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Produce manufacturing other fur and sheepskin-fur products

Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. Fur used from animals caught in the wild is not considered farmed fur, and is instead known as "wild fur". Other major producers include China, the Netherlands , Russia , and the U. The United States is a major exporter of fur skins.

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Bans on Fur Threaten an Industry’s Rebirth

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Woolmore Sheepskin Products

Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. Fur used from animals caught in the wild is not considered farmed fur, and is instead known as "wild fur". Other major producers include China, the Netherlands , Russia , and the U. The United States is a major exporter of fur skins. Fur farming is banned in Austria , [6] [7] Croatia , [7] [8] the United Kingdom, [9] [10] , the Czech Republic effective in [11] and Norway effective from February 1, Demand fell in the late s and s because of a number of factors, including the failure of designers to come up with exciting new lines and the efforts of animal rights campaigners.

Since the turn of the millennium, however, sales worldwide have soared to record highs, fueled by radically new techniques for working with fur, and a sharp rise in disposable income in China and Russia. This growing demand has led to the development of extensive fur farming operations in China and Poland. While wearing fur clothing in cold weather as protection goes back to the Stone Age, the source for this material came from the wild.

As human populations grew, furs, leathers, and hides for use in clothing came from farm stock, such as sheep sheepskin , rabbits, cattle, pigs, and goats. The earliest records of breeding mink for fur in North America were in the s.

Foxes were first raised on farms for fur in Prince Edward Island in Canada in Historically, the fur trade played an important economic role in the United States. Fur trappers explored and opened up large parts of North America, and the fashion for beaver hats led to intense competition for the raw materials. Starting in the latter half of the 20th century, producers and wearers of fur have been criticized by animal rights activists because of the perceived cruelty they believe is involved in animal trapping and because of the availability of substitutes such as synthetic fibers made from petroleum oil.

Burns described the American fur industry as "shrinking with no end in sight. Today, 80 percent of the fur clothing industry's pelts come from animals raised on farms. The rest is from animals caught in the wild. The most farmed fur-bearing animal is the mink 50 million annually , followed by the fox about 4 million annually. Asiatic and Finnish raccoon and chinchilla are also farmed for their fur. Mink have been farmed for fur in the United States for years, though domestic demand for fur started to decline rapidly by the late s.

Mink typically breed in March and give birth to their litters in May. Farmers vaccinate the young kits for botulism, distemper, enteritis, and, if needed, pneumonia. They are killed in November and December.

Methods for euthanizing animals on fur farms, as on all farms, are detailed in the American Veterinary Medical Association's Report on Euthanasia which is used as a guideline for state departments of agriculture which have jurisdiction over all farms raising domesticated livestock, including mink.

The white mink , a northern European breed, was introduced into Canada in That accounted for an average of half of all Canada's mink pelts. Black mink was first bred in Nova Scotia in the late s and has proven popular as a versatile colour. Most Nova Scotia product is sold in China where it is manufactured into luxury garments. The international trade in chinchilla fur goes back to the 16th century and the animal whose name literally means "Little Chincha" is named after the Chincha people of the Andes , who wore its soft, dense fur.

By the end of the 19th century, chinchillas had become quite rare. In , Mathias F. Chapman brought the eleven wild chinchillas he had captured to the U. Empress Chinchilla is the breeders association for the chinchilla farmers, many of whom are based in the United States, including California. Empress Chinchilla runs a certification program for farmers.

Finland is the world's leading producer of fox pelts. In the United States, fox production is about 10, pelts , produced in about 10 states.

Canada produces ten to fifteen times as many fox furs as the USA. The United States banned the import, export, and sale of products made from dog and cat fur in The European Union banned imports in Breeding animals are kept for up to 3 years, and usually give birth twice a year.

The kits are taken from their mothers at 4 weeks old and put in a nursery with other kits. After this, the mothers are kept separated from their kits, and they get put together only for feeding. When the kits are 7 to 8 weeks old, they are put in solitary cages, where they are kept for about 6—7 months, and are harvested after they have shed their winter fur.

The rabbits are kept in bare wire mesh cages. A cage for one rabbit has the floor space of about two shoe boxes. During this time of year, ranchers are primarily focused on bringing their selected mink into a good condition that is suitable for breeding. Mink are a monoestrous species that undergo delayed implantation when bred successfully, this means that the breeding season can be the most strenuous time of year both in terms of animal nutrition and human labor.

A feeding program that encourages the removal of excess weight and an environment that facilitates an increase in exercise is important for good production and a successful whelp. Breeding records are kept for each individual mink, this includes information on the dates of mating, genetics involving family lineage, reproductive success, health status, and fur characteristics.

In preparation for whelping , comfortable conditions are prepared for the female by providing ample aspen bedding in which she can create a nest. It is well-known that female mink are highly motivated to perform maternal-related nest building during the majority of their gestation period, [30] this is why providing an abundance of substrate to prepare a nest is crucial to maintain the animals welfare.

Unnecessary stress and noises should be avoided so due to the sensitivity of female mink during late gestation. Gestation varies from days, this time is often shortened by extending the daylight period by use of artificial lighting. Females give birth to kits on average. Since kits are born altricial , the female spends most of her time in the nest boxes caring for them. Mink kits are fully dependent on the dam's milk and will nurse for the first four weeks of their life.

Females can lose significant body condition during lactation so their health is monitored by visual observations of behavior, appearance, and feed consumption.

The changes that take place during weaning can be stressful for both dam and kits therefore is done at a time that is most beneficial for the mother and litter. Ranchers should ensure the kits are able to consume solid feed and drink water independently before they are ready for weaning. Very rapid growth takes place during the growth phase of the production cycle.

For about weeks, it is critical that the juvenile kits have access to adequate amounts of feed that is formulated to meet their nutritional needs. Maintaining a feeding routine that allows for multiple distributions of feed a day will help keep feed fresh and encourage appetite. Once August arrives, the skeletal growth of kits is complete and the subsequent growth of primarily fat begins. The growth of fur predominantly takes place during the fall where it begins at the tail and continues up the back and to the head.

Ranchers maintain a clean, healthy environment during this time by performing daily husbandry practices, this includes; cleaning nest boxes, removal of surrounding debris and manure from the barn, bedding the cages, and up-keeping the cleanliness of the facility and farming equipment.

Ranchers are diligent toward creating an environment that prioritizes the welfare of each animal and allows them to live and function comfortably within their environment.

Mink are carefully evaluated in November or early December in order to physically assess their coat color, characteristics, and quality. Fur quality, along with skin size are two of the most important traits that are under intense selection in most mink breeding programs.

Fur quality, color, and body size are judged by the farmer or a professional grader. Mink are harvested in December and methods are used to euthanize each animal so that their death is quick, humane, and as painless as possible.

Several techniques have been considered proper to euthanize farmed mink, these include neck breaking, electricity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, and lethal injection. Pelting takes place either on site or upon shipping the mink to an offsite operation.

After pelting, fur farms dispose of their dead animals as economically as possible. The mink bodies are typically sent for either incineration or rendering where they can be converted into bone and meat meal. Carcasses sometimes go to animal sanctuaries, zoos, and aquariums to feed animals, and some end up as crab bait.

Some biological supply companies offer preserved skinned carcasses of ranched mink for classroom dissection specimens as an alternative to cats or other domesticated mammals.

Mink feces are used as organic crop fertiliser, and mink fat is turned into oil to manufacture soap, face oils, cosmetics, and leather treatments. Anti-fur activists have claimed that methods used on fur farms are focused on maximizing profits at the expense of the welfare of fur producing animals. As with other types of animal farming , living conditions of animals vary, and extreme cases are of much contention.

According to PETA, the majority of fur farmers pack animals into small cages, preventing them from taking more than a few steps back and forth. PETA claims foxes and other animals suffer as a result of the confined environment, and may even cannibalize each other as a reaction to their confinement. However, such farms resulted in high disease rates for the animals and were not practical. Farmers claim that today's farmed animals only know farm life as they have been domesticated through over of years of selective breeding.

For farmed mink, the American Veterinary Medical Association researches the best methods and publishes a report on the subject every 7 to 10 years. This report is used to guide state departments of agriculture which have jurisdiction over farm animals, including farm-raised mink. For those harvesting wild furs, biologists and wildlife managers dictate seasons, method of slaughter, and numbers of animals to be harvested.

After UK mink farmers were subjected to almost daily protests, they agreed to shut down their farming in exchange for compensation in England and Wales in At second reading , the ban in England and Wales was justified principally on grounds of public morality.

Respect for Animals Campaign director Mark Glover said at the time: "To keep animals in such conditions in the name of fashion is totally unacceptable in a civilised society. The Bill honoured Labour's pre-election pledge to end fur factory farming. In Austria, six of the nine federal states have banned fur farming, and the remaining three enforce such strict welfare regulations, in relation to the availability of swimming water, that fur farming is no longer economically viable.

In the Republic of Ireland there are currently three [45] fur farms in operation. These farms focus mainly on the trade of mink fur some farms which have used fox fur are currently winding down operation as such trade is no longer economically viable.

In , approximately , mink and foxes were harvested in the Republic of Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland, fur farms are monitored by the Department of Agriculture , and welfare standards of Ireland and the European Union must be adhered to at all times. In October , there were discussions within the political sphere on the banning of fur farms in the Republic of Ireland.

A renewed campaign and efforts to push the Irish government or current Minister for Agriculture Michael Creed to re-implement a phase-out ban took place from to Fur farming of chinchillas and foxes is banned.

So California has become the first state to ban fur. This sounds draconian. What does that actually mean?

Jump to navigation. This discussion focuses on fur production from both farmed and wild sources. It details US laws that impact fur, both federal and state, including a discussion on state trapping laws. Laws from countries that are major producers of fur products are analyzed as well as those countries that have imposed bans on fur farming or trapping methods. Throughout the ages, fur pelts from animals have been traded and worn for their warmth and as a fashion statement.

Fur clothing

New Techniques in Sheep Production. Fayez M. Marai , J. New Techniques in Sheep Production is an eight-part book that first reviews sheep production systems and scope for improvement. Subsequent chapter focuses on methods of increasing fecundity. Other chapters discuss breed development; feeding systems; management and health control; and evaluation of techniques in sheep production. This book will be of value to the pioneer farmers, their advisers, and supporters in the associated marketing and supply organizations, as well as to students at agriculture and veterinary universities and colleges.

Fur farming

Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides. Fur is one of the oldest forms of clothing, and is thought to have been widely used as hominids first expanded outside Africa. Some view fur as luxurious and warm; however, others reject it due to moral concerns for animal rights. The term 'fur' is often used to refer to a coat, wrap, or shawl made from the fur of animals. Controversy exists regarding the wearing of fur coats, due to animal cruelty concerns.

This book presents a compilation of the latest findings from reputed researchers around the globe, covering in detail climate change and its effects on sheep production.

Но какие бы звери ни глядели оттуда, ближе они не подошли, и ему не удалось их рассмотреть. Все было очень мирно, и Элвин ощущал полное удовлетворение жизнью. Улегшись на кушетках, Элвин и Хилвар долго беседовали, обсуждая увиденное, загадки, которыми оба были заинтригованы, различия в обеих культурах. Хилвар был поражен чудесными свойствами схем вечности, поставившими Диаспар вне власти времени, и Элвину совсем непросто было ответить на некоторые его вопросы.

- Что мне непонятно, - сказал Хилвар, - каким это образом конструкторы Диаспара достигли уверенности в том, что в схемах памяти ничего не может испортиться. Ты сказал мне, что информация, описывающая город и всех живущих в нем, хранится в виде распределения электрических зарядов внутри кристаллов.

Хорошо, ну пусть сами кристаллы вечны - но как насчет подключенных к ним схем. Неужели абсолютно никогда не происходит никаких сбоев. - Этот же вопрос я задавал Хедрону, и он объяснил мне, что Банки Памяти на самом деле утроены.

По путям, ведущим в глубь здания, скользило лишь несколько человек, и вскоре, оставшись вдвоем, Джезерак и Ярлан Зей оказались в тишине перед длинным, обтекаемым цилиндром. Аппарат этот, как знал Джезерак, мог увезти его из города в путешествие, которое в прежние времена потрясло бы его рассудок.

Но когда его спутник указал на открытую дверь, Джезерак лишь на миг задержался на пороге и ступил внутрь.

Когда он впервые входил в помещение, зеркала всегда были пусты, но стоило пройтись перед ними, как они заполнялись действием. Он будто бы стоял посреди широкой открытой площади, которую он в действительности никогда не видел, но, вероятно, существовавшей где-то в Диаспаре.

Издавна человечество было зачаровано тайной падающих костей, раскладки карт, вращения рулетки. В своей низшей стадии интерес этот основывался на чистой алчности; в мире же, где каждый мог располагать всем, чувство алчности, конечно же, абсолютно отсутствовало. Но даже без этого случайность сохранила чисто интеллектуальное очарование, служа успокоением для самых изощренных умов. Машины, ведущие себя совершенно случайным образом, события, результат которых никогда нельзя предсказать независимо от объема имеющейся информации - от всего этого философ и игрок получали равное наслаждение.

И, наконец, для всех людей оставались еще объединенные вместе миры любви и искусства. Объединенные - ибо любовь без искусства есть просто утоление желания, а искусством нельзя наслаждаться, если подходить к нему без любви.

Люди искали красоту во многих формах - в последовательностях звуков, в линиях на бумаге, в поверхностях камня, в движениях человеческого тела, в оттенках, размещенных в пространстве. В Диаспаре продолжали жить все эти средства, равно как и другие, добавившиеся к ним за века. Но кто бы мог знать с уверенностью - открыты ли уже все возможности искусства. имеет ли оно какой-нибудь смысл вне человеческого И то же было справедливо для любви.

Denmark is the leading mink-producing country, accounting for approximately 28% of world production. Other major producers include China, the Netherlands.

Он не задержался надолго: сердце защемило от мысли, что миллиарды людей не оставили иных следов своего существования, кроме этих борозд на песке. Ровная линия горизонта, наконец, сломалась, сморщилась и превратилась в горы, которые почти сразу же оказались под. Машина теперь замедляла ход, приближаясь к земле по широкой дуге в сотни километров. И вот внизу раскинулся Лис. Бесконечные леса и реки создавали пейзаж такой несравненной красоты, что Элвин какое-то время был не в силах продолжать полет.

К востоку земля была покрыта тенью, и обширные озера, казалось, парили над ней, подобно заводям ночной тьмы.

Элвин даже не почувствовал бы ее, если бы специально не следил за своими ощущениями. Диаспар теперь должен был находиться во многих километрах отсюда, и над Элвином, вероятно, простиралась пустыня с ее ползучими песчаными дюнами. Может быть, именно в этот миг он мчался под той самой ломаной линией холмов, которую так часто видел с Башни Лоранна. Воображение Элвина унеслось в Лис, стремясь опередить его прибытие туда во плоти.

Что это за город. Элвин при всем желании мог нарисовать в уме только другой Диаспар, но поменьше. Интересно, существует ли этот город поныне. Но в противном случае машина вряд ли мчала бы его сейчас под землей. Внезапно частота вибрации под ногами явно изменилась.

Если б он был просто мошенником, то никогда не добился бы такого успеха, и его учение не продержалось бы так долго. Он был неплохим человеком, и многое из того, чему он учил, было истинно и справедливо. Приближаясь к своему концу, он и сам уверовал в собственные чудеса; но в то же время он знал, что существует один свидетель, который может их опровергнуть.

Он понял, что должен выиграть время или же убедить Сирэйнис в том, что то, о чем она его просит, совершенно невозможно. -- Но ведь Хедрон знает, где я,-- возразил. -- Вы же не можете стереть и его память.

Это же означало бы выйти наружу. - выдохнула. Элвин знал, что бессмысленно убеждать ее. Здесь лежал барьер, разделявший его и всех прочих людей его мира, могущий обречь его на жизнь, полную тщетных надежд.

Вы доставили нам несколько весьма неприятных минут,-- признался. -- Раз или два вы начинали задавать вопросы, на которые невозможно было ответить в пределах логики, и я даже опасался, что вынужден буду прервать эксперимент. -- А.

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