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NAICS Code DescriptionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Manufacturing of luxury classic furniture
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating e. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work as horizontal surfaces above the ground, such as tables and desks , or to store things e. Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art.
In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. It can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps, rocks and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30, years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, stone, and animal bones.
Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia , depicting the goddess on a throne. The first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland , and includes cupboards, dressers and beds all constructed from stone.
Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory. The evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome , with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai , multipurpose couches used for relaxing, eating, and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak , and ornamented.
Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is usually defined by revival styles. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century are often seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures.
The English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture ,  the noun form of fournir , which means to supply or provide. The practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture likely dates to the beginning of human civilisation. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae , a Neolithic village in Orkney , Scotland.
The site dates from — BCE and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be worked easily and turned into items for use within the household.
Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves, stone seats, and limpet tanks.
The stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.
Pieces found here include tables and inlaid serving stands. The earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BCE.
Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile ,  which began in about BCE. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was already engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. Mortar was in use by around BCE The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer an early variety of wheat and stored it in pits lined with reed mats.
During the dynastic period , which began in around BCE, Egyptian art developed significantly, and this included furniture design. The use of scarf joints to join two shorter pieces together and form a longer beam was one example of this,  as well as construction of veneers in which low quality cheap wood was used as the main building material, with a thin layer of expensive wood on the surface.
The earliest used seating furniture in the dynastic period was the stool , which was used throughout Egyptian society, from the royal family down to ordinary citizens. Historical knowledge of Greek furniture is derived from various sources, including literature , terracotta , sculptures, statuettes, and painted vases.
In general, Greek tables were low and often appear in depictions alongside klinai. Foot in the form of a sphinx; circa BC; bronze; overall: Rod tripod stand; early 6th century BC; bronze; overall: Three illustrations of ancient Greek chairs, each being notated with a letter: a, b-klismos, and c-chair. Roman furniture was based heavily on Greek furniture, in style and construction. Rome gradually superseded Greece as the foremost culture of Europe, leading eventually to Greece becoming a province of Rome in BC.
Rome thus took over production and distribution of Greek furniture, and the boundary between the two is blurred. The Romans did have some limited innovation outside of Greek influence, and styles distinctly their own.
Roman furniture was constructed principally using wood, metal and stone, with marble and limestone used for outside furniture. Very little wooden furniture survives intact, but there is evidence that a variety of woods were used, including maple, citron, beech, oak, and holly.
Some imported wood such as satinwood was used for decoration. The most commonly used metal was bronze, of which numerous examples have survived, for example, headrests for couches and metal stools. Similar to the Greeks, Romans used tenons, dowels, nails, and glue to join wooden pieces together, and also practised veneering. The and excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii revealed Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.
Illustration of Roman furniture details, from , very similar with Empire style furniture. Tripod base; circa BC; bronze; overall: 77 x Couch and footstool with bone carvings and glass inlays; 1st—2nd century AD; wood, bone and glass; couch: In contrast to the ancient civilisations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, there is comparatively little evidence of furniture from the 5th to the 15th century.
The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak , and ornamented with carved designs. Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition. A similar explosion of design, and renaissance of culture in general occurred in Northern Europe, starting in the fifteenth century.
The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of vegetal and scrolling ornament. Starting in the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to develop more rapidly.
Although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism in Great Britain or Louis Quinze in French furniture , others, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism were perpetuated throughout Western Europe. During the eighteenth century, the fashion was set in England by the French art. In the beginning of the century Boulle cabinets were at the peak of their popularity and Louis XIV was reigning in France. In this era, most of the furniture had metal and enamelled decorations in it and some of the furniture was covered in inlays of marbles lapis lazuli, and porphyry and other stones.
By mid-century this Baroque style was displaced by the graceful curves, shining ormolu , and intricate marquetry of the Rococo style, which in turn gave way around to the more severe lines of Neoclassicism , modeled after the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. Dutch wardrobe; ; oak with ebony and rosewood veneers; overall: Console table depicting Chronos , or the father time; ; painted and gilded wood, with marble at its top; overall: Gaming Table; circa ; wood and ivory marquetry; overall: French commode; by Gilles Joubert ; circa ; oak and walnut, veneered with tulipwood, ebony, holly, other woods, gilt bronze and imitation marble; Museum of Fine Arts Boston , USA.
Rococo chest of drawers; circa ; oak, tulipwood marquetry, gilt metal mounts and marble; overall: 88 x German armchair; circa —; carved and gilded beech, covered in blue damask not original to the armchair; Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City. The nineteenth century is usually defined by concurrent revival styles , including Gothic , Neoclassicism, and Rococo.
The design reforms of the late century introduced the Aesthetic movement and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau was influenced by both of these movements. Armchair; —15; mahogany ; French Empire desk chair; circa ; mahogany, gilt bronze and satin-velvet upholstery; Egyptian revival coin cabinet; ; mahogany probably Swietenia mahagoni , with applied and inlaid silver; Gothic Revival chair; by William Burns ; ; wood; 99 x British settee; circa ; ebony, box and sandalwood, cedar, ivory inlay, incrustations of mother-of-pearl and brass; This design was in many ways rooted in necessity and emphasizes both form and materials.
Early British Colonial American [ vague ] chairs and tables are often constructed with turned spindles and chair backs often constructed with steaming to bend the wood. Wood choices tend to be deciduous hardwoods with a particular emphasis on the wood of edible or fruit bearing trees such as cherry or walnut. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century is often seen as the march towards Modernism.
Postmodern design, intersecting the Pop art movement, gained steam in the s and 70s, promoted in the 80s by groups such as the Italy-based Memphis movement. Transitional furniture is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes. Great efforts from individuals, governments, and companies has led to the manufacturing of products with higher sustainability known as Ecodesign. This new line of furniture is based on environmentally friendly design.
Its use and popularity are increasing each year. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is Live edge , heralding a return to natural shapes and textures within the home. Asian furniture has a quite distinct history.
The traditions out of India , China , Korea , Pakistan , Indonesia Bali and Java and Japan are some of the best known, but places such as Mongolia , and the countries of South East Asia have unique facets of their own. The use of uncarved wood and bamboo and the use of heavy lacquers are well known Chinese styles. It is worth noting that Chinese furniture varies dramatically from one dynasty to the next.
Traditional Japanese furniture is well known for its minimalist style, extensive use of wood, high-quality craftsmanship and reliance on wood grain instead of painting or thick lacquer.
Japanese chests are known as Tansu , known for elaborate decorative iron work, and are some of the most sought-after of Japanese antiques. The antiques available generally date back to the Tokugawa and Meiji periods. Chinese low-back armchair; late 16thth century late Ming dynasty to Qing dynasty ; huanghuali rosewood; Arthur M.
Sackler Gallery Washington D. Japanese chest with cartouche showing figures on donkeys in a landscape; ; carved red lacquer on wood core with metal fittings and jade lock; Chinese canopy bed; late 19th or early 20th century; carved lacquered and gilded wood; Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Montreal , Canada. This includes carved and sculpted pieces intended as works of art, as well as the styling of seats to indicate social importance, with senior figures or leaders granted the use of specially designed seats.
The simplest form of seat is the chair ,  which is a piece of furniture designed to allow a single person to sit down, which has a back and legs, as well as a platform for sitting.
Wood Kitchen Cabinet and Countertop Manufacturing. Upholstered Household Furniture Manufacturing. Nonupholstered Wood Household Furniture Manufacturing. Metal Household Furniture Manufacturing.
Additional Information. Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. Italy: turnover growth of the furniture manufacturing industry Production value of furniture manufacturing in Italy to This feature is limited to our corporate solutions.
Pure Furniture was established in as a joint- endeavour between authentic furniture designers in the Netherlands and true craftsmen from Romania. Due to this combination of craftsmanship and passion for raw materials in exclusive design; every piece incorporates a unique feel. Items can be scaled during production without losing character. This solid timber is flexible in use. Our craftsmen can cut, twist, tear and scrape it in any way needed.
The wood and leather decorations of the Duffle sofa are a reminder of the charms of a duffle coat. Until the midth century, the county of Les Landes was a huge marshy plain which the inhabitants, mostly shepherds, crossed on stilts. In , the Land Reclamation act, instigated by Napoleon III, led to the mass planting of pine trees in order to drain the land and stop it from eroding. Nowadays, these trees cover more than a million hectares and are used for both their resin and wood. However, other varieties are also found alongside the pine, including several species of oak. The river Adour flows from the Aquitaine basin, dividing the county of Les Landes into two regions. In the south lies a rich agricultural zone and the green valleys of Chalosse, where cattle and ducks are raised, together with maize. In the north, there are thousands of hectares of forest, mainly pines.
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Industry-specific and extensively researched technical data partially from exclusive partnerships. A paid subscription is required for full access. You need a Premium Account for unlimited access. Additional Information. Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. Structural business statistics SBS describes the structure, conduct and performance of economic activities, down to the most detailed activity level several hundred economic sectors. Number of enterprises: a count of the number of enterprises active during at least a part of the reference period. Furniture purchase trend in the United Kingdom UK Furniture Retail.
Turnover of furniture manufacturing industry in Italy 2008-2017
Now covering 20 years of data: - This website presents and analyzes up-to-date information about how industrial restructuring in an era of globalization is impacting North Carolina's key industries. North Carolina has a long tradition in the furniture industry, but over the past twenty years furniture production has been challenged by the increasingly global nature of manufacturing. North Carolina furniture manufacturers have to rethink their strategies to remain competitive by improving technologies, diversifying markets, and offshoring production. Furniture imports to North Carolina are growing, especially from China and other developing and emerging markets, leading to plant consolidations and shutdowns and raising questions in terms for policy, education, and industry strategy. In this section we introduce the key sections of the website, including the structure of the industry using a value chain framework, an overview of the industry across multiple areas including the labor market, international trade and policy, and the key trends and dynamics that are shaping this industry now and in the future. Furniture manufacturing is broken down into categories that are structured around two dimensions: the materials used in production and the uses for which the products are designed. Early industrial entrepreneurs and developers focused on the Piedmont region of North Carolina, especially the city of High Point, because of its abundant wood supply, access to transportation, and cheap labor availability 1. High Point hosted its first regional furniture trade fair in , eventually leading to the creation of the High Point Market, an internationally renowned furniture trade fair that still operates today. In the late s, the NC furniture industry began to feel the effects of increased foreign competition, causing many companies to go out of business, consolidate, close factories, lay off employees, and import from abroad.
Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing: NAICS 337
The table is a basic piece of household furniture. It generally consists of a flat top that is supported by either a set of legs, pillars, or trestles. The top may be made of stone, metal, wood, or a synthetic material such as a plastic. Tables may be subdivided by any one of a number of criteria, the most basic of which is whether the table is a fixed table or a mechanical table. A fixed table has a top that does not move in any way to expand or reduce in size for storage. The tops on fixed tables can be quite sizable and may be supported by a single column or pedestal. Mechanical tables have tops or legs that move, fold, drop, or in some way may be reconfigured in order to save space or make them more flexible. Mechanical tables include drop leaf tables, tilting tables, or those with legs that fold up or collapse if a mechanism is unlocked.
EU-28: number of enterprises in the manufacture of furniture 2017, by country
Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Mumbai, Maharashtra. Udaipur, Rajasthan.
Элвин более не спрашивал себя, который из этих безмолвных белых предметов и есть Центральный Компьютер. Он включал в себя все окружающее - и простирался далеко за пределы этого помещения, объединяя бесчисленные стационарные и подвижные машины Диаспара.
Физические элементы Центрального Компьютера были разбросаны по всему Диаспару - подобно многим миллиардам отдельных клеток, составлявших нервную систему самого Элвина.
Вот поэтому-то я и отправляюсь домой со всем тем, что мне удалось здесь узнать, и я совсем не думаю, что вам удастся меня остановить. Он не стал дожидаться ответа и правильно сделал.
Любопытно было бы узнать, что думала машина о тех приключениях и превратностях, в которые он втянул ее; в тысячный раз Элвин пожалел о невозможности понять то, что происходило в ее плотно запечатанном сознании.
У него возникло впечатление, что робот решил наблюдать, анализировать и делать выводы - пока, с его точки зрения, не созреет время для собственных действий.
Такое время может наступить абсолютно неожиданно, и действия робота могут разойтись с планами Элвина.