Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:. If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface. In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones. The action of the detergent in maintaining the dirt in a highly dispersed condition is therefore important in preventing retention of detached dirt by the fabric. In order to perform as detergents surface-active agents , soaps and detergents must have certain chemical structures: their molecules must contain a hydrophobic water-insoluble part, such as a fatty acid or a rather long chain carbon group, such as fatty alcohols or alkylbenzene.
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Soap Manufacturing ProcessVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to make Glycerine (Glycerol)
Need to remove tomato sauce, grease, ink, or other tricky spots? Get rid of your toughest stains using our stain guide. The ingredients in your cleaning products fall into several different categories, added to provide different characteristics and cleaning functions. Search CPISI for safety assessment data from publicly available data sources on ingredients used in cleaning products. The alcohols used in light duty and liquid laundry detergents are isopropanol or ethanol ethyl alcohol.
These alcohols are used at low levels in liquid detergent formulations to control viscosity, to act as a solvent for other ingredients, and to provide resistance to low and freezing temperatures encountered in shipping, warehousing, and use. Isopropanol is used in liquid hard surface cleaners.
Higher molecular weight alcohols are used as raw materials for alcohol ethoxylates, one type of nonionic surfactant. Alcohol ethoxylates are relatively low sudsing. They possess greater resistance to water hardness than many other surfactants, i. ABS is anionic and high sudsing. Prior to the mids, the form of ABS most widely used in detergent formulations had branched hydrocarbon chains, which resisted biodegradation. In , detergent manufacturers voluntarily replaced ABS nationally in household laundry product with a more rapidly biodegradable variety of ABS called linear alkylate sulfonate, or LAS.
Alkyl sulfates are high sudsing surfactants. They have been an ingredient in built, all purpose granular detergents for many years; today they are more often found in cosmetic products, such as shampoos. Because they are sensitive to water hardness, they perform best in all purpose detergents that are fully built to inactivate the hardness. It is now being used as a detergent builder.
Crystalline sodium aluminosilicates or zeolites are water soluble. They soften water by an ion exchange and are effective primarily on the calcium in hard water. Thus a supplementary builder is required when they are used in detergent form to soften hardness due to magnesium and other ions.
They are well known foam stabilizers, widely used in light duty liquid detergents and to a lesser extent in heavy duty liquid cleaners. In alkaline solutions they are nonionic, and in acidic solutions, cationic. The applications of amphoteric surfactants include shampoos and personal care products, where mildness is important; industrial cleaners, because of their wide compatibility with builders, acids, and alkalis; and to some extent, household detergents. The negative charge, which the hydrophilic portion of anionic surfactants carries when in water, can be partially deactivated by interaction with the positively charged water hardness calcium and magnesium ions.
These surfactants are particularly effective at oily soil cleaning and clay soil suspension, but they need help from other ingredients to reduce the effects of water hardness ions. The surfactants most widely used in the detergent industry are anionic, and these are usually high sudsing.
Linear alkylate sulfonate is the most commonly used anionic surfactant. Others include alkane sulfonate, alkyl ethoxylate sulfate, alkyl glyceryl sulfonate, alkyl sulfate, and alpha olefin sulfonate. It may be used in soaps and detergents to produce bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against both pathogens and non-pathogens such as organisms causing body odor.
Antimicrobial agents used in washing and cleaning products range from highly complex bacteriostats, such as triclocarban, to the relatively commonplace pine oil and chlorine bleaches. Antimicrobials are used in deodorant bar soaps, in hard surface cleaners, in some laundry additives such as fabric softeners, and to a small extent in laundry detergents. They are also available as special products for adding to the rinse during laundering when there is concern for infectious organisms.
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose CMC is the most widely used antiredeposition agent; the literature also mentions methylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP , polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycol PEG. Antiredeposition agents are adsorbed on both soil and fabrics, where they keep soil particles from resettling on fabrics being washed and act as a dispersing agent. Surfactants and complex phosphates also help prevent soil redeposition, although this is not their primary function.
It can also be used to loosen baked and dried-on food soils by soaking or pretreating with it prior to automatic dishwashing. It must produce little or no suds or foam because too much foam can inhibit the washing action. Its important functions include the following:.
The most common bactericide used in home laundering is liquid chlorine bleach. For situations where chlorine bleach cannot be used and disinfecting action beyond that supplied by the regular laundering process is needed e. Among these are quaternary and phenolic compounds and pine oil.
Pine oil and phenolics can be added to either wash or rinse water. Quaternaries should be added only to the rinse to avoid interaction with detergent surfactants, which inactivate the quaternaries. Bacteriostats are found in some laundry additives.
They are also used as an ingredient in deodorant bar soaps. The scratchless abrasive action of dry baking soda, when used as a cleanser, helps in removing soil because the undissolved baking soda crystal is harder than soil but softer than sensitive surfaces such as fiberglass.
Baking soda can also act as a deodorizer inside refrigerators and freezers where it absorbs odors arising from food. Both the rate and the completeness of decomposition are factors in biodegradability. In the context of detergents, biodegradation refers to decomposition of the organic ingredients in the formulation by bacteria present in waste treatment systems, surface waters, or in the soil.
Since surfactants constitute the largest quantity of organic materials in detergent products, their biodegradation is of greatest interest.
The surfactants in today's household detergents are readily biodegradable as is soap. BLUING : Blue coloring materials that are added to wash or rinse water and are taken up by fabrics; bluing counteracts the yellowing that sometimes develops in white fabrics after repeated use and laundering.
Bluing produces a blue-white hue on fabrics, which is considered more pleasing to the eye than yellow-white. As a separate laundry additive, bluing may be a blue dye or pigment. It is available in liquid or dry form for adding to the rinse, in a granular detergent base for adding to wash water along with soap or detergent, and as an ingredient in other laundry products, including detergent oxygen bleach, fabric softener, and starch.
As a laundry additive, borax provides moderate alkalinity buffering, and aids in loosening soils and stains. It is included in small amounts in some laundry detergent formulations and in most diaper presoak products where it inhibits development of ammoniacal odors. Borax can also be used for some household cleaning jobs, and as a deodorizer. Several types of compounds, with different performance capabilities, are used. Builders have a number of functions, principally inactivation of water hardness.
This is accomplished either by sequestration, i. Complex phosphates are common sequestering builders. Sodium carbonate is a precipitating builder. Sodium aluminosilicate is an ion exchange builder. Other functions of builders are to supply alkalinity to assist cleaning, especially of acid soils, to provide buffering so that alkalinity is maintained at an effective level, to aid in keeping removed soil from redepositing during washing, and to emulsify oily and greasy soils.
Carboxymethylcellulose is present in many built laundry detergents to minimize redeposition of soil that has been removed by washing. Today, Castile may mean any mild soap made from vegetable oils. The most commonly used cationic surfactants are known as quaternary ammonium compounds, such as alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Alone they are not effective cleaners but may be part of a complex surfactant system.
It may also refer to caustic potash potassium hydroxide. Caustic soda is the alkali used in the manufacture of hard soap, and caustic potash is used in the manufacture of soft soap. Caustic soda is also used as a neutralizing agent in detergent manufacture. Chelating agents are used in detergent formulations because they inactivate the hardness minerals calcium and magnesium, and reduce ill effects of other dissolved metals such as iron and manganese. Currently, there is sparing use of chelating agents in U.
Sodium citrate functions as a chelating agent when used as a builder. As a laundry additive, liquid chlorine bleach removes stains, aids in soil removal, whitens, disinfects, and deodorizes. Dry forms of chlorine bleach include chlorinated isocyanurates and chlorinated trisodium phosphate.
They are used as the bleaching ingredient in products marketed in dry form, such as cleansers and automatic dishwasher detergents.
Neither liquid nor dry chlorine bleach should be used on silks, woolens, dyes sensitive to hypochlorite, and certain stains, such as rust, which can be set by hypochlorite. Chlorine bleach deactivates enzymes found in laundry detergents or laundry aids. Only the soluble forms of coconut oil soap are used, usually the sodium and potassium salts.
These are characterized by rapid solubility and ready sudsing. They generally make up only a portion of the soap base of toilet bars, light duty soap flakes and granules, and all purpose soap granules.
The remainder of the soap base is derived from tallow and similar fats. In the case of granules, the coloring may be uniform, or variegated to give a speckled appearance. In toilet and beauty bars it may be solid color, or deliberately streaked to give a striated effect. Generally detergency is associated with the action of a cleaning agent such as soap, detergent, alkaline salt, or a combination of these. In the context of consumer cleaning products, especially those designed for washing clothes and dishes, detergency can be described as the removal of soil by employing one or more of the following mechanisms generally in conjunction with mechanical action :.
The finished products are synthesized chemically from a variety of raw materials derived from petroleum, fatty acids, and other sources. They may also contain ingredients such as builders, antiredeposition agents, corrosion inhibitors, suds control agents, enzymes, fabric softeners, fluorescent whitening agents, sodium sulfate, water, alcohols, hydrotropes, colorants, fragrances, and opacifiers. Detergent ingredients vary with the types of products, which include light duty detergents, heavy duty detergents, hard surface cleaners, automatic dishwasher detergents, and cleansers.
The finished product comes in a number of forms, such as granules, liquids, and crystals. The most important dishwasher aids are rinse additives, composed of nonionic wetting agent s to be dispensed in the final rinse. They lower surface tension, thus increasing the sheeting off of rinse water with a resultant minimization of spotting.
In laundry detergents, dispersing agents keep particles of soil that have been removed from fabric in a dispersed or suspended state so that they are more readily removed from the washing machine when the wash water is pumped out. Surfactants that were instrumental in removing the soil from the fabrics serve as dispersing agents, as do antiredeposition agents and complex phosphates.
Since ethyl alcohol has good solvent soluble at all concentrations of water, it is a useful ingredient in some liquid detergent formulas. Lakes age naturally, becoming filled with plants and silt, forming marshes and finally, solid land.
This aging process from a young or oligotrophic state to a mature or eutrophic state normally takes thousands of years, but man's activities can speed up the process by increasing the supply of nutrients entering the lake.
Detergent Ingredients. Manufacturing Process. Bar Soaps. Liquid Detergents. Packaging Process.
Early synthetic detergents
This is a product guide from Ethical Consumer, the UK's leading alternative consumer organisation. Since we've been researching and recording the social and environmental records of companies, and making the results available to you in a simple format. Is it organic? And thereby help the environment as well as yourself. Is it cruelty-free and vegan? Go for a company with a clear cruelty-free policy and one that doesn't use any animal ingredients.
Need to remove tomato sauce, grease, ink, or other tricky spots? Get rid of your toughest stains using our stain guide. The ingredients in your cleaning products fall into several different categories, added to provide different characteristics and cleaning functions. Search CPISI for safety assessment data from publicly available data sources on ingredients used in cleaning products. The alcohols used in light duty and liquid laundry detergents are isopropanol or ethanol ethyl alcohol. These alcohols are used at low levels in liquid detergent formulations to control viscosity, to act as a solvent for other ingredients, and to provide resistance to low and freezing temperatures encountered in shipping, warehousing, and use.
Detergents and soaps are used for cleaning because pure water can't remove oily, organic soiling. Soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. Basically, soap allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. Detergents were developed in response to the shortage of the animal and vegetable fats used to make soap during World War I and World War II. Detergents are primarily surfactants , which could be produced easily from petrochemicals. Surfactants lower the surface tension of water, essentially making it 'wetter' so that it is less likely to stick to itself and more likely to interact with oil and grease. Modern detergents contain more than surfactants. Cleaning products may also contain enzymes to degrade protein-based stains, bleaches to de-color stains and add power to cleaning agents, and blue dyes to counter yellowing. Like soaps, detergents have hydrophobic or water-hating molecular chains and hydrophilic or water-loving components. The hydrophobic hydrocarbons are repelled by water but are attracted to oil and grease.
Now researchers are taking a different approach: They are manufacturing surfactants using biotechnological methods, with the assistance of fungi and bacteria. Detergents are everywhere -- in washing powders, dishwashing liquids, household cleaners, skin creams, shower gels, and shampoos. It is the detergent that loosens dirt and fat, makes hair-washing products foam up and allows creams to be absorbed quickly.
Green and Clean - Given the prominence of concerns relating to the greenhouse effect and increasing resource scarcity, the importance of renewable raw materials is constantly growing. The following article presents some of the most interesting trends for the laundry and home care product LHCP industry and shows where bio-based chemicals played an important role in the overall sustainability strategy. Sources for Renewable Raw Materials The primary sources of renewable raw materials are plants and micro-organisms. In order to convert them to high performance bio-based ingredients, plant-based raw materials generally have to undergo a series of chemical purification and processing stages. These operations modify the initial molecule, frequently through the use of petrochemical components. The second major source of renewable raw materials is that produced by micro-organisms white biotechnology. Micro-organisms capable of producing the desired target molecule are obtained through natural selection or genetic engineering processes. Although further chemical modification is possible, it is not usually necessary.
Producing Detergents from Fungi & Bacteria
Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules only on the water side. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces glass, fabric , which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of water onto a counter top. The drop will hold its shape and will not spread.
Petroleum Product of the Week: Detergent
A detergent is a chemical compound or mixture of compounds used as a cleaning agent. A soap is a cleaning agent that is composed of one or more salts of fatty acids. Thus, by its broad definition, detergent is an umbrella term that includes soaps and other cleaning agents with various chemical compositions. Often, however, the term detergent is used in a narrower sense to refer to synthetic cleaning agents that are not soaps that is, not salts of fatty acids. Conversely, the term soap is often used in a broader sense to include a variety of cleaning agents such as "laundry soap". Here, the term detergent will be used in its broader sense to include soaps , and the term soap will be used for products that consist mainly of fatty acid salts. Detergents are commonly used in products for personal hygiene, dishwashing, and laundry.
Understanding How Detergents and Surfactants Work and Clean
News, analysis, experiments, videos, games, and educational paths on the issues of energy and the environment for complete and topical information. Origins Detergents are frequently used and essential products in our lives, thanks to their ability to remove dirt, thus contributing to the reduction of the presence of germs and to maintaining good personal hygiene.
Laundry detergents have come a long way since the first bar soaps made from animal fat and lye were offered for sale in the s. The introduction of synthetic detergents to the marketplace in the s offered homemakers more options for fabric care. But it was the s that brought the most significant innovation in the laundry, the addition of enzymes that "attack" specific types of stains.
Soaps and Detergents
If turkey-red oil—i. The first synthetic detergents for general use, however, were produced by the Germans in the World War I period so that available fats could be utilized for other purposes. These detergents were chemicals of the short-chain alkylnaphthalene-sulfonate type, made by coupling propyl or butyl alcohols with naphthalene and subsequent sulfonation, and appeared under the name of Nekal. These products were only fair detergents but good wetting agents and are still being produced in large quantities for use in the textile industry.
Soap and detergent
Только я не знаю -- смогу. Для меня сон, знаешь, все еще очень странный обычай. -- Да это куда больше чем обычай,-- засмеялся Хилвар.
-- Мне вот рассказывали, что когда-то для любого человеческого организма это была самая настояшая жизненная необходимость.