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Production product devices of ship systems and pipelines

Production product devices of ship systems and pipelines

Pipeline , line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids, gases, and slurries fine particles suspended in liquid. Pipeline sizes vary from the 2-inch- 5-centimetre- diameter lines used in oil-well gathering systems to lines 30 feet 9 metres across in high-volume water and sewage networks. Pipelines usually consist of sections of pipe made of metal e. The sections are welded together and, in most cases, laid underground.

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Pipeline transport

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The offshore pipeline industry, since its first ventures into the Gulf of Mexico and the waters off California more than 40 years ago, has steadily improved its operating practices, with new materials, more robust designs, and more efficient techniques for construction, operation, and maintenance.

Today it operates with confidence in waters as deep as 1, feet, with near-term plans for depths of 3, feet Salpukas, Technology is being developed for pipelines in much deeper waters, up to perhaps 6, feet. Despite this progress, the marine environment is a challenging one for pipelines, and maintaining their integrity requires vigilance. Repairs and inspection are costly for underwater pipelines, and the emphasis is accordingly on preventing damage and deterioration.

Corrosion protection has advanced to a state at which pipelines may serve far beyond their original expected service lives although isolated corrosion is still a troublesome and costly source of pinhole leaks.

Leak detection programs use combinations of visual detection from boats and aircraft, automated metering of pressures and flows in pipelines, and monitoring of the flows in entire pipeline networks. Workers are highly trained to carry out routine operations and maintenance; more recently, enhanced training for emergency response has been mandated by regulators. Much of the pipeline inventory has remained in use beyond its originally intended service life. About one-fourth of the pipeline mileage in the federal waters of the outer continental shelf is more than 20 years old, and the average age is rising steadily Minerals Management Service, Pipelines in state waters are even older, with some dating from the early s, when offshore pipeline construction began.

Coatings, cathodic corrosion protection, and internal corrosion monitoring have improved substantially since then. Still, corrosion —especially internal corrosion—is inexorable, and requires continual inspection and monitoring. This problem is likely to grow more serious; as gas fields decline, gas pipelines will carry more liquids, and be potentially subject to increasing corrosion.

On the other hand, corrosion, while the most common reported cause of pipeline failures, presents relatively small risks. Corrosion failures tend to be small pinhole leaks, and are generally detected in time to prevent large losses of oil or gas. As noted in Chapter 2 , the average oil pollution per corrosion incident is a little less than 13 barrels;. Marine pipelines are constructed of high-strength carbon steels in several grades, depending on size, internal operating pressure, bending and longitudinal stresses expected during construction, and anticipated environmental conditions.

All piping, materials, and fittings are specified to be consistent with industry standards, promulgated by technical societies such as the American Petroleum Institute and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. OPS and MMS regulations specify minimum operating design and construction, post-construction, and testing standards for pipelines and components. Both agencies ' regulations cite these industry standards frequently.

Corrosion may occur either internally or externally to a pipeline. It tends to occur at predictable locations. Internal corrosion in likely at low spots in pipelines and at riser elbows, where brine, bacteria, and other corrosive agents collect.

Corrosion engineers take preventive measures that give priority to such high-risk locations. Corrosion defects in pipelines develop gradually, and generally manifest themselves as small pinhole leaks, through which small amounts of product escape. A corrosion-induced failure is not a spectacular event. Small leaks of this kind are easily detectable by routine helicopter overflight.

The marine environment is generally uniform and stable with respect to its corrosivity. Pipelines are protected against corrosion by bonded coatings.

On larger diameter pipelines, which would otherwise float when empty or be subject to excessive displacement by waves and currents, a concrete weight coating is added to provide stability, and incidentally some mechanical protection from objects such as the anchors of small vessels. Specifications for corrosion-preventive coatings and their application and testing are available from several associations representing the pipeline industry and coating firms.

OPS regulations prescribe testing requirements and intervals for verifying the adequacy of such protection. Criteria for hazardous liquid that is, petroleum pipelines are less prescriptive, setting only general performance standards for internal and external corrosion control; in practice, however, corrosion protection practices are similar to those used for gas pipelines. To prevent the electrochemical process of external corrosion, marine pipelines use cathodic protection systems, which apply a small voltage to the pipe, either from an external power source or through the electrochemical reaction of two dissimilar metals.

The original system anodes are generally depleted after 10 to 15 years of service and replaced with new ones. A drawback of this system is occasional interruption of electric power, supplied by generators on platforms; although occasional brief interruptions are not harmful, the relative inaccessibility of the rectifiers can make outages more frequent and longer than desirable. The adequacy of corrosion protection—and in particular protection from external corrosion—at intermediate points, between anodes, is difficult to verify.

For these reasons, impressed current systems are not often used today. Today, so-called sacrificial cathodic protection is more common. It involves the use of anodes of a sacrificial material such as aluminum or zinc, electrically bonded and attached to the pipeline as clamp-on bracelets. These anodes are sized and spaced along the pipeline to provide uniform cathodic protection for at least 25 to 30 years, taking into account the anticipated extent of coating damage, the anode depletion rate, and other factors.

One drawback of sacrificial systems is that depleted anodes cannot be as readily replaced as the single point anodes of the impressed current system.

In addition, the anodes on smaller pipes, without weight coatings, may be damaged during pipeline installation, rendering them nonfunctional and reducing the safety factor built into the system. On larger lines—the most common—the outer diameter of the anode is the same as that of the weight coating, making such damage unlikely.

Thus, the maintenance problems associated with impressed current systems are eliminated, but replaced with other possible problems. Also, as with the impressed current systems, the adequacy of protection in the intermediate sections of pipelines may be questionable unless advanced techniques such as cathodic protection surveys by remotely operated vehicles ROVs are used.

ROVs are already commonly used to assess the external physical conditions of unburied pipelines. Equipped with magnetic tracking devices and controlled from the surface, these vehicles follow the pipeline, providing visual surveys of the pipeline and bottom conditions along the route. New systems to record corrosion control data using ROVs have not yet achieved widespread use, but are increasingly accepted by the pipeline industry Weldon and Kroon, This technique produces data for only one or two points, so there is some difficulty in judging the protective status of the rest of the pipeline, which depends on such things as the condition of protective coatings and the integrity of anode-to-pipe connections.

There are two ways to get more information, whose merits depend on specific conditions of the pipeline, such as length and depth, water clarity, type of corrosion coating, whether or not the pipe is buried, and the type of corrosion protection used:.

Spot monitoring of the pipeline potential is generally limited to locations where other maintenance or construction activities are being carried out by divers. The locations of such work are independent of anode locations, which are potentially more valuable monitoring points. Still, the additional information can be useful in the absence of other monitoring opportunities. Close-interval potential surveys provide a nearly continuous plot of the pipeline potential.

They also can carry video cameras, which reveal even minor coating defects on pipelines that are not covered with sediments. The phenomenon of internal corrosion is well understood by the pipeline industry, but requires increasing attention as pipelines and oil and gas producing fields age.

In both gas and liquid lines, corrosive mixtures of foreign materials such as brine, drilling fluids, and bacteria from production reservoirs, not removed by production equipment, travel in the product stream.

Metal loss from internal corrosion is generally concentrated at the bottoms of the pipe and at low spots, especially in gas lines because the corrosive substances tend to be heavier than oil or gas. In some cases, a combination of erosion and corrosion can occur. As more pipelines transport mixtures of produced fluids oil, gas, and water , corrosion problems have become more complex, but they remain manageable.

The internal corrosion problem has grown more challenging in natural gas lines during the past 10 to 15 years, owing to changes in operating and economic conditions.

At one time, gas accepted for purchase or transportation by many systems, was required to be dry free of entrained liquid or liquid vapors of any type, including water, hydrocarbons, distillates, or condensates produced with the natural gas.

Today pipelines are more likely to carry such liquids to shore, because of the value of the recovered liquids and the operational efficiencies of separation ashore, as well as the limited water disposal options offshore.

Cooler temperatures around the pipeline on the ocean floor cause condensation of entrained liquid vapors, including water, resulting in formation of corrosive liquids Darwin, Shifts of production to deeper waters will tend to increase condensation of many of these corrosive fluids, because pipelines will carry more mixed fluids longer distances from producing fields to treatment and separation facilities, and in cooler waters.

Internal corrosion is more difficult than external corrosion to locate and quantify, owing mainly to the relative inaccessibility of intermediate sampling points on offshore pipelines.

Onshore, monitoring can be performed at valve sites, stations, instrument locations, and other points, to help isolate and locate active internal corrosion. Offshore there is typically no opportunity to establish monitoring points except at the originating platform. This location is of limited use in establishing the existence of corrosion downstream. It is far more desirable to have monitoring points at both intermediate and end points of a pipeline. Even under the best of circumstances, onshore or offshore, it may be difficult to determine where fluid velocities and pipeline profiles combine to allow water to drop out of the fluid, or to cause erosion of the pipeline; the chemistry of the fluid and the nature of entrained substances all affect internal corrosion activity.

Operators use various indirect means of monitoring internal corrosion. Fluids are often monitored continuously for corrosion products at both termini of pipelines. Small sacrificial pieces known as coupons, immersed in the flowing gas or liquid, can be removed to test for the extent of internal corrosion.

Gas pipelines most commonly use corrosion inhibitors. Liquid pipelines can rely on the flow of the liquid to keep entrained water in suspension, thus limiting accumulation of corrosive substances on the walls of the pipe. Sometimes it is possible to obtain a general indication of the rate of corrosion activity in a pipeline system by monitoring the content of iron in water emitted from the.

A high iron content would indicate need for a detailed survey and remedial action. As production declines in some offshore fields, and liquid velocity drops to the point at which water settles out, internal corrosion control in liquid pipelines will be more important. Cleaning pigs—hard rubber or inflatable plastic spheres or cylindrical devices that travel with the product flow—are often used to move foreign substances to a downstream location where they are removed from the system.

The recovered material is analyzed to determine the adequacy of the internal corrosion control measures, including any chemical inhibitor programs in use. In many pipeline systems mainly those with subsea connections with other pipelines , the use of pigs is difficult or impossible. Where feasible, it is an important means of increasing the effectiveness of internal corrosion control, used by most pipeline operators.

It not only removes corrosive materials and gives operators information on corrosion activity in the pipe, but also brings corrosion inhibiting chemicals in better contact with the pipe surface. Newer technologies have been developed to provide more precise identification and location of problem areas.

In-line inspection ILI devices also known as smart pigs , discussed later in this chapter, are suitable for some pipelines, but are limited generally by the physical characteristics of existing pipeline systems, such as tight bends, restrictions in subsea junctions, and the lack of room on platforms for pig launching and receiving equipment.

Retrofitting may be difficult and expensive. Research is underway by the pipeline industry to reduce the length and weight and improve the accuracy of such devices. Internal corrosion tends to occur fairly consistently in several distinct locations of offshore pipelines: in the bends at the bases of risers pipes that connect seabed pipelines to platforms , where corrosive liquids tend to accumulate especially in gas lines ; and in small-diameter flowlines pipelines connected directly to producing wells , where corrosive liquids and sand are contained in the unprocessed fluids.

Knowledge of these patterns allows the targeted use of specific inspection measures and remediation techniques. Equipment and piping maintenance performed on marine pipeline facilities that are above the water line is very similar to that performed onshore.

Maintenance procedures and inspection and calibration intervals are established based on the type of equipment involved, the potential consequences of failure, and the likelihood of various failure modes. The purpose of this preventive maintenance is to prevent equipment failure which could have adverse safety, environmental, operational, or financial consequences.

Repairs are performed as needed, according to established procedures. The same general principles apply to marine pipelines facilities on the seabed.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The offshore pipeline industry, since its first ventures into the Gulf of Mexico and the waters off California more than 40 years ago, has steadily improved its operating practices, with new materials, more robust designs, and more efficient techniques for construction, operation, and maintenance.

Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes —a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills , or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation , pollution , or environmental impact. Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes which are usually buried. The oil is moved through the pipelines by pump stations along the pipeline. Hydrogen pipeline transport is the transportation of hydrogen through a pipe.

Looking for other ways to read this?

Олвин мог видеть ,только ту часть города, которая оставалась незыблемой. Люди, ходившие по его улицам, не существовали в этой застывшей картине. Впрочем, для его целей это не имело значения. Его интересовало сейчас исключительно создание из камня и металла, в котором он был узником, а вовсе не те, кто разделял с ним -- добровольно -- его заточение. Он поискал и тотчас нашел башню Лоранна и быстро пробежался по ее коридорам и проходам, уже известным .

Спросил. - Не следует ли бежать на Хилвар не ответил на первый вопрос - только на второй. Его голос был очень слабым, но в нем не чувствовалось тревоги или страха.

Скорее он нес в себе бездну изумления и любопытства, словно Хилвар наткнулся на нечто столь удивительное, что не желал возиться с нетерпеливыми расспросами - Ты опоздал, - сказал .

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: GSP Offshore Gas Pipeline Project For Gazprom part 1/2

Если, конечно, Центральный Компьютер им разрешит. А он, похоже, относится к .

В какой-то миг ему показалось, что Итания тоже хочет что-то сказать. Она подняла было руку, приведя в волнение светящуюся паутинку своего платья, но тотчас снова уронила. Потом с выражением явной беспомощности на лице повернулась к Джизираку, и только тут Олвин осознал, что его родители еще и чем-то встревожены. Он быстро перебрал в памяти события последних недель.

Нет, в его жизни за это время не произошло ничего такого, что могло бы породить этот вот налет неуверенности и эту атмосферу едва заметной тревоги, что, казалось, окутывала Эристона в Итанию.

Тем не менее Джизирак, похоже, чувствовал себя вполне в своей тарелке. Он бросил вопросительный взгляд на Эристона и Итанию, убедился, что им нечего больше сказать, и начал лекцию, к которой готовился так много лет. -- Олвин,-- заговорил он,-- ты был моим учеником в течение двух десятилетий, и я сделал все, чтобы научить тебя обычаям этого города, подвести тебя к принадлежащему тебе наследию. Ты задавал мне множество вопросов и не на все из них я способен бил дать ответ.

И все же никто не был уверен, что все возможности искусства исчерпаны,-- так же как и в том, что оно имеет какое-то значение вне человеческого сознания. И это же самое можно было сказать о любви. Джизирак недвижимо сидел среди вихря цифр.

Когда Луна стала падать на Землю, разрушили ее именно ученые Лиза. Так же было и с защитой Земли от Пришельцев, которых отбросили после решающей битвы у Шалмирейна. Исполинское это усилие истощило человечество.

Лишь в одном месте кое-что говорило о том, что когда-то здесь жили люди: за много миль от молодых людей над зеленым покровом леса, как сломанный клык, высились белые руины какого-то здания. На всем же остальном пространстве джунгли взяли. Солнце садилось за горную гряду Лиза. На краткий миг далекие вершины охватило золотое пламя. Но вслед за этим земля, которую они охраняли, погрузилась в тень, и на нее пала ночь. -- Надо было нам раньше за это приняться,-- заметил, как всегда практичный, Хилвар, когда начал разбирать снаряжение.

-- Через пять минут темнотища будет -- глаз выколи, да и похолодает. Трава стала принимать на себя странные на вид части каких-то аппаратов. Из стройного треножника высунулся штырь с утолщением на конце, напоминающим по форме грушу.

Mike S. Yoon received into and delivered out of their pipeline systems. which uses more accurate metering devices and recording instrumentation to check the collection of tanks located at refineries, shipping terminals and pipeline terminals. Tank farms at refining operations are used to store various products produced.

Спросила Алистра. Она узнает, что такое мониторы, когда доберется до. -- Я не могу вам этого сказать, пока у вас не будет разрешения Совета. Меньше всего она могла ожидать вот такого, совершенно обескураживающего, оборота событий. В Диаспаре было совсем немного мест, которые не мог бы посетить всяк кому вздумается.

Образ конструкции, во всех ее мельчайших деталях хранящийся в его блоках памяти, никогда не потускнеет, а ведь именно этот образ и контролирует его физическую структуру. Теперь корабль, направляемый роботом к башне, был уже совсем близко. Джизирак прикинул, что он около ста футов длиной.

На заостренном с обоих концов корпусе не видно было ни окон, ни каких-либо других отверстий, хотя, в общем-то, толстый слой земли на обшивке и не позволял утверждать это с полной уверенностью. Внезапно их обдало пылью, посыпались камешки -- это одна из секций корпуса откинулась наружу, и Джизираку удалось бросить взгляд на маленькую, голую каморку шлюза, в дальнем конце которой виднелась дверь.

Корабль висел в воздухе в каком-нибудь футе от жерла воздушного туннеля, к которому он приблизился с крайней осторожностью -- будто чувствующее, живое существо. -- До свидания, Джизирак,-- проговорил Олвин.

Раньше, чем председатель смог ответить, в тишине зала раздался голос -- ясный и спокойный. Никогда прежде за всю свою жизнь Олвин не слышал его, но он знал, чей это голос. Информационные машины -- не более чем периферийные устройства этого гигантского разума -- тоже умели разговаривать с человеком, но в их голосах не было этого безошибочного оттенка мудрости и властности.

Джезерак в молчаливом изумлении шел по улицам совершенно незнакомого ему Диаспара. Этот город настолько отличался от того, в котором он провел все свои жизни, что Джезерак никогда бы не узнал. И все же он понимал, что это именно Диаспар, хотя даже не задавался вопросом о том, откуда ему это стало Улицы были уже, здания - ниже, парк исчез.

Поднимись. Опустись. Ни одно из этих таких привычных мысленных приказаний не возымело никакого эффекта.

Теперь он слишком хорошо понимал, что, когда играющая молодая сила натешена, частолюбивые устремления и любознательность удовлетворены, остается еще нетерпение сердца. Никому не дано было жить настоящей жизнью, если его не осенял прекрасный союз любви и желания, который и не снился Олвину, пока он не побывал в Лизе.

Он бродил по поверхности планет Семи Солнц -- первый человек за миллиард лет. Но теперь это для него мало что значило.

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