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For the purposes of the present chapter, forestry is understood to embrace all the fieldwork required to establish, regenerate, manage and protect forests and to harvest their products. The last step in the production chain covered by this chapter is the transport of raw forest products. Further processing, such as into sawnwood, furniture or paper is dealt with in the Lumber, Woodworking and Pulp and paper industries chapters in this Encyclopaedia. The forests may be natural, human-made or tree plantations.
Forest products considered in this chapter are both wood and other products, but emphasis is on the former, because of its relevance for safety and health. The utilization and management of forests are as old as the human being. Initially forests were almost exclusively used for subsistence: food, fuelwood and building materials.
The pressure on forests was aggravated by early industrialization. The combined effect of conversion and over-utilization was a sharp reduction in forest area in Europe, the Middle East, India, China and later in parts of North America. Presently, forests cover about one-quarter of the land surface of the earth. The deforestation process has come to a halt in industrialized countries, and forest areas are actually increasing in these countries, albeit slowly.
In most tropical and subtropical countries, however, forests are shrinking at a rate of 15 to 20 million hectares ha , or 0. Asia has the lowest forest cover in terms of percentage of land area under forest and hectares per capita. Forest resources vary significantly in different parts of the world. These differences have a direct impact on the working environment, on the technology used in forestry operations and on the level of risk associated with them.
Boreal forests in northern parts of Europe, Russia and Canada are mostly made up of conifers and have a relatively small number of trees per hectare.
Most of these forests are natural. Moreover, the individual trees are small in size. Because of the long winters, trees grow slowly and wood increment ranges from less than 0. The temperate forests of southern Canada, the United States, Central Europe, southern Russia, China and Japan are made up of a wide range of coniferous and broad-leaved tree species.
Tree densities are high and individual trees can be very large, with diameters of more than 1 m and tree height of more than 50 m. Forests may be natural or human-made i. Standing volumes per hectare and increment are high. Tropical and subtropical forests are mostly broad-leaved. Tree sizes and standing volumes vary greatly, but tropical timber harvested for industrial purposes is typically in the form of large trees with big crowns.
Average dimensions of harvested trees are highest in the tropics, with logs of more than 2 m 3 being the rule. Standing trees with crowns routinely weigh more than 20 tonnes before felling and debranching. Dense undergrowth and tree climbers make work even more cumbersome and dangerous. An increasingly important type of forest in terms of wood production and employment is tree plantations.
Tropical plantations are thought to cover about 35 million hectares, with about 2 million hectares added per year FAO They usually consist of only one very fast growing species. Various pines Pinus spp. Plantations are managed intensively and in short rotations from 6 to 30 years , while most temperate forests take 80, sometimes up to years, to mature. Trees are fairly uniform, and small to medium in size, with approximately 0.
There is typically little undergrowth. Prompted by wood scarcity and natural disasters like landslides, floods and avalanches, more and more forests have come under some form of management over the last years. Wood utilization levels in most industrialized countries are below the growth rates. This is not true for many tropical countries. Globally, wood is by far the most important forest product. World roundwood production is approaching 3.
Wood production grew by 1. There is, however, a major difference in the nature of the wood products harvested in industrialized and in developing countries. This is why the list of the ten biggest producers of industrial roundwood in figure Non-wood forest products are still very significant for subsistence in many countries. They account for only 1. Forestry alone accounted for 0.
The share of forestry production in GDP tends to be much higher in developing countries, with an average of 2. In a number of countries forestry is far more important than the averages suggest. In several industrialized and developing countries, forest products are a significant export. While they cannot be readily expressed in monetary terms, the value of non-commercial goods and benefits generated by forests may well exceed their commercial output.
According to estimates, some to million people live in or depend on forests for their livelihood. Forests are also home to three-quarters of all species of living beings. They are a significant sink of carbon dioxide and serve to stabilize climates and water regimes. They reduce erosion, landslides and avalanches, and produce clean drinking water.
They are also fundamental for recreation and tourism. Figures on wage employment in forestry are difficult to obtain and can be unreliable even for industrialized countries.
The reasons are the high share of the self-employed and farmers, who do not get recorded in many cases, and the seasonality of many forestry jobs. Statistics in most developing countries simply absorb forestry into the much larger agricultural sector, with no separate figures available.
The biggest problem, however, is the fact that most forestry work is not wage employment, but subsistence. The main item here is the production of fuelwood, particularly in developing countries.
Bearing these limitations in mind, figure World wage employment in forestry is in the order of 2. This is a fraction of the downstream employment: wood industries and pulp and paper have at least 12 million employees in the formal sector.
Total forestry employment can thus be estimated at some 16 million person years. In most industrialized countries the size of the forestry workforce has been shrinking. This is a result of a shift from seasonal to full-time, professional forest workers, compounded by rapid mechanization, particularly of wood harvesting. Figure These differences are to some extent due to natural conditions, silvicultural systems and statistical error.
Even allowing for these, significant gaps persist. The transformation in the workforce is likely to continue: mechanization is spreading to more countries, and new forms of work organization, namely team work concepts, are boosting productivity, while harvesting levels remain by and large constant.
It should be noted that in many countries seasonal and part-time work in forestry are unrecorded, but remain very common among farmers and small woodland owners. In a number of developing countries the industrial forestry workforce is likely to grow as a result of more intensive forest management and tree plantations. Subsistence employment, on the other hand, is likely to decline gradually, as fuelwood is slowly replaced by other forms of energy.
Characteristics of the Workforce Industrial forestry work has largely remained a male domain. There are, however, jobs that tend to be predominantly carried out by women, such as planting or tending of young stands and raising seedlings in tree nurseries. In subsistence employment women are a majority in many developing countries, because they are usually responsible for fuelwood gathering.
The largest share of all industrial and subsistence forestry work is related to the harvesting of wood products. The ratio is smaller in most industrialized countries. Broadly, there are two groups of forestry jobs: those related to silviculture and those related to harvesting. Typical occupations in silviculture include tree planting, fertilization, weed and pest control, and pruning.
Tree planting is very seasonal, and in some countries involves a separate group of workers exclusively dedicated to this activity. In harvesting, the most common occupations are chain-saw operation, in tropical forests often with an assistant; choker setters who attach cables to tractors or skylines pulling logs to roadside; helpers who measure, move, load or debranch logs; and machine operators for tractors, loaders, cable cranes, harvesters and logging trucks.
There are major differences between segments of the forestry workforce with respect to the form of employment, which have a direct bearing on their exposure to safety and health hazards.
The share of forest workers directly employed by the forest owner or industry has been declining even in those countries where it used to be the rule. More and more work is done through contractors i. The contractors may be owner-operators i. Both the contractors and their employees often have very unstable employment. Under pressure to cut costs in a very competitive market, contractors sometimes resort to illegal practices such as moonlighting and hiring undeclared immigrants.
While the move to contracting has in many cases helped to cut costs, to advance mechanization and specialization as well as to adjust the workforce to changing demands, some traditional ailments of the profession have been aggravated through the increased reliance on contract labour. These include accident rates and health complaints, both of which tend to be more frequent among contract labour.
Contract labour has also contributed to further increasing the high rate of turnover in the forestry workforce. This aggravates the skill problem already looming large among much of the forestry workforce. Most skill acquisition is still by experience, usually meaning trial and error.
The dominant wage system in forestry by far continues to be piece-rates i. Piece-rates tend to lead to a rapid pace of work and are widely believed to increase the number of accidents. There is, however, no scientific evidence to back this contention. One undisputed side effect is that earnings fall once workers have reached a certain age because their physical abilities decline.
In countries where mechanization plays a major role, time-based wages have been on the increase, because the work rhythm is largely determined by the machine. Various bonus wage systems are also in use.
The growing focus on forest management has created a huge demand for forestry equipment. There has been a growing awareness of forest preservation and management. The increasing focus on forest management has led to the demand for forestry equipment. The demand for forestry equipment has led to innovations in related products.
FAO Forestry Papers on forest engineering and harvesting Where authors are clearly identified, their names have been included in the reference. Managing heat in agricultural work: increasing worker safety and productivity by controlling heat exposure. Forestry Working Paper No. Rome, FAO. Heat stress is a problem when the body is unable to dissipate body heat sufficiently to the surroundings. Such a situation is common among workers in the agriculture sector because most of the work is performed outdoors where the climate cannot be controlled.
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Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Digital technology is revolutionizing industries around the globe, from manufacturing to healthcare. Even agriculture is undergoing enormous change due to technologies like variable-rate fertilization and automated harvesting. Forestry, on the other hand, has lagged behind most other industries in the adoption of digital technology. This, however, is finally starting to change. Studies are already showing productivity increases in general agriculture at rates of 5 to 25 percent annually, with returns on investment of one to two years for digital technology depending of course on many factors, such as farm size, crop selection, and other conditions.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Modern Forest Planting Machine Amazing life #1
Technology has been a key to better care for the forest environment, as well as improved safety, productivity, growth, and fiber utilization. Improved technology in Oregon forest operations yields:. Recent innovations in logging methods combine with forest science to improve techniques for forest operations, including: low-impact harvesting, reducing fire risk, keeping forests looking healthy, well-designed road access, protecting streams, and enhancing wildlife habitat. The latest technology makes sustainable forestry and ecosystem management possible during harvesting, roading, transportation, and the full life-cycle of a forest. The sophisticated machinery in the forest today has surprising capabilities. Modern logging equipment can now process an entire tree into log lengths in one motion, thereby saving time, improving safety, and reducing impacts on the environment. Computer systems are integrated into forest machinery, producing optimized performance, less energy use, a cleaner environment and greater wood utilization.
В этих постройках, которые казались очень старыми, была использована даже непостижимо древняя идея остроконечной арки. Медленно приближаясь к селению, Олвин прилагал все старания, чтобы побыстрее освоиться с новым окружением.
Все здесь было незнакомо.
Робот, до сих пор паривший поодаль, на расстоянии не менее пяти метров, теперь бесшумно переместился и повис в метре над его головой. Его неподвижные, широкоугольные глаза не позволяли угадать направление взгляда.
Обнаружив исчезновение Элвина, она немедленно поинтересовалась у Джезерака, что с ним случилось. После секундного колебания Джезерак поведал ей все произошедшее. Если Элвин не хотел общения, сказать ей об этом он должен был. Его наставник ни порицал, ни одобрял эту связь. Вообще-то ему очень нравилась Алистра, и он надеялся, что ее влияние поможет Элвину приспособиться к жизни в Диаспаре.
Раз Элвин все время проводит в Зале Совета, значит, он занят каким-то исследованием; это, по крайней мере успокаивало подозрения Алистры насчет возможных соперниц. Но в ней пробудилась если не ревность, то любознательность. Она иногда корила себя за то, что бросила Элвина в Башне Лоранна, хотя знала, что если обстоятельства повторятся, она поступит точно так. Постигнуть мысли Элвина не было возможности, сказала она себе, если только она не сможет выяснить, что именно он пытается совершить.
Вот почему я не сомневаюсь, что его происхождение каким-то образом связано с тайнами прошлого. -- А что с ним. -- осведомился Хилвар, и в голосе у него явственно прозвучала ревнивая нотка хозяина.
-- Сейчас ему задают вопросы историки из Гриварна. Они пытаются составить себе более или менее целостную картину прошлого, но, конечно, эта работа займет многие годы. Вэйнамонд в состоянии описывать прошлое в мельчайших деталях, но, поскольку он не понимает того, что видит, работать с ним совсем не. Олвину было бы интересно узнать, откуда все это известно Сирэйнис. Но он тотчас же вспомнил, что едва ли не каждый в Лизе стал свидетелем этого неподражаемого расследования.
В сложном и, по-видимому, неконтролируемом процессе основные формы каждого человека попадали на хранение в микроскопические клеточные структуры, создаваемые внутри тела. Если ты этим заинтересуешься, биологи расскажут тебе подробнее. Впрочем, метод этот сейчас не представляет интереса, ибо оставлен на заре истории. Человеческое существо, как и любой другой объект, определяется своей структурой - своим образом.
Образ человека, и тем более образ, определяющий сознание человека, невероятно сложен.
В Диаспаре было много непонятных вещей; многое следовало выяснить за предстоящие ему столетия. На миг показалось, что Этания хочет заговорить.
Она приподняла руку, потревожив радужную паутину своего платья, но потом, опустив ее, беспомощно обернулась к Джезераку. До Элвина наконец дошло, что его родители чем-то встревожены.
Затем изображение на обзорном экране медленно восстановилось. Несколько секунд оно оставалось расплывчатым и искаженным, но увиденного было достаточно для того, чтобы покончить с дискуссией о посадке. Равнина уже не была гладкой.
И все же будет правильнее называть его нашим партнером, а не слугой. Над этим Олвин задумался. Некая идея, совсем еще туманная, полуоформившаяся, стала исподволь зарождаться в его мозгу.
В Эрли -- маленьком поселке, где правила Сирэйиис -- он волен был ходить где ему только заблагорассудится. Выражение правила, впрочем, было, пожалуй, слишком уж сильным, чтобы точно обрисовать положение этой женщины. Порой Олвину казалось, что она была снисходительным диктатором, я в иных случаях выходило, что у нее вообще нет никакой власти.