Wood has long been the go-to framing choice for residential and commercial buildings—most often Type V and Type III construction—due to its cost and ease of assembly. Typically, nail-assembled, light-frame construction uses a repetitive combination of dimension lumber, I-joists, trusses, structural composite lumber, and oriented strand board decking and sheathing for floors, walls and roof decks. Light-frame construction on low-rise apartment building. While mass-timber structures are often built off site as components and assembled at the project site, light-frame construction typically occurs entirely on site. Increasingly, elements of light-frame buildings are fabricated off site and assembled on the job. Off-site construction offers greater control over construction conditions and improved safety oversight while contributing to faster construction timelines.
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Construction , also called building construction , the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter. Construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate.
Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. Human shelters were at first very simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo. Gradually more durable structures began to appear, particularly after the advent of agriculture , when people began to stay in one place for long periods.
The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such as food storage and ceremony, were housed in separate buildings. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building. The history of building is marked by a number of trends. One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were perishable, such as leaves, branches, and animal hides.
Later, more durable natural materials—such as clay, stone, and timber—and, finally, synthetic materials—such as brick , concrete , metals, and plastics —were used. Another is a quest for buildings of ever greater height and span; this was made possible by the development of stronger materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage. A third major trend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity , odours, air speed, and other factors that affect human comfort has been possible.
Yet another trend is the change in energy available to the construction process, starting with human muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery used today.
The present state of construction is complex. There is a wide range of building products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types or markets. The design process for buildings is highly organized and draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safety standards, and design professionals who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs.
The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufacturers of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance.
Construction today is a significant part of industrial culture , a manifestation of its diversity and complexity and a measure of its mastery of natural forces, which can produce a widely varied built environment to serve the diverse needs of society.
This article first traces the history of construction, then surveys its development at the present time. For treatment of the aesthetic considerations of building design, see architecture.
For further treatment of historical development, see art and architecture, Anatolian ; art and architecture, Arabian ; art and architecture, Egyptian ; art and architecture, Iranian ; art and architecture, Mesopotamian ; art and architecture, Syro-Palestinian ; architecture, African ; art and architecture, Oceanic ; architecture, Western ; arts, Central Asian ; arts, East Asian ; arts, Islamic ; arts, Native American ; arts, South Asian ; arts, Southeast Asian.
The hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age, who moved about a wide area in search of food, built the earliest temporary shelters that appear in the archaeological record. Excavations at a number of sites in Europe dated to before 12, bce show circular rings of stones that are believed to have formed part of such shelters. They may have braced crude huts made of wooden poles or have weighted down the walls of tents made of animal skins, presumably supported by central poles.
A tent illustrates the basic elements of environmental control that are the concern of construction. The tent creates a membrane to shed rain and snow; cold water on the human skin absorbs body heat.
The membrane reduces wind speed as well; air over the human skin also promotes heat loss. It controls heat transfer by keeping out the hot rays of the sun and confining heated air in cold weather. It also blocks out light and provides visual privacy.
The membrane must be supported against the forces of gravity and wind; a structure is necessary. Membranes of hides are strong in tension stresses imposed by stretching forces , but poles must be added to take compression stresses imposed by compacting forces. Indeed, much of the history of construction is the search for more sophisticated solutions to the same basic problems that the tent was set out to solve. The tent has continued in use to the present.
The agricultural revolution , dated to about 10, bce , gave a major impetus to construction. People no longer traveled in search of game or followed their herds but stayed in one place to tend their fields. Dwellings began to be more permanent.
Archaeological records are scanty, but in the Middle East are found the remains of whole villages of round dwellings called tholoi , whose walls are made of packed clay ; all traces of roofs have disappeared.
In Europe tholoi were built of dry-laid stone with domed roofs; there are still surviving examples of more recent construction of these beehive structures in the Alps. In later Middle Eastern tholoi a rectangular antechamber or entrance hall appeared, attached to the main circular chamber—the first examples of the rectangular plan form in building. Still later the circular form was dropped in favour of the rectangle as dwellings were divided into more rooms and more dwellings were placed together in settlements.
The tholoi marked an important step in the search for durability; they were the beginning of masonry construction. Evidence of composite construction of clay and wood , the so-called wattle-and-daub method, is also found in Europe and the Middle East.
The walls were made of small saplings or reeds, which were easy to cut with stone tools. They were driven into the ground, tied together laterally with vegetable fibres, and then plastered over with wet clay to give added rigidity and weatherproofing. The roofs have not survived, but the structures were probably covered with crude thatch or bundled reeds. Both round and rectangular forms are found, usually with central hearths. Heavier timber buildings also appeared in Neolithic New Stone Age cultures , although the difficulties of cutting large trees with stone tools limited the use of sizable timbers to frames.
These frames were usually rectangular in plan, with a central row of columns to support a ridgepole and matching rows of columns along the long walls; rafters were run from the ridgepole to the wall beams. The lateral stability of the frame was achieved by burying the columns deep in the ground; the ridgepole and rafters were then tied to the columns with vegetable fibres. The usual roofing material was thatch : dried grasses or reeds tied together in small bundles, which in turn were tied in an overlapping pattern to the light wooden poles that spanned between the rafters.
Horizontal thatched roofs leak rain badly, but, if they are placed at the proper angle, the rainwater runs off before it has time to soak through. Primitive builders soon determined the roof pitch that would shed the water but not the thatch. Many types of infill were used in the walls of these frame houses, including clay, wattle and daub , tree bark favoured by American Woodland Indians , and thatch. In Polynesia and Indonesia , where such houses are still built, they are raised above the ground on stilts for security and dryness; the roofing is often made of leaves and the walls are largely open to allow air movement for natural cooling.
Another variation of the frame was found in Egypt and the Middle East, where timbers were substituted for bundles of reeds. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
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Timber frame construction pdf. Recyclable; Renewable; Timber is classified as a renewable material, as the principle holds that if a tree is felled another is planted in its place. History of timber frame in the UK Timber frame construction in the UK dates back to medieval times Up to the 15 th century it was the most used building material Timber frame construction had a market share of ca. See for yourself!
Steel Structure Buildings
The area between the major ribs is reinforced with minor ribs. PBR is one of the most economical panel systems and can be used for both roof and wall applications. View Details. Double-Lok Double-Lok is a metal standing seam roofing product attached to sub-framing using a vatiety of concealed, interlocking clips that provide for minimum panel penatration. AVP The AVP panel produces a decorative shadow line wall creating a distinctive architectural effect with semi-concealed fasteners.
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The VP Rigid Frame is the ideal system when economical, column-free interior space is desired. All these economical clear-span structures permit unsurpassed flexibility in use of interior space. Where interior support columns are acceptable, as in vast production or storage areas, VP's Continuous Beam:.
Framing , in construction , is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. The alternative to framed construction is generally called mass wall construction, where horizontal layers of stacked materials such as log building , masonry , rammed earth , adobe , etc. Building framing is divided into two broad categories,  heavy-frame construction heavy framing if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing , pole building framing , or steel framing ; or light-frame construction light-framing if the supports are more numerous and smaller, such as balloon, platform, or light-steel framing. Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia due to the economy of the method; use of minimal structural material allows builders to enclose a large area at minimal cost while achieving a wide variety of architectural styles. Modern light-frame structures usually gain strength from rigid panels plywood and other plywood-like composites such as oriented strand board OSB used to form all or part of wall sections , but until recently carpenters employed various forms of diagonal bracing to stabilize walls. Diagonal bracing remains a vital interior part of many roof systems, and in-wall wind braces are required by building codes in many municipalities or by individual state laws in the United States. Special framed shear walls are becoming more common to help buildings meet the requirements of earthquake engineering and wind engineering. Historically, people fitted naturally shaped wooden poles together as framework and then began using joints to connect the timbers, a method today called traditional timber framing' or log framing. In the United States, timber framing was superseded by balloon framing beginning in the s.
10 Concrete Frame Structures Building Construction Services
Floor and wall units are produced off-site in a factory and erected on-site to form robust structures, ideal for all repetitive cellular projects. Panels can include services, windows, doors and finishes. Building envelope panels with factory fitted insulation and decorative cladding can also be used as load-bearing elements. This offers factory quality and accuracy, together with speed of erection on-site. Modules can be brought to site in a variety of forms, ranging from a basic structure to one with all internal and external finishes and services installed, all ready for assembly.
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No eBook available Wiley. Created exclusively for professionals working in residential design and construction, this guide combines key information culled from the tenth edition of Architectural Graphic Standards with all-new material on residential design. This special volume provides thousands of standard architectural details and guidelines and is an easy reference for anyone designing or constructing a residential project. From detailing foundations to designing home theaters, home offices, and other specialty rooms, Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction is a resource that's as efficient as it is comprehensive. You'll find design details that incorporate best construction practices as well as guidelines for state-of-the-art wiring, heating, and cooling systems. In step with current practices, this volume includes the latest guidelines for:. The AIA offers continuing education, conferences, and professional information to its membership and their clients.
This is a list of building materials. Many types of building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures.
Design and build frame contracting
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The professionals at our factories are qualified in their fields, whether that be welding, assembling, surface treatment or coating. We have a strict quality control system, which ensures the safety, quality and efficiency of our production.