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Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. Single , or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness for use alone as yarn monofilaments.
Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are used to make the greatest variety of fabrics. Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or more single yarns twisted together.
Two-ply yarn, for example, is composed of two single strands; three-ply yarn is composed of three single strands. In making ply yarns from spun strands, the individual strands are usually each twisted in one direction and are then combined and twisted in the opposite direction. When both the single strands and the final ply yarns are twisted in the same direction, the fibre is firmer, producing harder texture and reducing flexibility.
Ply yarns provide strength for heavy industrial fabrics and are also used for delicate-looking sheer fabrics. Cord yarns are produced by twisting ply yarns together, with the final twist usually applied in the opposite direction of the ply twist. Cord yarns may be used as rope or twine, may be made into very heavy industrial fabrics, or may be composed of extremely fine fibres that are made up into sheer dress fabrics.
Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with such special effects as slubs, produced by intentionally including small lumps in the yarn structure, and man-made yarns with varying thickness introduced during production. Natural fibres , including some linens, wools to be woven into tweed , and the uneven filaments of some types of silk cloth are allowed to retain their normal irregularities, producing the characteristic uneven surface of the finished fabric.
Man-made fibres, which can be modified during production, are especially adaptable for special effects such as crimping and texturizing. Texturizing processes were originally applied to man-made fibres to reduce such characteristics as transparency, slipperiness, and the possibility of pilling formation of small fibre tangles on a fabric surface. Texturizing processes make yarns more opaque , improve appearance and texture, and increase warmth and absorbency.
Textured yarns are man-made continuous filaments, modified to impart special texture and appearance. In the production of abraded yarns, the surfaces are roughened or cut at various intervals and given added twist, producing a hairy effect. Bulking creates air spaces in the yarns, imparting absorbency and improving ventilation. Bulk is frequently introduced by crimping, imparting waviness similar to the natural crimp of wool fibre; by curling, producing curls or loops at various intervals; or by coiling, imparting stretch.
Such changes are usually set by heat application, although chemical treatments are sometimes employed. In the knit-de-knit process, a synthetic yarn is knitted, heat is applied to set the loops formed by knitting , and the yarn is then unraveled and lightly twisted, thus producing the desired texture in the completed fabric.
Bulk may be introduced chemically by combining filaments of both high and low shrinkage potential in the same yarn, then subjecting the yarn to washing or steaming, causing the high shrinkage filaments to react, producing a bulked yarn without stretch.
A yarn may be air bulked by enclosing it in a chamber where it is subjected to a high-pressure jet of air, blowing the individual filaments into random loops that separate, increasing the bulk of the material. Stretch yarns are frequently continuous-filament man-made yarns that are very tightly twisted, heat-set, and then untwisted, producing a spiral crimp giving a springy character.
Although bulk is imparted in the process, a very high amount of twist is required to produce yarn that has not only bulk, but also stretch. Spandex is the generic term for a highly elastic synthetic fibre composed mainly of segmented polyurethane.
Uncovered fibres may be used alone to produce fabrics, but they impart a rubbery feel. For this reason, elastomeric fibre is frequently used as the core of a yarn and is covered with a nonstretch fibre of either natural or man-made origin. Although stretch may be imparted to natural fibres, other properties may be impaired by the process, and the use of an elastic yarn for the core eliminates the need to process the covering fibre. Metallic yarns are usually made from strips of a synthetic film, such as polyester , coated with metallic particles.
In another method, aluminum foil strips are sandwiched between layers of film. Metallic yarns may also be made by twisting a strip of metal around a natural or man-made core yarn, producing a metal surface. For additional information about the production, characteristics, and uses of modern man-made novelty yarns, see man-made fibres. Article Media.
Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Types of yarn Classification based on number of strands Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. Single yarns Single , or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness for use alone as yarn monofilaments.
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The industrial requirements for knitted fabrics are diverse and high: On the one hand, they must meet the customer-specific technical requirements, on the other hand, they must be processable in an economic and efficient way. Special technical characteristics of industrial knitted fabrics include:. Demanding — Knitted fabrics for extreme requirements Sophisticated products require high-tech plants and highly qualified specialists. We at Acker concentrate on producing and developing technical knitted fabrics. In this way, we can meet the highest quality requirements for industrial knitted fabrics — quickly, flexibly, internationally.
Types of yarn
We have come a long way since , when we opened our first factory in El Masnou, Barcelona , up to the current one listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange. We have a commercial presence in all five continents , supporting the world's main fashion companies in the areas of fast fashion, swimwear, sportswear and lingerie. We create exclusive designs based on elastic fabrics and accessories for women's, men's and children's swimwear. We have positioned ourselves internationally thanks to years of experience in the sector and the continuous research of trends, innovation of materials and design. We mark the difference among our competitors specializing in color, which is the key to the success of our print collection. QTT designs and produces a wide range of articles for fast fashion , both in knitted and woven fabrics , such as plain , plush, tricots and striped, in a wide variety of materials, including cotton, polyester, polyamide, wool, viscose and metallic threads.
Apparel production is an intimidating industry to dive into. One of the toughest obstacles is learning the lingo. Use this as your go-to guide so you can focus on more important things like building your brand, connecting with suppliers, or expanding your product line! Knit fabrics that are laid out and cut like a woven fabric, instead of being full-fashioned. Proportionately increasing or decreasing the dimensions of parts of a product according to the size ranges intended for production.
The global knitted fabric market size was valued at USD Growing apparel industry is one of the major factors driving the market. Furthermore, increasing importance of knitted fabric in the automobile, construction, manufacturing, and medical sectors is expected to fuel market demand over the forecast period. Shifting consumer preference for lightweight and high performance knitwear is fueling the demand for feathery raw materials including polypropylene, linen, silk, faux fur, and synthetic fibers. Woven fabrics have been replacing bulked yarns made knitted fabrics. Over the past few years, the apparel industry has been witnessing steady growth in demand for the loop stitch jackets, cardigans,large shawls, and scarfs. In terms of color, grey, classic black, brown, and beige have been gaining significant popularity across the world. Furthermore, demand for feather light circular knit fabrics has increased in the hosiery market due to its better breathability of the material.
Demanding. Innovative. Individual.
The type of stitch used in weft knitting affects both the appearance and properties of the knitted fabric. The basic stitches are plain, or jersey; rib; and purl. In the plain stitch , each loop is drawn through others to the same side of the fabric.
Textiles are a type of cloth or woven fabric; its creation involves several processes than one might think. The production of fibers are spun into yarns, and are then used to create fabrics into many other sub-processes. Textile production is no simple task. Even once fabrics are created they must be pre-treated, dyed or printed, then finished with a treatment. Textiles vary from felts to knits, and even cloths so tightly woven that they appear to be of a single piece. As you can imagine, there are machines tasked with many parts of these processes in order to make the production of textiles as smooth as possible. Cotton is one of the most commonly used fabrics, so many machines are based around the fabrication of cotton. Every article of clothing has a different instruction label for machine washing and drying. These materials vary from cotton, wool, flax, ramie, silk, leather or even synthetic materials. All of these materials need to be handled and cared for specially to retain their shape after multiple washes.
Types of Machines Used in Textile Industries
Account Options Sign in. Census of Manufactures, United States. Bureau of the Census. Number of companies l. Meat products 20A1 2 1 1 Cigarettes 21A1. Household furniture 25Al. Expenditures for plant and equipment total 3.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Account Options Sign in. United States. Bureau of the Census. Contenido For industry. Meat products 20A1 2 Cigarettes 21A1. Proprietors and working partners number. Meat packing plants 21 21 Cigars 21Al. Fabricated textiles nec 23E1.
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics.
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature.
Fake fur is a type of textile fabric fashioned to simulate genuine animal fur. It is known as a pile fabric and is typically made from polymeric fibers that are processed, dyed, and cut to match a specific fur texture and color.
Government Printing Office Amazon. Labor Statistics Bureau Bulletin Provides information on the nature of the industry, employment, working conditions, occupations in the industry, training and advancement, earnings and benefits, and outlook. Intended as a companion to the Occupational Outlook Handbook.