In , Saba became a radio maker and a major player in the recording and broadcasting industry. The company goes so far as to create its own music label before selling it a few years later. Saba was a pioneer in consumer electronics in Europe. Its developments have made it possible both to target new needs and to inspire our current consumption patterns. It has also contributed to innovations in industrial processes, some of which are still essential today. For example, Saba is the first company to introduce a fault detection system that simplifies after-sales service.
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- Radio Frequency (RF) Components
- Welcome to SAIREM ! Energy for your applications at any frequency and any power level.
- PCB Assembly and Production Process
- Types and Characteristics of RF (Radio Frequency) Inductors: Selecting the Optimum Components
- A SUCCESS STORY OF INNOVATIONS. REWRITTEN EVERY DAY.
- Radio receiver
- Sound in Motion
Radio Frequency (RF) ComponentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cutting Edge Radio Manufacturing - Norm Champion - Manly-Warringah Radio Society lecture
The radio receives electromagnetic waves from the air that are sent by a radio transmitter. Electromagnetic waves are a combination of electrical and magnetic fields that overlap. The radio converts these electromagnetic waves, called a signal, into sounds that humans can hear. Radios are a part of everyday life. Not only are they used to play music or as alarms in the morning, they are also used in cordless phones, cell phones, baby monitors, garage door openers, toys, satellites, and radar.
Radios also play an important role in communications for police, fire, industry, and the military. Although there are many types of radios—clock, car, amateur ham , stereo—all contain the same basic components.
The most common modes for a broadcast radio are AM amplitude modulation and FM frequency modulation. Other modes used by ham radio operators, industry, and the military are CW continuous wave using Morse code , SSB single sideband , digital modes such as telemetry, radio teletype, and PSK phase shift keying. Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent the first radio message across the Atlantic Ocean in December from England to Newfoundland.
Marconi's radio did not receive voice or music. Rather, it received buzzing sounds created by a spark gap transmitter sending a signal using Morse code. The radio got its voice on Christmas Eve As dozens of ship and amateur radio operators listened for the evening's traffic messages, they were amazed to hear a man's voice calling "CQ, CQ" which means calling all stations, I have messages instead of the customary dits and dahs of Morse code.
In the years from to , the radio went through many refinements with the invention of the diode and triode vacuum tubes. These devices enabled better transmission and reception of voice and music. Also during this time period, the radio became standard equipment on ships crossing the oceans.
The radio came of age during World War I. Military leaders recognized its value for communicating with the infantry and ships at sea. During the WWI, many advancements were made to the radio making it more powerful and compact. In , Edwin Armstrong invented the superhetrodyne radio. It was a major advancement in how a radio worked. The basic principles used in the superhetrodyne radio are still in use today.
On November 2, the first commercial radio station went on the air in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was an instant success, and began the radio revolution called the "Golden Age of Radio.
During this Golden Age, the radio evolved from a simple device in a bulky box to a complex piece of equipment housed in beautiful wooden cabinets. People would gather around the radio and listen to the latest news and radio plays. The radio occupied a similar position as today's television set. On June 30, the transistor was successfully demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
The transistor allowed radios to become compact, with the smallest ones able to fit in a shirt pocket. In , Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce received the first patent for the integrated circuit. The space program of the s would bring more advances to the integrated circuit. Now, a radio could fit in the frame of eyeglasses or inside a pair of small stereo earphones. Today, the frequency dial printed on the cabinet has been replaced with light emitting diodes or liquid crystal displays.
Today's radio consists of an antenna, printed circuit board, resistors, capacitors, coils and transformers, transistors, integrated circuits, and a speaker. All of these parts are housed in a plastic case. An internal antenna consists of small-diameter insulated copper wire wound around a ferrite core. An external antenna consists of several aluminum tubes that slide within one another.
The printed circuit board consists of a copper-clad pattern cemented to a phenolic board. The copper pattern is the wiring from component to component. It replaces most of the wiring used in earlier radios. Resistors limit the flow of electricity. They consist of a carbon film deposited on a cylindrical substrate, encased in a plastic alkyd polyester housing, with wire leads made of copper. Capacitors store an electrical charge and allow alternating current to flow through an electrical circuit but prevent direct current from flowing in the same circuit.
Fixed capacitors consist of two extended aluminum foil electrodes insulated by polypropylene film, housed in a plastic or ceramic housing with copper wire leads. Variable capacitors have a set of fixed aluminum plates and a set of rotating aluminum plates with an air insulator. Coils and transformers perform similar functions. Their purpose is to insulate a circuit while transferring energy from one circuit to another.
They consist of two or more sets of copper wire coils either wound on an insulator or mounted side-by-side with air as the insulator. Transistors consist of germanium or silicon encased in a metal housing with copper wire leads. The transistor controls the flow of electricity in a circuit. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes used in earlier radios. The integrated circuit houses thousands of resistors, capacitors, and transistors into a small and compact package called a chip.
This chip is about the size of the nail on the little finger. The chip is mounted in a plastic case with aluminum tabs that allow it to be mounted to a printed circuit board. Radios consist of many specialized electronic circuits designed to perform specific tasks—radio frequency amplifier, mixer, variable frequency oscillator, intermediate frequency amplifier, detector, and audio amplifier.
The radio frequency amplifier is designed to amplify the signal from a radio broadcast transmitter. The mixer takes the radio signal and combines it with another signal produced by the radio's variable frequency oscillator to produce an intermediate frequency. The variable frequency oscillator is the tuning knob on the radio. The produced intermediate frequency is amplified by the intermediate frequency amplifier.
This intermediate signal is sent to the detector which converts the radio signal to an audio signal. The audio amplifier amplifies the audio signal and sends it to the speaker or earphones. Most of these circuits can be contained in a single integrated circuit. The volume control a variable resistor , tuning knob a variable capacitor , speaker, antenna, and batteries can be mounted either on the printed circuit board or in the radio's case.
There is no single process for manufacturing a radio. The manufacturing process depends upon the design and complexity of the radio. The simplest radio has a single circuit board housed in a plastic case. The most complex radio has many circuit boards or modules housed in aluminum case.
Manufacturers purchase the basic components such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, integrated circuits, etc. The printed circuit boards, usually proprietary, may be manufactured in house. Many times, manufacturers will purchase complete radio modules from an vendor. Most of the manufacturing operations are performed by robots. These include the printed circuit boards and mounting of the components on the printed circuit board.
Mounting of the printed circuit board and controls into the case and some soldering operations are usually done by hand. Since most of the components or a radio are manufactured by specialized vendors, the radio manufacturer must rely on those venders to produce quality parts. Random samples of the final radio assembly are also inspected to ensure quality. The overall unit is inspected for flaws—both physical and electrical. The radio is played to ensure it can select radio frequencies it's design to receive, and that the audio output is within specifications.
Today's environmental awareness dictates that all waste be disposed of properly. Most byproducts from the construction of a radio can be reclaimed.
The etching solutions used in the printed circuit board manufacture are sent to chemical reclamation centers. Scraps from the leads of electronic components are sent to metal waste recovery centers where they are melted to create new products. Radios are being combined with computers to connect the computer to the Internet via satellites. Eventually radios will convert from analog to digital broadcasting. Analog signals are subject to fade and interference, digital signals are not. They can produce high quality sound like that found on a CD.
Digital radios can be programmed for specific stations, types of music, news, etc. Eventually, radios will have mini-computers built in to process sounds in numerical patterns "digits" rather than an analog waveform. This will allow listeners to program their radios for favorite radio stations, music type, stock quotes, traffic information, and much more. Carter, Alden R. New York: Franklin Watts, Floyd, Thomas L.
Electric Circuit Fundamentals. Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company, The American Radio Relay League. Canadian Broadcasting Company Web Page. UC Berkley Web Page. December Ernst S.
The radio receives electromagnetic waves from the air that are sent by a radio transmitter. Electromagnetic waves are a combination of electrical and magnetic fields that overlap. The radio converts these electromagnetic waves, called a signal, into sounds that humans can hear. Radios are a part of everyday life. Not only are they used to play music or as alarms in the morning, they are also used in cordless phones, cell phones, baby monitors, garage door openers, toys, satellites, and radar. Radios also play an important role in communications for police, fire, industry, and the military.
Welcome to SAIREM ! Energy for your applications at any frequency and any power level.
The group has outstanding reputation in international research and can provide complete technical and engineering support for designing and manufacturing the highest quality industrial solutions. SAIREM offers a wide range of microwave and radio-frequency generators, components, and accessories, with power level from a few watts up to one hundred kilowatt that cover all electromagnetic bands for Industrial, Scientific and Medical ISM applications assigned by the International Telecommunication Union ITU. The equipment and microwave technology developed by SAIREM provides good control of temperature and all process parameters, in compliance with food safety requirements, and offering short processing time in tempering, defrosting, thawing, cooking, pasteurizing, among others applications. SAIREM has developed a wide range of reactors and equipment for plasma generation, offering energy stability, short response time and high spectral quality for applications in plasma research, diamond deposition, surface cleaning, nanomaterials, abatement etc. The reactors and microwave equipment developed by SAIREM allow process extrapolation from laboratory scale, from a few grams, up to industrial scale, with applications in chemistry, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and scientific research. Microwave and radio-frequency dryers offered by SAIREM have been designed with a high level of flexibility and control to increase the efficiency when drying different materials. SAIREM offers standard and tailor-made equipment and microwave technology for different high frequency assisted applications.
PCB Assembly and Production Process
Moreover, there are 1, employees working for Grundig in more than 65 countries. Since , Grundig has been the first official technology partner of the German Football League and in the brand acquired the naming right for the Nuremberg Stadium. Grundig started life as a traditional German company, founded in , that achieved early fame with the Grundig radio. After the Second World War Germany was in ruins and so were most radios but new production was tightly controlled by the allies. The Heinzelmann is so successful that a new production site is called for. The currency reform brings about a stable economic situation. The demand for consumer goods is enormous.
When he learned about technicians fitting home radios into automobiles, he recognized the potential of the new technology. Galvin engaged a team of talented engineers to build and install one of the first commercially successful car radios in the world. Motorola created a new market and ultimately became a global leader in communications technologies. Paul V. Galvin and his brother Joseph started the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in Chicago in to manufacture battery eliminators. These electronic devices enabled battery-powered home radios to operate on household electric current. But in , a stock market crash devastated the U. The Galvins needed a new product for their small business to survive. A radio parts company founded by William P.
Types and Characteristics of RF (Radio Frequency) Inductors: Selecting the Optimum Components
However it is necessary for them all to work together to form an integrated overall process. Each stage of assembly and production must be compatible with the next, and there must be feedback from the output to the input to ensure that the highest quality is maintained. In this way any problems are detected quickly and the process can be adjusted accordingly. The various stages in the PCB assembly process including adding solder paste to the board, pick and place of the components, soldering, inspection and test.
Census of Manufactures, Statistics by industry. United States. Bureau of the Census. Utvalgte sider Side Side Groups of industries. Employment for the October 15 pay roll period. General statistics for industry groups. General statistics for divisions States. Food and Kindred Products. Tobacco Manufactures.
A SUCCESS STORY OF INNOVATIONS. REWRITTEN EVERY DAY.
You can search RF inductor lineup here. In the case of the wire wound type, Murata was able to achieve a compact size wire wound inductor with a minimum size of 0. We have prepared a wide variation of Q values by size and series in order to enable customers to select the optimum series according to the required Q characteristics. Since each inductor has its own characteristics, this article presents the characteristics of each inductor and the points to keep in mind when selecting an inductor. It is widely used in impedance matching circuitry in high frequency circuits that require stable induction and small inductance value steps.
The global radio frequency components market size was valued at USD This, in turn, is expected to spur the demand for RF components in the forecast period. IoT solutions require enhanced wireless connectivity, thereby driving the need for new and advanced RF components. Moreover, increasing sales of smartphones owing to constant product development offering improved performance, biosensors, long battery life, and more AI features and increasing popularity of low-end smartphones in emerging countries will boost the RF components market. Thus, the requirement of low-power ICs for maximizing battery life and to reduce charging time in smartphones is expected to spur the demand for RF components.
Sound in Motion
Customer In' is a style of thinking that has spread throughout FAS factories and it is what assures the trust and satisfaction of customers. At the mother factories in Japan Wire Harness Factory in our Shiga Headquarters, Shiga Wiring Factory, Mie Electronic Component Factory from manufacturing of wiring as raw materials to molding of various plastics, press operations and mounting and assembly of parts and wire harness assembly, top level production technology is used to pursue optimum manufacturing processing. Employee 'Customer In' perspective focuses performance towards a high level of perfection.
Серанис мгновенно поняла его уловку и на время ослабила контроль; его усилия освободиться затихли. Но она еще не потерпела поражения, и вскоре произошло то, чего Элвин опасался, но сделал заранее все, чтобы оказать противодействие. В его сознании теперь сражались две отдельные личности. Одна из них умоляла робота опустить его на землю.
Зачем ты доставил нас к этому месту. - спросил Элвин. Ответ его мало интересовал, но инерция поисков все еще влекла Элвина, даже несмотря на утрату необходимого для их продолжения мужества.
Они собирались войти в контакт с разумными существами, а вовсе не археологическими раскопками заниматься. Первую задачу можно было бы выполнить за какие-то несколько дней -- если выполнить. Вторая потребовала бы столетий труда целых армий людей и Двумя часами позже они покинули планету и были рады, что так поступили. Олвин решил, что даже в те времена, когда она еще цвела жизнью, мир этих бесконечных зданий был достаточно гнетущ.