant to soothe coughs and sore throats, and to heal wounds.
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Candy and sugar massesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Campfire® Marshmallow Mystery Tour
It is used as a filling in baking, or commonly molded into shapes and coated with corn starch. This is the modern version of a medicinal confection made from Althaea officinalis , the marshmallow plant. The word "marshmallow" comes from the mallow plant species Althaea officinalis , a herb native to parts of Europe, North Africa, and Asia which grows in marshes and other damp areas. The plant's stem and leaves are fleshy and its white flower has five petals.
It is not known exactly when marshmallows were invented, but their history goes back as early as BC. Ancient Egyptians were said to be the first to make them, and eating them was a privilege strictly reserved for gods and for royalty, who used the root of the plant to soothe coughs and sore throats, and to heal wounds.
The first marshmallows were prepared by boiling pieces of root pulp with honey until thick. Once thickened, the mixture was strained, cooled, and then used as intended. Whether used for candy or medicine, the manufacture of marshmallows was limited to a small scale. In the early to mids, the marshmallow had made its way to France where confectioners augmented the plant's traditional medicinal value with indulgent ingredients utilized by the Egyptians.
Owners of small candy stores would whip the sap from the mallow root into a fluffy candy mold. It was a spongy-soft dessert made from whipping dried marshmallow roots with sugar, water, and egg whites. It was sold in bar form as a lozenge. Drying and preparing of the marshmallow took one to two days before the final product could be produced. The cavities were then filled with the whipped marshmallow sap mixture, and allowed to cool or harden. By the early s, thanks to the starch mogul system, marshmallows were introduced to the United States and available for mass consumption.
They were sold in tins as penny candy, and were soon used in a variety of food recipes like banana fluff, lime mallow sponge, and tutti frutti. In , Alex Doumak patented  the extrusion process which involved running marshmallow ingredients through tubes. The tubes created a long rope of marshmallow mixture, and were then set out to cool. The ingredients are then cut into equal pieces, and packaged. Modern marshmallow manufacturing is highly automated, and has been since the early s when the extrusion process was first developed.
Numerous improvements and advancements allow for production of thousands of pounds of marshmallow a day. The type of sugar and whipping agent varies depending on desired characteristics. Each ingredient plays a specific role in the final product.
Confectioners in early 19th century France pioneered the innovation of whipping up the marshmallow sap and sweetening it to make a confection similar to modern marshmallow. The confection was made locally by the owners of small sweet shops. They would extract the sap from the mallow plant's root, and whip it themselves.
The candy was very popular, but its manufacture was labour-intensive. In the late 19th century, French manufacturers thought of using egg whites or gelatin , combined with modified corn starch , to create the chewy base.
This avoided the labour-intensive extraction process, but it did require industrial methods to combine the gelatin and corn starch in the right way. Another milestone in the production of marshmallows was the development of the extrusion process by the Greek American confectioner Alex Doumak in the late s. In this process, which Doumak patented in ,  marshmallow mixture is pumped through extrusion heads with numerous ports aligned next to each other which form continuous "ropes" of marshmallow.
This invention allowed marshmallows to be manufactured in a fully automated way, and gives us the familiar cylindrical shape of today's marshmallow. To make marshmallows in large quantities, industrial confectioners mix water, sugar, and corn syrup in massive kettles which are then heated to a precise temperature and cooked for a precise time. This mixture is then pumped to another kettle to cool.
Re-hydrated gelatin is added and blended in, once the mixture has cooled enough to not denature the gelatin. To give the marshmallow its fluffiness, it is pumped through a blender while air is pumped into it.
At this point, it still needs to be cooled further, so it will hold its shape when extruded, it is pumped through a heat exchanger prior to being pumped through the extrusion heads and onto a wide conveyor belt.
The conveyor belt is coated in corn starch and more corn starch is dusted onto the top of the marshmallow extrusion as it passes down the conveyor. A large knife the width of the conveyor is located at the end of this conveyor table that chops the extrusion into the size marshmallow desired.
The pieces will then be tumbled in corn starch in a large drum, allowing the marshmallow to form its familiar skin and to allow pieces that did not get cut all the way to break apart.
Marshmallows, like most candies, are sweetened with sucrose. They are prepared by the aeration of mixtures of sucrose and proteins to a final density of about 0. The molecular structure of marshmallows is simply a sugar solution blended with stabilizing structure agents such as gelatin , xanthan gum , or egg whites.
The aforementioned structural components prevents the air from escaping and collapsing the marshmallows during aeration.
Each brand of marshmallow has its own specific formula for how to produce the 'perfect' marshmallow. No matter how they are made each ingredient plays a specific role in the final product. The marshmallow is a foam , consisting of an aqueous continuous phase and a gaseous dispersed phase in other words, a liquid with gas bubbles spread throughout. The goal of an aerated confection like marshmallow is to incorporate gas into a sugar mixture, and stabilize the aerated product before the gas can escape.
When the gas is introduced into the system, tiny air bubbles are created. This is what contributes to the unique textural properties, and mouth-feel of this product. In marshmallows, proteins are the main surface-active agents responsible for the formation, and stabilization of the dispersed air.
Due to their structure, surface-active molecules gather at the surface area of a portion of water-based liquid. A portion of each protein molecule is hydrophilic , with a polar charge, and another portion is hydrophobic and non-polar. The non-polar section has little or no affinity for water, and so this section orients as far away from the water as possible. However, the polar section is attracted to the water and has little or no affinity for the air. Therefore, the molecule orients with the polar section in the water, with the non-polar section in the air.
Two primary proteins that are commonly used as aerators in marshmallows are albumen egg whites and gelatin. Albumen is a mixture of proteins found in egg whites, and is utilized for its capacity to create foams. In a commercialized setting, dried albumen is used as opposed to fresh egg whites.
In addition to convenience, the advantages of using dried albumen are an increase in food safety, and the reduction of water content in the marshmallow.
Fresh egg whites carry a higher risk of Salmonella, and are approximately 90 percent water. This is undesirable for the shelf life and firmness of the product. For artisan-type marshmallows, prepared by a candy maker, fresh egg whites are usually used. Albumen is rarely used on its own when incorporated into modern marshmallows, and instead is used in conjunction with gelatin. Gelatin is the aerator most often used in the production of marshmallows.
It is made up of collagen, a structural protein derived from animal skin, connective tissue, and bones. Not only can it stabilize foams, like albumen, but when combined with water it forms a thermally-reversible gel. This means that gelatin can melt , then reset due to its sensitivity to temperature.
This is what contributes to the "melt-in-your-mouth" sensation when a marshmallow is consumed—it actually starts to melt when it touches the tongue. During preparation, the temperature needs to be just above the melting point of the gelatin, so that as soon as it is formed it cools quickly, and the gelatin will set, retaining the desired shape.
If the marshmallow rope mixture exiting the extruder during processing is too warm, the marshmallow starts to flow before the gelatin sets. Instead of a round marshmallow, it will take a more oval form. Excessive heat can also degrade, or break down, the gelatin itself.
Therefore, when marshmallows are being produced at home or by artisan candy makers, the gelatin is added after the syrup has been heated and cooled down. In commercial operations, the gelatin is simply cooked with the sugar syrup, rather than being added later after the syrup has cooled.
In this case, kinetics play an important role, with both time and temperature factoring in. The marshmallow would have reduced springiness from that loss of gelatin.
But since the time the syrup spends at elevated temperature in modern cookers is so short, there is little to no degradation of the gelatin.
In terms of texture, and mouth-feel, gelatin makes marshmallows chewy by forming a tangled 3-D network of polymer chains. Once gelatin is dissolved in warm water dubbed the "blooming stage" , it forms a dispersion, which results in a cross-linking of its helix-shaped chains. The linkages in the gelatin protein network, trap air in the marshmallow mixture, and immobilize the water molecules in the network.
The result is the well-known spongy structure of marshmallows. Marshmallows are an amorphous solid because of how the sugars crystallize. This is because the crystals formed are not grained, and very fine in size, as opposed to its crystalline counterpart where the crystals are grainy, and larger in size.
This is why temperature plays such an important role in the production of marshmallows. To make an amorphous solid like marshmallow, the sugar syrup solution sucrose, corn syrup, and invert sugar is heated at a high temperature. It is then cooled so rapidly that no crystals have time to form. The quick cooling of the liquid in open air does not allow the sucrose molecules to form crystals, so glass amorphous crystals are created instead.
Crystallization can be further avoided with proper selection of the corn syrup type. A higher conversion corn syrup will contribute more invert sugar to the formula, which inhibits crystallization. As it cools, the sugar crystallizes out to form the grained marshmallow.
Sucrose is another ingredient utilized in most aerated confections. It is a disaccharide that consists of one glucose and fructose molecule. This sugar provides sweetness and bulk to the marshmallow, while simultaneously setting the foam to a firm consistency as it cools. Therefore, sucrose is used in conjunction with a protein like gelatin.
The protein can adsorb, unfold, and form a stable network, while the sugar can increase the viscosity. Thick liquids drain more slowly than thin ones, and so increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase will reduce drainage.
A high viscosity is essential if a stable foam is to be produced.
Gums are used in foods for many reasons besides being used as a thickener. The main reason for adding a gum or hydrocolloid to a food product is to improve its overall quality. India is the largest producer of gums specially guar gum products. Similarly stabilizers are an indispensable substance in food items when added to the food items, they smoothens uniform nature and hold the flavouring compounds in dispersion. Gum technology stabilizers are carefully controlled blends of various food ingredients.
US3556812A - Chocolate marshmallow and process for production thereof - Google Patents
Account Options Connexion. Lillford , Horacio R. CRC Press , 13 janv. Each chapter presents an authoritative account of the latest research on the physical and chemical properties of water in relation to the stability of food, pharmaceutical, and biological materials. The first part of the text focuses on presentations given by invited speakers, whereas the second part is dedicated to oral presentations and discussions. Topics include the role of water in structural and functional properties, preserving biomolecule functionality in restricted water environments, and micro- and nano- techniques used for assessing water-solid interactions in food and drug development.
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He studied chemistry at the University of Tel Aviv, and food engineering and biotechnology at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, where he leads a large group of researchers working on theoretical and practical aspects of hydrocolloids. Nussinovitch is the sole author of five books, the author or coauthor of numerous papers on hydrocolloids and on the physical properties of foods, and an inventor on many related patent applications. Madoka Hirashima , Ph. Hirashima worked at a food company as a new food developer, and then as a lecturer at several colleges. She is currently in Home Economics Education at the Faculty of Education, Mie University, where she teaches cooking as well as cooking science. She continues to study the rheological properties of polysaccharides, with a focus on the textures of starch and konjac products. Account Options Fazer login. Amos Nussinovitch , Madoka Hirashima. CRC Press , 9 de out.
marshmallow making machine
This delicious new book reveals the fascinating science behind some of our favorite candies. They reveal what makes bubble gum bubbly and why a Charleston Chew is so chewy. It tackles the chemistry of hydrocolloids in gummy bears alongside the relationship between candy and obesity and between candy and dental cavities. The chapters open a window on the commercial and industrial chemistry of candy manufacture, making this book a regular Pez dispenser of little-known, yet captivating factoids.
Marshmallows are one of the earliest confections known to humankind. Today's marshmallows come in many forms, from solid soft pillows dropped in cocoa or roasted on a stick to semi-liquid covered in chocolate or formed into chicks for Easter to the creme-like used as a base in other candies or as an ice cream topping. In essence, all marshmallows are aerated candies. Originally, however, marshmallows were made from the root sap of the marsh mallow Althaea officinalis plant. It is a genus of herb that is native to parts of Europe, north Africa, and Asia. Marsh mallows grow in marshes and other damp areas. The plant has a fleshy stem, leaves, and pale, five-petaled flowers. The first marshmallows were made by boiling pieces of the marsh mallow root pulp with sugar until it thickened.
Candies are a sugary delight. From sweets to marshmallows and gum drops, candy is popular all around the world. Create products in exciting flavors to keep your customers on their toes and dip into the better-for-you market with new candy recipes. Keep consumers engaged with new product ideas and innovative candy recipes. Our equipment will allow you to produce a variety of candies and sugar masses. With the right cooking system, you can even produce candies with milk and fruit juice on the same plant. Use aerators for treats such as marshmallows and chewy products. Marshmallows have been a popular candy for a very long time. Today, they exist in a variety of flavors and forms made from different ingredients. Create fantastical shapes, produce marshmallows in a rainbow of colors, cover them with chocolate or fill them with jam.
Polito, Colonia, N. Filed Mar. A marshmallow product having a high-fat-content chocolate uniformly incorporated therein. The product has from 1 to 8. Description of the prior art Marshmallow is an aerated food product usually composed of various saccharides, water, gelatin, and flavoring agents. Although optional, marshmallow may also contain edible food coloring and other minor edible ingredients such as edible humectants. Marshmallow syrup is the mixture of ingredients that is aerated and whipped to form marshmallow.
Тебе хочется узнать, когда же и ты сможешь вызвать к поверхности сознания воспоминания о своих прежних жизнях, как это уже делают твои товарищи по играм.
Так вот -- таких воспоминаний нет, Олвин, поскольку ты -- единственный в своем роде. Мы пытались скрывать это от тебя так долго, как только могли, чтобы ни единое облачко не затмило твоего младенчества, хотя, я лично думаю, часть правды тобой, должно быть, уже угадана.
Пять лет назад мы и сами даже и не подозревали об этой правде, но теперь не осталось никаких сомнений.
Эта часть корабля сильно повреждена, но выглядит нетронутой после катастрофы. Где же остальное. Может быть, он разломился надвое еще в космосе, и эта часть рухнула .
Я отведу твоего робота к сенаторам. Ох и расстроятся они, когда Олвин испытал острое чувство возбуждения и радости, когда за Хилваром проследовал в дом.
Стоит ему увидеть действительность, и странности его рассудка, быть может, будут излечены. - Я думаю, что он уже видел ее, - тихо произнес Хедрон.
Но это он сказал себе, а не Джезераку. - Я не верю в то, что Элвин счастлив, - продолжал Джезерак.