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Production manufacture other textile products

Production manufacture other textile products

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.

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Textile manufacturing

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Processing Hemp from the field to textile fibre

Clothing and Finished Textile Products. Accidents in Clothing Manufacture A. Occupational diseases. In general, the processes involved in the production of clothing and other finished textile products have changed little since the inception of the industry. Although the organization of the production process has changed, and continues to change, and some technological advances have upgraded machinery, many of the safety and health hazards in this industry remain the same as those facing the earliest apparel workers.

The major health and safety concerns in the apparel industry are related to general conditions of the work environment. Poorly designed workstations, tools and equipment, combined with piece-rate compensation systems and the progressive bundle system of production, pose serious risks of musculoskeletal injury and stress-related conditions.

Garment shops are often housed in buildings that are poorly maintained and inadequately ventilated, cooled, heated and lit. Overcrowding, together with improper storage of flammable materials, frequently creates serious fire hazards.

Poor sanitation and lack of proper housekeeping measures contribute to these conditions. Major advances have been made in the design and production of well-designed, ergonomic sewing workstations that include adjustable sewing tables and chairs and take into consideration proper positioning of equipment and tools.

These workstations are widely available and are in use in some facilities, mostly large manufacturing establishments.

However, only the largest, best-capitalized facilities are able to afford these amenities. Ergonomic redesign is also possible in other clothing manufacturing operations see figure 1. The majority of apparel production, however, still takes place in small, ill-equipped contracting operations where, in general, little attention is paid to workplace design, working conditions and health and safety hazards. Product design and sample-making.

Apparel jobbers, manufacturers or retailers are frequently responsible only for the design, sample production and marketing of the product. Samples are produced by highly skilled sewing machine operators, sample-makers, who sew the entire garment. Pattern-making and cutting. Garment design must be broken down into pattern parts for cutting and sewing. Traditionally, cardboard patterns are made up for each piece of the garment; these patterns are graded by the sizes to be made.

From these patterns, paper-cutting markers are created, which are used by the garment cutter to cut out the pattern pieces. In more modern plants, cutting markers are made up and graded for size on a computer screen, then printed on a computerized plotter.

In the cutting phase, fabric is first spread into multiple piles on a cutting table, the length and width of which is determined by production demands. This is most often performed by an automatic or semi-automatic spreading machine which unrolls the bolts of fabric along the length of the table.

Plaid or print fabrics may be laid out by hand and pinned to assure that plaids for prints will match. Markers are then laid down on the fabric to be cut. Fabric for apparel production is usually cut using hand-held band saw cutting tools see figure 2.

Small parts may be cut using a die press. Advanced cutting technology includes robotic cutting, which automatically follows patterns made on a computer.

There are several hazards associated with fabric cutting. Although the blade on the cutting tool is guarded, this guard must be correctly set in order to afford the necessary protection to the hand positioning the material.

Guards should always be used and correctly positioned. As an additional protection it is recommended that cutting machine operators wear a protective glove, preferably of metal mesh. Besides posing the risk of accidental cuts, cutting fabric also presents ergonomic risks. Supporting and manoeuvering a cutting machine, while stretching across the cutting table, can present a risk of neck, upper-extremity and back disorders. Finally, many cutters have a tendency to work with the cutting machine at ear level, often exposing themselves to excessive noise with the attendant risk of noise-induced hearing loss.

Handling rolls of fabric, which can weigh up to 32 kg and must be lifted above the head onto a rack for spreading, also poses an ergonomic hazard. Proper material-handling equipment can eliminate or reduce these risks.

Sewing machine operation. Typically, cut fabric pieces are sewn together on sewing machines operated by hand. This type of work organization breaks the production process down into many different operations, each consisting of a very short cycle repeated hundreds of times by one operator during the course of a workday.

This system, combined with piece-rate pay compensation that rewards speed above all else and affords workers very little control over the production process, creates a potentially very stressful work environment.

The majority of the sewing machine workstations currently in use are designed without the comfort, health or convenience of the sewing machine operator in mind see figure 3. Because sewing machine operators generally work in a seated position at poorly designed workstations, performing the same operation during the entire course of the workday, the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders is high.

The poor postures resulting from the conditions described above, combined with highly repetitive, time-pressured work, has resulted in high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMDs among sewing machine operators and other workers in the industry.

Advances in sewing workstation design, such as adjustable chairs and worktables, create the potential for reduction of some of the risks associated with sewing machine operation. However, while these workstations and chairs are widely available, their price often places them out of reach of all but the most profitable enterprises. Additionally, even with better-designed workstations, the risk factor of repetition remains.

Changes in the organization of work and the introduction of teamwork, in the form of modular or flexible manufacturing, offer an alternative to the traditional, Taylorist production process and may serve to alleviate some of the health risks involved in the traditional system. In a teamwork system sewing machine operators work in a group to produce an entire garment, often shifting frequently between machines and jobs.

In one of the most popular team systems, workers work standing up, rather than seated, and move frequently from machine to machine. Changes from an individual piece-rate system of pay to hourly pay or to a group incentive system, as well as increased emphasis on monitoring quality throughout the production process, may help to eliminate some factors that put workers at risk of developing WRMDs. Some newer manufacturing systems, while technologically advanced, may actually contribute to increased risk of WRMD.

So-called unit production systems, for example, are designed to mechanically convey cut goods on an overhead conveyor from worker to worker, thus speeding up the progress of the goods and eliminating much of the material handling previously performed by the sewing machine operators or by floor workers.

While these systems often increase production by speeding up the line, they eliminate the already small rest time that was afforded to the operator between cycles, resulting in increased fatigue and repetition. When instituting any alternative production system, care should be taken to evaluate risk factors and design the new system with ergonomics in mind. For example, when workers will be trained to do a variety of jobs, jobs should be combined to stress differing parts of the body and not overtax any one muscle or joint.

Care should be taken to ensure that equipment and machinery can be adapted to fit all the workers in the team. Whenever any new equipment is purchased, it should be easily adjustable by the workers themselves, and training should be provided on how to make adjustments. This is particularly important in the apparel industry, where mechanics are often not readily available to adjust equipment to properly fit workers.

Finishing and pressing. Once sewn, the completed garment is ironed by pressers and checked for loose threads, stains and other defects by finishers. Finishers perform a variety of hand work, including clipping loose threads, hand sewing, turning and hand pressing. Ergonomic hazards are a problem for workers who finish, ticket, pack and distribute apparel.

They often perform highly repetitive tasks, frequently involving working with the hands and arms in awkward and unhealthy postures. Seating and workstations for these workers are rarely adjustable or designed for comfort or health.

Finishing workers, including pressers, often work standing and in static positions, despite the fact that many of the jobs could be equipped with chairs, stools or sit-stand chairs, and workers could alternate between standing and sitting. Table tops could be adjusted to the proper height for the operator and could be tilted to enable the operator to work in a more comfortable position.

Padded table edges and properly designed and sized tools could eliminate some stresses on hands, wrists and arms. Pressing the sewn product is performed either using a hand iron or a buck press.

Sewn products may also be steamed using a hand steamer or a steam tunnel. Presses and irons may present risks of burns, as well as ergonomic hazards.

While most presses are designed with two-handed controls, eliminating the possibility of getting the hand stuck in the press, some old machines still exist which do not have these safety features. Working a pressing machine also presents the risks of shoulder, neck and back injury caused by frequent overhead reaching and by constant standing and operating the foot pedals. While the job can be made safer by a more highly automated machine and by proper positioning of the worker at the machine, the current machinery makes it difficult to eliminate the high stress.

Ticketers, who use ticketing guns to place tags on finished garments, are at risk of hand and wrist injury from this highly repetitive operation. Automatic, as opposed to manual, ticketing guns can help decrease the force needed to perform the operation, greatly reducing stress and strain on the fingers and hands. Workers in apparel distribution centres are exposed to all the hazards of other warehouse workers. Manual material handling accounts for many of the injuries in warehouse operations.

Particular hazards include lifting and overhead work. Designing the distribution workplace with the proper handling of materials in mind, such as placement of conveyors and worktables at appropriate heights, can help prevent many injuries.

Mechanical material-handling equipment, such as fork-lifts and hoists, can help prevent injuries caused by having to perform awkward or heavy lifts. Chemical exposure. Workers at every stage of apparel production may be exposed to the chemicals used in fabric finishing; the most common of these is formaldehyde.

Used to make fabric permanent press and colour-fast, formaldehyde is released into the air from fabric in the form of a gas. Workers may also have skin exposure to formaldehyde as they handle the fabric. The amount of formaldehyde released from fabric depends on a variety of factors, including the amount used in finishing, the finishing process used and the ambient heat and humidity.

Exposure to formaldehyde can be prevented by allowing the fabric to off-gas in a well-ventilated area before it is handled and by providing good ventilation in the work areas, particularly where fabric is exposed to high heat and humidity e.

Workers who experience skin problems from handling formaldehyde-treated fabric can wear gloves or protective cream. Finally, textile manufacturers should be encouraged to develop safer alternative fabric treatments. The pleating process is used to place creases or pleats into fabric or garments.

This process uses high temperatures and high humidity to put folds into various types of fabric. Pleaters are exposed to these conditions of high heat and humidity, which may cause the release of greater quantities of substances used to finish the fabric than may otherwise be released under conditions of normal temperature and humidity. Steam boxes and steam chambers expose the pleated fabric to steam under pressure. To create a rubberized or waterproof finish, fabrics may be coated with a waterproof substance.

These various coatings, which may be a type of rubber, are often thinned with solvents, including those that pose serious health risks to exposed workers. These coatings may include benzene or dimethylformamide, as well as other solvents. Workers are exposed to these chemicals when they are mixed or poured, often by hand, or in large vats in poorly ventilated areas.

Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability.

Clothing and Finished Textile Products. Accidents in Clothing Manufacture A. Occupational diseases. In general, the processes involved in the production of clothing and other finished textile products have changed little since the inception of the industry. Although the organization of the production process has changed, and continues to change, and some technological advances have upgraded machinery, many of the safety and health hazards in this industry remain the same as those facing the earliest apparel workers. The major health and safety concerns in the apparel industry are related to general conditions of the work environment.

Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries

The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products. Natural and synthetic fibers are used to produce threads and yarns—which may be woven, knitted, or pressed or otherwise bonded into fabrics—as well as rope, cordage, and twine. Coatings and finishes are applied to the fabrics to enhance the decorative patterns woven into the fabric, or to make the fabric more durable, stain-resistant, or have other properties.

Textile industry

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.

Но, в конце концов, Олвин ведь еще очень молод.

Не тревожься. Я еще вернусь. И снова обратился к Сирэйнис; -- Я не возмущаюсь тем, что вы намереваетесь совершить. Вы, бесспорно, верите, что это -- лучший выход из положения, только вот, с моей точки зрения, вы сильно ошибаетесь.

Диаспар и Лиз не должны оставаться навечно разобщенными. Надо думать, придет такой день, когда они отчаянно будут нуждаться в помощи друг друга. Вот поэтому-то я и отправляюсь домой со всем тем, что мне удалось здесь узнать, и я совсем не думаю, что вам удастся меня остановить.

Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes

На мой взгляд, ты прав, -- медленно проговорил Хилвар. -- Наши два народа были разделены слишком долгое время. -- Это ведь правда, подумалось ему, хотя он и понимал, что личные его ощущения все еще противоречат такому ответу. Но Олвин не успокоился.

Тот колебался всего какое-то мгновение. Полуобернувшись, он кинул прощальный взгляд на холм, на траву, на небо -- все это такое знакомое -- и прошел Сенаторы глаз не отрывали от корабля, пока он -- на этот раз достаточно медленно, поскольку путь предстоял близкий -- не исчез на юге.

Затем седеющий молодой человек, который предводительствовал группе, с видом философского смирения пожал плечами и повернулся к одному из своих коллег: -- Вы всегда были против того, чтобы мы стремились к каким-то переменам, И до сих пор последнее слово всегда оставалось за вами.

Олвин опустился на колени возле воды и стал вглядываться в холодную, темную Крохотные полупрозрачные колокольчики, за которыми тянулись почти невидимые хвостики, медленно перемещались в разных направлениях под самой поверхностью. Он опустил ладонь в воду и зачерпнул один такой колокольчик, И тотчас же выплеснул его обратно, ойкнув: колокольчик его стрекнул.

Придет день -- возможно, через несколько лет, а то и столетий, -- и эти вот безмозглые кусочки протоплазмы снова соберутся вместе, я снова народится огромный полип, его сознание пробудится к существованию, и память возвратится к.

Было бы интересно узнать, как примет это существо все, что ему, Олвину, удалось узнать. Быть может, ему будет не слишком приятно услышать правду о Мастере. В сущности, оно, возможно, даже не захочет признаться самому себе в том, что все эти столетия и столетия терпеливого ожидания прошли совершенно бесцельно. Но -- бесцельно. Хотя полип и был обманут, но ведь его столь долгое бдительное терпение оказалось теперь вознаграждено. Чуть ли не чудом он спас из забвения прошлого знание, которое иначе было бы безвозвратно утрачено.

Теперь это существо, распавшееся на клетки, сможет, наконец, отдохнуть, а его символ веры отправится туда, где почили миллионы других верований, полагавших себя вечными. В задумчивом молчании шли Хилвар с Олвином обратно, к ожидавшему их кораблю.

Textile products are versatile products, combining materials and structure that are There are also numerous production techniques for different fibre types, yarn Stage 6 includes the garment manufacturing sequence and stages 7–8.

Table of Contents

По этой же причине он вряд ли понравился бы многим соотечественникам Элвина. Он запомнил имя художника, решив связаться с ним при первой же возможности. Все дороги, подвижные и замершие, оканчивались при подходе к парку - зеленому сердцу города. Здесь, внутри круга в три с лишним километра в поперечнике, сохранялась память о том, чем была Земля в дни, когда пустыня еще не поглотила все за исключением Диаспара. Вначале шел широкий пояс травы, затем невысокие деревья, становившиеся все гуще по мере продвижения .

Вполне допускаю, что, может быть, и снова наступит такой день, когда мы ее займем. А теперь здесь только животные и водятся. И в самом деле, нигде не было заметно ни малейших следов пребывания человека -- ни расчищенных пространств, ни приведенных в порядок, обузданных рек. Лишь в одном месте кое-что говорило о том, что когда-то здесь жили люди: за много миль от молодых людей над зеленым покровом леса, как сломанный клык, высились белые руины какого-то здания.

На всем же остальном пространстве джунгли взяли. Солнце садилось за горную гряду Лиза. На краткий миг далекие вершины охватило золотое пламя. Но вслед за этим земля, которую они охраняли, погрузилась в тень, и на нее пала ночь. -- Надо было нам раньше за это приняться,-- заметил, как всегда практичный, Хилвар, когда начал разбирать снаряжение.

Оставили вторую, не позаботившись о ней ни на вот столько. А тут вот они озаботились прямо сверх всякой меры!.

Элвин ушел в космос. Когда он вернется, вы можете попытаться удержать его от нового ухода, - хотя я сомневаюсь, что вы преуспеете в этом, ибо тогда он, вероятно, будет знать слишком .

Когда он достиг Эрли, уже почти стемнело, и домики плавали в озерцах света. Элвин держался в тени и почти добрался до дома Серанис, когда был обнаружен.

Он смотрел на него теперь с новым чувством понимания: ведь все, что он видел здесь, перед собой, существовало в действительности. могло быть и так, что отнюдь не весь Диаспар отражен в этом безупречном зеркале.

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