The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. It is a global industry; tobacco can grow in any warm, moist environment, which means it can be farmed on all continents except Antarctica. Tobacco, one of the most widely used addictive substances in the world [ citation needed ] , is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by American farmers. From to tobacco was the most valuable staple export from the English American mainland colonies and the United States. Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs : the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions. The price also varies by specific species or cultivar grown, the total quantity on the market ready for sale, the area where it is grown, the health of the plants, and other characteristics individual to product quality.
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Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae nightshade family , and the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. More than 70 species of tobacco are known, but the chief commercial crop is N. The more potent variant N. Tobacco contains the stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. They can also be consumed as snuff , chewing tobacco , dipping tobacco and snus.
Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases; especially those affecting the heart , liver , and lungs , as well as many cancers. In , the World Health Organization named tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death.
The English word " tobacco " originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word " tabaco ". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino , the Arawakan language of the Caribbean.
Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to — BC. Historically, people from the Northeast Woodlands cultures have carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item. Tobacco is also smoked in these cultures, both socially and ceremonially , such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item.
These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo , more specifically in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas cigarras in Spanish. Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled.
Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; tobacco is often credited as being the export that saved Virginia from ruin. The alleged benefits of tobacco also account for its considerable success.
Production of tobacco for smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century.
Cuban cigars are world-famous. In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production. This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the lateth century.
Following the scientific revelations of the midth century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement , which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products.
This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3. In the s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes. In , in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization  successfully rallied countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of nicotine , a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others.
Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids , which are often poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids varying between species to deter most herbivores ,  a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species due to its other attributes.
For example, although the cabbage looper is a generalist pest, tobacco's gummosis and trichomes can harm early larvae survival. Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil.
However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles Epitrix cucumeris or E. By , successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light. In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite , which partially starves the plant of nitrogen , to produce a more desired flavor. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant.
A hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or deer antler. Various mechanical tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion. Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife.
It is then speared onto sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco harvested in this manner involves the serial harvest of a number of "primings", beginning with the volado leaves near the ground, working to the seco leaves in the middle of the plant, and finishing with the potent ligero leaves at the top.
Before this, the crop must be topped when the pink flowers develop. Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed, and eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole.
In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U. Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea , rose oil , or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke.
Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts AGEs , a caramelization process that also adds flavor.
Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer. Some tobaccos go through a second stage of curing, known as fermenting or sweating. This number is a bit lower than the record-high production of , when 7. Every year, about 6. The top producers of tobacco are China Around the peak of global tobacco production, 20 million rural Chinese households were producing tobacco on 2. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market price, because of the lack of market risk.
In , 3, tobacco product manufacturing facilities were operating in all of India. Since , the Indian government has supported growth in the tobacco industry. In Brazil, around , family farmers cite tobacco production as their main economic activity.
These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for cigars, twists, and dark cigarettes. Brazil's government, however, provides small loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar.
The International Labour Office reported that the most child-laborers work in agriculture, which is one of the most hazardous types of work. In late , reports were released by the London-based human-rights group Plan International , claiming that child labor was common on Malawi producer of 1. The organization interviewed 44 teens, who worked full-time on farms during the growing season.
The child-laborers complained of low pay and long hours, as well as physical and sexual abuse by their supervisors. When wet leaves are handled, nicotine from the leaves gets absorbed in the skin and causes nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Children were exposed to cigarettes-worth of nicotine through direct contact with tobacco leaves. This level of nicotine in children can permanently alter brain structure and function.
Major tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris , British American Tobacco , and Japan Tobacco each own or lease tobacco-manufacturing facilities in at least 50 countries and buy crude tobacco leaf from at least 12 more countries. This surplus has resulted in lower prices, which are devastating to small-scale tobacco farmers. Tobacco production requires the use of large amounts of pesticides. Tobacco companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young plants to the field.
Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These pesticides, as well as fertilizers, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food chain. Early exposure to pesticides may increase a child's lifelong cancer risk, as well as harm his or her nervous and immune systems. As with all crops, tobacco crops extract nutrients such as phosphorus , nitrogen , and potassium from soil, decreasing its fertility.
Furthermore, the wood used to cure tobacco in some places leads to deforestation. While some big tobacco producers such as China and the United States have access to petroleum, coal, and natural gas, which can be used as alternatives to wood, most developing countries still rely on wood in the curing process. In WHO released a study on the environmental effects of tobacco. Several tobacco plants have been used as model organisms in genetics. Tobacco BY-2 cells , derived from N. The first genetically modified plant was produced in , using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.
Because of its importance as a research tool, transgenic tobacco was the first GM crop to be tested in field trials, in the United States and France in ; China became the first country in the world to approve commercial planting of a GM crop in , which was tobacco.
Many varieties of transgenic tobacco have been intensively tested in field trials. Agronomic traits such as resistance to pathogens viruses, particularly to the tobacco mosaic virus TMV ; fungi; bacteria and nematodes ; weed management via herbicide tolerance; resistance against insect pests; resistance to drought and cold; and production of useful products such as pharmaceuticals; and use of GM plants for bioremediation , have all been tested in over field trials using tobacco.
Currently, only the US is producing GM tobacco.
When a tobacco product is misbranded or adulterated, it is illegal to sell or distribute the product in interstate commerce in the United States or import the product into the United States. In addition, a tobacco product that is subject of an NSE Order is subject to seizure at any time. This means that, after October 14, the 30 day retail non-enforcement period provided for by the FDA , no one may sell, distribute or import these four cigarette brand styles. In addition, a tobacco product that is subject of an NSE order is subject to seizure at any time. Their Federal tax compliance is confirmed to be that of a large cigar. The List also contains the names of brands confirmed to be "Little Cigars" pursuant to documentation from the manufacturer.
Tobacco smoking is a practice which has changed little since American natives first stuffed the tobacco they cultivated in the hills of what is today modern Mexico into hollow reeds. As the practice spread through the Americas, different cultures wrapped their tobacco in vegetable leaves or corn husks, or put it in pipes for smoking. Spanish explorers enjoyed smoking and returned to the Old World with cigars tobacco wrapped in tobacco leaves. In the beginning of the 16th century, beggars in Seville, Spain developed the first paper-rolled cigarettes when they collected discarded cigar butts, shredded them, and rolled them in scraps of paper. Although the Spanish elite first dismissed them as recycled garbage, these cigarillos, or little cigars, eventually gained popularity during the 18th century.
If you make, modify, mix, manufacture, fabricate, assemble, process, label, repack, relabel, or import any " tobacco product ," then you are considered a tobacco product " manufacturer. If you do not report this information or pay the assessed user fees, your products will be deemed "adulterated" under federal law and therefore, subject to regulatory action, including seizure and injunction. Submission of false information is also punishable by criminal and civil law. If you do not pay assessed user fees, your products will be deemed "adulterated" under federal law and therefore, subject to regulatory action, including seizure and injunction. If you do not submit, your products may be considered "misbranded" under federal law and therefore, subject to regulatory action, including seizure and injunction. If you do not report, your products may be deemed "misbranded" under federal law and therefore, subject to regulatory action, including seizure and injunction. FDA, No.
Our cigarettes are produced in factories across the world, and each brand has its own unique recipe. Cigarettes are made from:. We operate 44 production facilities and produce over billion cigarettes each year. Cigarettes are produced in factories around the world by processing the tobacco leaf, manufacturing the cigarettes, and preparing the final pack.
Стояла недоброжелательная тишина. Это была самая настоящая ересь -- и были времена, когда Джизирак сам бы так все это и назвал и предал бы такие взгляды анафеме.
Облик существа был необычным, точно его части изготовлялись без особых раздумий и, по мере надобности, наскоро были слеплены Несмотря на размеры существа, ни Элвин, ни Хилвар не ощутили ни малейшего беспокойства: разглядев обитателя озера как следует, они позабыли о прежнем опасении. В существе была забавная неуклюжесть, и видеть в нем серьезную угрозу было бы нелепо, если даже по каким-то причинам оно и было враждебно настроено.
Человеческий род давно преодолел детский ужас перед чуждым обликом. Подобные страхи не могли не исчезнуть после первого контакта с дружественными инопланетянами. - Разреши-ка мне им заняться, - спокойно сказал Хилвар. - Я привык общаться с животными.
- Но это не животное, - прошептал в ответ Элвин. - Я уверен, что оно разумно, и этот робот принадлежит. - А может быть, оно само принадлежит роботу. Во всяком случае, его умственная деятельность должна быть крайне необычной.
Я по-прежнему не улавливаю признаков мышления.
Его будущее лежит здесь, на Но, прежде чем повернуться к звездам спиной, он совершит еще один Когда Олвин пригасил вертикальную скорость корабля, город находился уже слишком далеко внизу, чтобы можно было признать в нем дело рук человеческих, и уже заметна была кривизна планеты.
Еще немного спустя они увидели и линию терминатора, на которой -- в тысячах миль от них -- рассвет свершал свой бесконечный переход по безбрежным пространствам пустыни.
Над ними и вокруг них сияли звезды, все еще блистающие красотой, несмотря на то, что когда-то они утратили часть своего великолепия. Хилвар и Джизирак молчали, догадываясь, но не зная с полной уверенностью, чего ради Олвин затеял этот полет и почему он пригласил их сопровождать. Разговаривать не хотелось. Под ними медленно разворачивалась безрадостная панорама, лишенная даже малейших признаков жизни.
Наступил момент, когда оставалось только импровизировать и осваивать каждую новую ситуацию по мере ее развития. - А ты обвиняешь. - сказал вдруг Элвин, и Джезерак был удивлен новыми нотками в его голосе.
Это был след смирения, слабый намек на то, что Элвин впервые ищет одобрения у своих ближних. Джезерак был тронут, но одновременно ему хватило мудрости, чтобы не принимать это всерьез. В Элвине ощущалась напряженность, и нечего было полагать, что нрав его может надолго смягчиться в сколько-нибудь обозримом будущем.
- Это очень непростой вопрос, - произнес Джезерак медленно. - Мне так хочется сказать, что все знания обладают ценностью, а ты, без сомнения, немало добавил к нашим знаниям.
Но из-за тебя возникли и новые опасности, а как знать, что окажется более важным на долгом пути. Часто ли ты думал над Несколько секунд учитель и ученик задумчиво разглядывали друг друга, и каждый, вероятно, смог лучше, чем прежде, представить себе точку зрения другого.
Нежные, безостановочно двигающиеся щупальца коротким движением взметнулись к небу. -- Великие. -- повторило существо.
И он припомнил - казалось, как давно это. - зоологические цели, стоявшие перед их экспедицией в Шалмирану.
Держась берега, они шли в стороне от самых густых зарослей. Немалую часть времени Хилвар потратил на выслеживание Крифа, который то и дело исчезал в джунглях или стремительно мчался над водой.
Не так обстояло дело в Лисе, и для характеристики Хилвара наиболее лестным прилагательным было бы слово "симпатичный". По меркам Элвина Хилвар был откровенно некрасив, и какое-то время он сознательно избегал. Если Хилвар и знал об этом, то не подавал виду, и вскоре его добродушное дружелюбие разрушило все преграды. Настало время, когда Элвин настолько привык к широкой, чуть скошенной улыбке Хилвара, к его силе и доброте, что не расстался бы с ним ни под каким видом.