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Production produce mineral fertilizer

Production produce mineral fertilizer

Our food security depends on finding a sustainable alternative to rock phosphate for fertilizer production. Furthermore, over 2 billion people worldwide are currently affected by micronutrient deficiencies, and crop concentrations of essential minerals are declining. In summary, fertilizers from livestock waste have the potential to improve wheat and grass concentrations of essential elements while maintaining yields. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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WO2012004219A1 - Method for producing a fertilizer - Google Patents

Our food security depends on finding a sustainable alternative to rock phosphate for fertilizer production. Furthermore, over 2 billion people worldwide are currently affected by micronutrient deficiencies, and crop concentrations of essential minerals are declining. In summary, fertilizers from livestock waste have the potential to improve wheat and grass concentrations of essential elements while maintaining yields.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Other than the named Elemental Digest Systems authors, the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Phosphorus P is essential for life, and is a key limiter of crop yields unless regular applications of fertilizer are used. Currently, much of the P fertilizer used worldwide is derived from rock phosphate ore, but this is both finite, and geographically concentrated in areas such as Morocco and the Western Sahara [ 1 ].

Furthermore, rock phosphate can be high in uranium U cadmium Cd , arsenic As , chromium Cr , Nickel Ni and lead Pb , toxic elements with no essentiality in plants, animals or people, and the European Commission are considering reducing permissible levels of U and Cd in fertilizers [ 2 ]. Alternatives include organic fertilizers, such as manure and slurry, but use of these is declining in more economically developed countries such as Great Britain [ 3 ].

This is perhaps due to the increasing physical separation between arable and livestock farms and the cost of transporting organic fertilizers over long distances. It is therefore necessary to find alternative P fertilizer sources, which are sustainable, convenient to farmers, and low in Cd.

An additional consideration is that although conventional nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur NPKS fertilizers may contain mineral elements as impurities, concentrations are typically low [ 4 ]. A key priority of the UN sustainable development goals [ 5 ] is to tackle hidden hunger, where deficiencies of minerals and vitamins in the diet affect health, even where the quantity of food consumed is not severely restricted.

Key minerals of concern include iron Fe , zinc Zn , selenium Se , calcium Ca and magnesium Mg [ 6 ], and deficiencies are not limited to less economically developed countries [ 7 — 9 ]. The application of mineral-rich fertilizers to soil, referred to as agronomic biofortification, can increase crop mineral concentrations [ 4 , 11 ].

However, although a yield benefit can occasionally be demonstrated [ 10 ], farmers are unlikely to fertilize crops with trace elements if it is costly to do so, without incentives to encourage it or governmental regulations to require it [ 12 ].

Abattoir waste includes lairage bedding material and excreta , gut contents, and parts of the carcass not fit for human consumption e. Fertilizers made from bone meal have been tested against conventional fertilizers in the past, usually showing a fertilization rate between that of phosphate rock and super or triple super phosphates [ 13 , 14 ], but the focus of these types of studies is predominantly on yield or NPK uptake.

Fresh bone mineral, post meat extraction, is combined with other abattoir organic wastes such as lairage, first stomach content, blood, hoof and horn before being milled to a fine slurry. A metal ion catalyst is added, then the slurry is combined with concentrated sulfuric acid and additional oxidising agents, before undergoing a Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs Defra approved Method 1 High Temperature and Pressure Sterilisation Process with the addition of an EDS patented chemical process International Patent Application Publication No.

The objective of this sterilisation and chemical process is to dissolve and solubilise the animal by-products, for example it hydrolyses starch and cellulose, it converts sulphuric acid to phosphoric acid and calcium sulphate, and organic materials are broken down into smaller, soluble carbon compounds.

The resultant acidic mixture is then neutralised using ash from biomass power generation. During the neutralisation process, the insoluble ash compounds are dissolved by the acidic solution, while the heat from the neutralisation process dries the fertilizer material to a damp powder.

To this mixture, other industrial by-products with fertilizer value are added to increase the value of Thallo as a marketable product. These by-products can include materials such as reclaimed fertilizer dusts, and waste from the fire extinguisher industry. The resultant powder is then dried, compacted and granulated to form the finished fertilizer. Three pot trials were run concurrently, each with a different combination of plant species and planting medium. In the first trial, grass AberMagic Lolium perenne was grown in a typical non-calcareous pelosol Hallsworth series , which is a permeable clayey soil, suitable for grassland and livestock rearing.

In the second trial, wheat Triticum aestivum was grown in a typical brown earth Crediton series , which is a well-drained gritty reddish loamy soil, which is suitable for cereals, roots and some horticultural crops. Typical soil properties can be seen in Blackwell et al [ 15 ], and total concentrations are given in Table 1 analysis method is outlined below. In the third trial, grass was grown in acid-washed silica sand substrate, to investigate the potential for use in marginal soils, lacking stores of nutrients and established microbial populations.

Where available, median total concentrations in European topsoils, as provided by the Forum of European Geological Surveys [ 16 ], is given. In the grass and wheat trials using soil as the growing medium, three fertilizers were tested, each at two application rates, plus there was a nil application control, with all treatments replicated three times.

H 2 O , all manufactured by Origin Fertilizers. Therefore, the slow release and NPK fertilizers differed only in their N source. The optimal levels were based on guidelines in the RB Fertilizer Manual for the UK [ 17 ], and 60 kg N ha -1 was used for the grass trials, and kg N ha -1 for the wheat trial.

Excess rates of application were twice the optimal levels and kg N ha -1 for grass and wheat respectively. The final N:S:K:P ratios of the applied fertilizers were 10 : Fertilizer application rates per pot were calculated based on the surface area of the pot, but fertilizers were evenly incorporated into the soils of each pot prior to sowing seeds.

Plants were grown in g air-dried soil or sand, with either 0. After germination, wheat seedlings were reduced to five, with any ungerminated seeds also removed. Plants received the majority of their water from the saucer at their base to encourage deeper rooting. The artificial rainwater solution was a 1 in dilution of a stock which contained 0. The grass pots were cut at 4 cm above soil height every four weeks for a total of 16 weeks, and wheat plants were grown to maturity 16 weeks.

Fertilizer and soil elemental concentrations were measured in the same way, but using an aqua regia digestion. For grass grown in sand, a simplified version of this treatment structure was used, in order to remove fertilizer amount from the ANOVA. For data from elemental analysis of plant material, separate ANOVAs were run for each of the elements. Non-normal data were transformed before analysis. The trend in the sand-grown Nil pots differed due to poor biomass production, with a mean of 0.

For example, in cut 1 in the soil-grown grass, the Nil pots contained a mean of 1. Wheat grain increased from a mean of 1. Values are the mean of 3 replicates, and their standard error. At cut 1, optimal fertilizer levels produced a mean of between 2. But at cut 4, optimal and excess fertilizer levels gave 0. By cut 4, yields had reduced to 0. Plant material was analysed for 20 elements. Concentration data for each treatment, within each growth experiment and sample type, and across each cut in the case of grass are available in S1 — S4 Tables.

Significance P values are summarised in Table 2 , and indicate whether concentrations increased or decreased due to the treatment.

The effect of fertilizer application was not always consistent across experiments, as, for example, manganese Mn concentrations in soil grown grass were greatest in fertilized treatments, but in wheat they were greatest for Nil treatments. Of these, optimal fertilizer levels led to greater element concentrations on only one occasion, for molybdenum Mo in soil grown grass.

There were no significant effects of fertilizer type on the herbage content of As or Pb. Grass experiments were cut on several occasions, and elemental composition measured in the first two cuts in sand grown grass, and the first three cuts in soil grown grass. However, the effect of cut number on elemental composition was not consistent, either between or within experiments. There was no difference between the trace element composition of the two N sources, and so the mineral fertilizers can be considered the same in terms of their trace element application to the soils, and therefore the reference to mineral fertilizers here is to either the NPK or slow release fertilizer.

Application rates are for the optimal fertilizer application rate for grass; excess fertilizer application rates for grass resulted in the element mass applied being twice the values in the table, and optimal and excess fertilizer application rates for wheat resulted in the element mass applied being three and six times the element masses shown in the table, respectively.

Fig 2 shows the relative additions of individual elements by either the Thallo fertilizer or the mineral fertilizer N. The proportional contributions were derived by calculating the quantity of each element in each of the Thallo and mineral fertilizers as shown in Table 3 , summing that quantity e. Also, fertilizer type had a significant, though complex, effect on element concentrations in plant material.

For instance, elements that were at a greater concentration in mineral fertilizers were also at a greater concentration in mineral-fertilized plants. Furthermore, although the different fertilizer types contained equal amounts of P, S, and Zn, the elemental composition of the plant material was, in many cases, significantly affected by fertilizer type. Moreover, the greatest exception was Mn, where 0. Every year, the European Union produces over 20 million tons of animal by-products, which are the parts of animals not consumed by people [ 19 ].

Currently abattoir waste can be recycled to land in the form of meat and bone meal MBM fertilizers, which are produced from pressure sterilizing animal carcasses to reduce the risk of disease transmission [ 20 ]. No meat remains on the bones due to its removal for beef stock production, and the pressure sterilization process includes additions of concentrated sulphuric acid, catalysts, and an oxidising-agent, and this is neutralised with ash containing calcium oxide.

The resulting dicalcium phosphate is considerably more soluble -log Ksp of 6. Crop yields may be increased not only by NPK fertilizers, but also due to micronutrient additions. The silica sand was effectively an inert substrate, and, unlike soil, could not act as a reservoir of elements, and consequently the effects of additional trace elements were more dilute in the soil experiments.

The soils used to grow the wheat and grass were both from SW England, where the trace element concentrations are either at or above the median concentrations for European topsoils Table 1. Crop yields are important, but it is also vital to produce high quality food. One component of this is that the crops contain sufficient concentrations of essential trace elements, while concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the plant material are minimised [ 5 ].

Over time, there have been reductions in the trace element concentration of crops, which is likely to be due to the breeding of higher-yielding plant cultivars, but may also be due to the reduction in trace element concentrations in soil [ 8 , 9 ].

Of these differences, two-thirds were caused by element dilution due to fertilizer application, the other third by an increase in the element concentration in the plant material. It is expected that the use of NPK fertilizers can result in decreased concentrations of trace elements within the crop, termed dilution, possibly because the plant grows faster than the trace elements are mobilised or made bioavailable in the rhizosphere [ 10 , 22 ].

However, some studies find no dilution or increased concentrations of elements, or very few effects, in cereal grain due to long-term fertilizer applications [ 23 , 24 ].

In a review, Rietra et al. Our data show that whether an effect of fertilizer application is seen, and whether element dilution or an increase in concentration occurs, is complex. Generally, significant differences in any given crop resulted from greater concentrations of that element in the fertilizer applied.

Using element specific fertilizers has been shown to increase the concentrations of Se, Zn, I, Mn, Mo, Co and Cu in crops [ 11 , 26 , 27 ], but this study shows that the elements do not have to be added individually, or added in a form that is specifically designed to be plant available, in order to increase plant concentrations of that element. However, there were elements that did not follow the trend described.

Reasons for this could include potential differences between the fertilizers in the bioavailability of the elements, or differences between the fertilizers causing differences to soil pH, and hence element availability [ 26 ]. Leaching of elements during these experiments did not occur, as they were watered from the base of the soil. However, plant uptake of trace elements is not only affected by soil concentrations and the bioavailability of that element, but by other elements in the soil, the interaction of which may be positive synergism or negative antagonism.

Although Cd is known to be positively correlated with Zn, as well as Fe and Cu [ 29 ], synergism between these elements was not seen in our experiments. These results indicate that our understanding of element synergism or antagonism, gained from controlled growth trials, are not able to fully describe the complexity of data gained in a multi-element trial such as this.

Due to the necessity of inducing a deficiency of an element in humans or animals before a threshold requirement can be set, trace element requirements are not clearly defined. Furthermore, the variety of foodstuffs in human, and to some extent livestock, diets, mean that reference intakes are often set in values per day, rather than as a concentration in each food item. This means that estimation of crop quality in terms of mineral content for human or livestock health are hard to determine.

However, Table 4 gives some estimated reference intake values as concentrations for mono-gastric and ruminant animals [ 30 ], and mineral concentrations known to be toxic to plants [ 26 ].

The invention relates to a method for producing a fertilizer for plants. Furthermore, it is used as a biofertilizer for individual consumers, such.

Waste and Biomass Valorization. A lot of attention has been paid in current literature to sewage sludge due to its increasing amount and problem with its disposal. In the age of expensive energy sources and depletion of natural feedstocks it is necessary to find ways of reusing and recycling waste. Sewage sludge has a high valuable fertilizing potential.

The Possibility of Organo-Mineral Fertilizer Production from Sewage Sludge

Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer.

Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

Это существо с грандиозными познаниями, но интеллект его кажется совсем маленьким. Конечно, - добавил он, - его разум может быть столь отдаленного порядка, что мы не сможем его понять - но почему-то подобное объяснение мне не кажется правильным.

- Но что же ты узнал. - нетерпеливо спросил Элвин. - Известно ли ему что-либо о Семи Солнцах.

Странно то, что я помню сам этот факт, но в то же время совершенно забыл человека, о котором мы сейчас говорим.

Тогда позволь мне рассказать кое-что, чего ты можешь и не знать. Видишь ли ты вон те башни. - Хедрон указал на одинаковые, как близнецы, пики Центральной Энергостанции и Зала Совета, взиравшие друг на друга через пропасть глубиной в километр. - Допустим, я положу абсолютно твердую доску между этими двумя башнями - доску шириной всего сантиметров в пятнадцать.

Сможешь ли ты пройти по. Элвин заколебался. - Не знаю, - ответил. - Я бы предпочел не пробовать. - Я совершенно уверен, что ты никогда бы не смог этого сделать.

Это место ничуть не хуже всякого другого для того, чтобы приступить к поиску. Быть может, это оказалось результатом чистой удачи. Или же подала вдруг голос какая-то древняя генная память.

Ну, - сказала Алистра наконец, - и как ты собираешься - Я ничего не могу поделать, - ответил он угрюмо. - Я думаю, что эти правила - дурацкие. И как я могу помнить о них, живя в саге.

Джезерак послушно последовал за Ярланом Зеем внутрь здания; сознание его, подобно губке, с готовностью впитывало все. Какие-то воспоминания или отголоски воспоминаний предупреждали его о том, что должно было случиться дальше, и он знал, что некогда это вселило бы в него ужас. Но теперь он ничего не боялся.

Он не просто чувствовал себя защищенным сознанием нереальности своего приключения; само присутствие Ярлана Зея казалось талисманом, ограждавшим Джезерака от всех опасностей. По путям, ведущим в глубь здания, скользило лишь несколько человек, и вскоре, оставшись вдвоем, Джезерак и Ярлан Зей оказались в тишине перед длинным, обтекаемым цилиндром. Аппарат этот, как знал Джезерак, мог увезти его из города в путешествие, которое в прежние времена потрясло бы его рассудок.

Но когда его спутник указал на открытую дверь, Джезерак лишь на миг задержался на пороге и ступил внутрь. - Вот видишь. - сказал Ярлан Зей с улыбкой. - Теперь расслабься и помни, что ты в безопасности, что тебе ничто не Джезерак верил .

Sep 4, - Thallo®, produced from abattoir and recycled industrial by-products, was tested against conventional mineral fertilizers in a pot trial with wheat.

Спросил Элвин. Ответ его мало интересовал, но инерция поисков все еще влекла Элвина, даже несмотря на утрату необходимого для их продолжения мужества. - Отсюда Учитель отправился в свой путь, - ответил робот. - Я ожидал такого объяснения, - сказал Хилвар. - Какая ирония во всем. Он бежал из этого мира униженным - но взгляни, какой монумент они воздвигли .

Олвин стоял среди руин крепости и глядел на озеро, чьи спокойные воды свидетельствовали о том, что гигантский полип стал теперь не более чем рассеянным облаком живых клеток, не имеющих ничего общего с организованным в определенные формы разумным существом. Робот по-прежнему находился рядом, но Хилвара не было и в помине.

Олвину некогда было размышлять, что бы все это значило, или проявлять беспокойство по поводу отсутствия друга, потому что почти тотчас же произошло нечто столь фантастическое, что оно напрочь выбило из его головы все посторонние мысли. Небо стало раскалываться надвое: Тонкая полоска черноты протянулась от горизонта к зениту и стала медленно расширяться, как если бы тьма и хаос обрушивались на Вселенную. Неумолимо эта полоса становилась все шире и шире, пока не охватила четверть небесной сферы.

Несмотря на все свои познания в области реальных астрономических фактов, Олвин никак не мог отделаться от ошеломляющего впечатления, что кто-то извне вламывается в его мир через щель в огромном голубом куполе неба. Крыло ночи перестало расти. Силы, породившие его, теперь смотрели вниз, на этот игрушечный мир, который они обнаружили здесь, и, быть может, советовались между собой -- стоит ли этот мир их внимания.

Олвин не испытывал ни тревоги, ни страха. Он почему-то знал, что находится лицом к лицу с такой силой и с такой мудростью, перед которыми человек должен испытывать не страх, а только благоговение.

Но если бы Хранилища Памяти оказались уничтожены, через тысячу лет город был бы мертв, поскольку его обитатели потеряли способность к воспроизводству. Это была дилемма, от которой, казалось, совершенно некуда было уйти, но Хилвар уже нащупал одно из возможных решений.

Не знаю я также, хороша она или плоха. Я не могу догадаться о ее сути. - Предположим, что она касается чего-то вне города. Джезерак понимающе улыбнулся: Шут, как и следовало ожидать, немного пошутил.

Я поведу тебя в Зал Совета. Зал был одним из самых больших зданий города, почти целиком отданным машинам - истинным администраторам Диаспара.

Сирэйнис и пятеро сенаторов ожидали их, когда они вышли из корабля. Одного из этих сенаторов Олвин уже встречал во время своего первого посещения Лиза. Остальные двое участников той первой встречи, как он понял, находились сейчас в Диаспаре.

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