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Emergency and security services exist to deal with extraordinary and threatening situations. The people who work in such services are therefore confronted with events and circumstances that lie outside the usual experience of human beings in their daily lives.
Although each of the occupations has its own set of hazards, risks and traditions, they share several features in common. These include the following:. The form of organization and the means by which the mission of these services is carried out varies. The circumstances of the mission of a service affect the attitude and approach to the job; these differences are perhaps best understood by considering the object of control for each emergency service.
Firefighting is perhaps the most representative emergency and security service. This occupation arose historically as a way to limit property damage from fires, and started as a private service in which fire-fighters might save the businesses and houses of persons who paid insurance premiums but would let the property of others burn, even if they were right next door. Soon, society determined that private fire services were inefficient and that it would be much more practical and useful to make them public.
Thus, firefighting became a municipal or local government function in most parts of the world. Private firefighting services still exist in industry, at airports and in other settings where they are coordinated with municipal services.
In general, fire-fighters enjoy a great deal of trust and respect in their communities. When a fire-fighter is injured on the job, it is perceived as the result of an external agent, although it might be an indirect assault if the fire were set by an arsonist.
Police services and the military are given the responsibility by society to maintain order, generally in response to an internal threat such as crime or to an external threat such as war. Armed force is the essential means of accomplishing the mission, and the use of appropriate tactics and investigative techniques whether criminal investigation or military intelligence is standard procedure. Because of the high potential for abuse and misuse of force, society in general has imposed strict limitations on how force is used, especially toward civilians.
Police especially are watched more closely than other emergency and security personnel to ensure that they use their monopoly on force correctly. This sometimes leads to the perception by police officers that they are not trusted. This creates many situations of uncertainty, feelings of guilt and questions about rights and proper behaviour that fire-fighters do not have to face.
When police or soldiers are injured in the line of duty, it is usually the direct result of intentional human action taken against them.
Paramedical and rescue personnel are responsible for recovering, stabilizing and rendering initial treatment to people who are injured, ill or trapped in circumstances from which they cannot escape by themselves. Often they work side by side with fire-fighters and police.
Moral and ethical issues in these occupations are most prominent when the victim is partially responsible for his or her condition, as when a driver is intoxicated by alcohol or a patient refuses to take medication.
Sometimes, victims who are not rational or who are angry or under stress may act in an abusive or threatening way. This is confusing and frustrating for paramedical and rescue personnel, who feel that they are doing their best under difficult circumstances. When one of these workers is injured on the job, it is perceived as almost a betrayal, because they were trying to help the victim.
Hazardous materials response teams are often part of fire services and have a similar organization on a small scale. They evaluate and take initial steps to control chemical or physical hazards that may present a threat to the public. Hazardous waste remediation workers are less tightly organized that these other occupations and exist to clean up a problem that has been around for a while.
In both cases, the workers are dealing with a potential hazard in which the fundamental problem is uncertainty. Unlike the other occupations, in which it was clear who or what was the object of control, these workers are controlling a risk that may be difficult to identify.
Even when the chemical or hazard is known, the future risk of cancer or disease is usually uncertain. Workers often cannot know whether they have been injured on the job because the effects of exposure to chemicals may not be known for many years. The common hazard to all of these workers is psychogenic stress. In particular, they are all subject to so-called critical events, which are situations perceived to be of grave or uncertain but probably serious danger that a person cannot escape.
Unlike a member of the general public, a worker in one of these occupations cannot simply walk away or leave the scene. Much of their own sense of self-esteem comes from how they handle just such situations. For workers who survive critical events, there is often a period of denial followed by a period of depression and distracted behaviour.
Thoughts of what the worker has seen and a sense of guilt or inadequacy intrude on his or her thinking. It is difficult to concentrate, and the worker may have nightmares.
The worst critical events are generally considered to be those in which victims have died because of a mistake or because it was not possible for the rescuer to save them, in spite of his or her best efforts. Many of these occupations also involve the rescue and stabilization of people who may be ill with communicable diseases.
HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses are both transmitted by human body fluids and may therefore pose a hazard to emergency response personnel when there is bleeding or if the worker is deliberately bitten. Emergency response personnel are now usually trained to consider all subjects victims or criminals as potentially infected and infective.
HIV precautions are described elsewhere. Tuberculosis is transmitted by sputum and by coughing. The risk is particularly great during the resuscitation of persons with active cavitary tuberculosis, an increasingly frequent problem in economically disadvantaged inner city areas.
Injury is a risk common to all of these occupations. Fires are always unsafe, and the hazards of the fire itself may be combined with the risk of structures breaking apart, unstable floors, falling objects and falls from a height. Violence is a more common hazard of police and military combat services, obviously, because that is what they were created to control. However, aside from intentional violence there is a potential for hazards from traumatic incidents involving automotive traffic, mishandling of weapons and, especially in the military, occupational injuries in support areas.
Hazardous materials workers may deal with a variety of unknown chemicals which may have a hazard of explosion or fire in addition to their toxic properties. These occupations vary greatly in their potential for health problems. Aside from stress-related outcomes and the potential for communicable diseases mentioned, each occupation is different in its health concerns. Each occupation differs in its approach to prevention. However, there are a few measures that are common to all or most of them.
Many services now require their workers to go through a process called critical event debriefing following such incidents. Critical event debriefing has been shown to be very effective in preventing later problems, such as post-traumatic stress syndrome, following critical events. Rigorous fitness screening at the time of hire is usually part of the selection process for police and fire personnel, and many services require these members to stay fit through regular exercise and training.
This is intended to ensure satisfactory and consistent performance, but it has the additional effect of reducing the likelihood of injuries. Infectious hazards are difficult to anticipate because victims may not show outward signs of infection.
Often, however, such events are unpredictable or difficult to control if the victim is violent or irrational. Routine immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is advised where the risk is high. Disposable resuscitation equipment is recommended to reduce the risk of transmitting communicable diseases.
Special care should be taken with needles and other sharp objects. Human bites should be cleaned thoroughly and treatment given with penicillin or a penicillin-like drug. Tuberculosis infection in an exposed worker can be confirmed by skin test and then treated prophylactically before it becomes a serious disease.
By becoming fire-fighters, people join an organization rich in heritage of dedication, unselfish sacrifice and inspired human action. The job of a fire-fighter is not comfortable or easy. It is one that requires a high sense of personal dedication, a genuine desire to help people and a devotion to a profession that requires a high level of skill. It is also a profession that exposes an individual to a high level of personal danger. Whenever there is a disaster, the fire department is one of the first called to the scene.
Because it is a disaster, the conditions will not always be favourable. There will be hard, fast work that will drain energy and test endurance. The situation will not always involve fire. There will be cave-ins, building collapses, auto accidents, aircraft crashes, tornadoes, dangerous-goods incidents, civil disturbances, rescue operations, explosions, water incidents and medical emergencies. The emergency list is unlimited. All fire-fighters use the same tactics and strategies to combat a fire.
Urban firefighting deals with structural firefighting. The management of forest fires is dealt with in the chapter Forestry. It includes dealing with hazardous goods, water and ice, as well as high-angle rescue and emergency medicine. Fire service personnel must respond day and night to emergencies. The tactical priorities that fire-fighters engage in during the course of the fire are shown in figure It is during these operations that hose lays using attack lines, back up lines and supply lines can be employed.
Specialty equipment includes tarps that are used for salvage or hydraulic tools used for a rescue. The fire-fighter must use and be familiar with all of them. See figure Figure These operations expose the fire-fighter to the greatest risks and injuries regardless of the tool used or the operation engaged in. Back injuries, sprains, fall-related injuries and heat stress commonly occur. Heart and lung diseases are quite common among fire-fighters, which is thought to be due, in part, to the toxic gases and the level of physical activity required on the fire ground.
Many jurisdictions have programmes in place to deal with critical incident stress, because the fire-fighter faces incidents that can create severe emotional reactions. Such reactions are normal reactions in the face of very abnormal situations. The mission of every fire department is the preservation of life and property; therefore, safety on the fire ground is of paramount importance.
Many of the operations discussed here have an underlying goal of providing greater safety on the fire ground. Many of the dangers that exist on the fire ground are due to the nature of fire. Backdraft and flashover kill fire-fighters. Backdraft is caused by the introduction of air into a superheated oxygen-starved area.
Flashover is the build-up of heat within an area until it suddenly ignites everything within that area.
All fire apparatus look fantastic when they are new, polished and parade ready. Climb under your apparatus, get inside to see what makes it special, or not so special. You must get down to the foundation of your truck to see if it is truly top tier. Will it last 10, 15, 20 or even 30 years in- service?
In general, warehouses are focal points for product and information flow between sources of supply and beneficiaries. However, in humanitarian supply chains, warehouses vary greatly in terms of their role and their characteristics. The global warehousing concept has gained popularity over the last decade as stock pre-positioning becomes one of the strategies for ensuring a timely response to emergencies. They are usually purpose built or purpose designed facilities operated by permanent staff that has been trained in all the skills necessary to run an efficient facility or utilising third party logistics 3PL staff and facilities.
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Inside the cab is a small command desk and a compartment for EMS gear. SVI Trucks is a U. EVI has been specializing in the custom design and manufacturing of quality law enforcement vehicles to meet the individual needs of its customers since Let us help. Quantity discounts as shown in pricing tables provided 8.
We continue to move forward by expanding our portfolio of brands, exceeding customer expectations, and tirelessly pursuing operational excellence with an unrelenting desire to build the best. Join us in our journey ahead as we empower our employees, customers, dealers, and shareholders to take the wheel and command their road. Over 2, Spartan associates bring our values to life every day through their hard work and dedication to helping our customers command their road—no matter where it takes them. Our purpose-built vehicles are made to reliably withstand the demands and rigors of any job, on any road. Spartan has led the way in continuously improving the vehicles and components we build to be safer, stronger, and more advanced than any others on the road. Through Spartan Emergency Response , we design, build, and service custom fire trucks from the chassis to the ladder, making us one of the top three manufacturers in the world. Spartan offers highly skilled manufacturing, assembly, and quality assurance for OEMs across industries. With an abundance of experience, certifications, and capacity, Spartan is the first choice for companies in search of manufacturing partner who can deliver. Driven to succeed.
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Do you have a truck that is near the end of its first life? Is your department operating on a limited budget? A fire engine also known in some territories as a fire truck or fire appliance is a vehicle designed primarily for firefighting operations.
This booklet provides a generic overview of a standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are described in the OSHA standards and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, the best sources for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements are current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced fully or partially without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. OSHA will make this information available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Call Introduction What is a workplace emergency?
Note: Your CDL tests will be based on your knowledge of federal transportation requirements. The state requirements are strictly enforced. Hazardous materials are products that pose a risk to health, safety, and property during transportation. The term often is shortened to HazMat, which you may see on road signs or to HM in government regulations. Hazardous materials include explosives, various types of gas, solids, flammable and combustible liquid, and other materials.
Special Firefighting Vehicles
Emergency and security services exist to deal with extraordinary and threatening situations. The people who work in such services are therefore confronted with events and circumstances that lie outside the usual experience of human beings in their daily lives. Although each of the occupations has its own set of hazards, risks and traditions, they share several features in common. These include the following:. The form of organization and the means by which the mission of these services is carried out varies. The circumstances of the mission of a service affect the attitude and approach to the job; these differences are perhaps best understood by considering the object of control for each emergency service. Firefighting is perhaps the most representative emergency and security service. This occupation arose historically as a way to limit property damage from fires, and started as a private service in which fire-fighters might save the businesses and houses of persons who paid insurance premiums but would let the property of others burn, even if they were right next door. Soon, society determined that private fire services were inefficient and that it would be much more practical and useful to make them public.
Section 9: Hazardous Materials
Элвин перешел на соседний блок и удостоверился, что взгляд Ярлана Зея обращен теперь уже чуть-чуть в сторону от.
Он вернулся к Хедрону и в уме повторил слова, произнесенные Шутом вслух: "Диаспар не всегда был таким". Механизмы откликнулись мгновенно, словно и не было миллионов лет, прошедших со дня их последнего включения.
Огромный каменный блок, на котором стояли Элвин и Хедрон, начал плавно уносить их в глубину.
Некоторое время они лежали и толковали о том, что им сегодня встретилось, о тайне, которая витала над всем происходящим, о множестве различий двух таких разных культур, к которым они принадлежали. Хилвар был просто зачарован волшебством Хранилищ Памяти, которые вырвали Диаспар из цепких объятий Времени, и тут Олвин обнаружил, что найти ответы на некоторые вопросы Хилвара ему исключительно трудно. -- Чего вот я никак не понимаю, -- рассуждал Хилвар, -- так это, как проектировщики Диаспара добились того, что ничто никогда не может произойти с Хранилищами Памяти.
Удивился Олвин. -- Я уверен, что для обоих наших народов будет только хорошо, если они снова смогут встретиться и начать сосуществовать.
Естественный барьер из гор не разрешал всех трудностей, и прошло много веков, прежде чем огромный оазис был надежно огражден. Здесь картина была нечеткой; вероятно, Элвину умышленно не дали понять, каким образом Лис получил ту фантастическую вечность, которая была также обретена и Диаспаром.