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The Chemistry of Rubber. - ACS PublicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Polyurethane and Synthetic Rubber Based Adhesive Manufacturer
Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number Hardcover This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources.
Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained.
If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.
For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users.
For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN alk. Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Benedek, Istvan, II.
Feldstein, Mikhail M. Contents Preface Electrically Conductive Adhesives in Medical Applications. Anand Subramony Holguin and E. Kulichikhin, Sergey V. Antonov, and Natalya M. Chalykh, Alexey V. Shapagin, Parminder Singh, and Anna A. Appendix: Abbreviations and Acronyms A-1 Index Preface Extensive p rogress i n t he u se o f p ressure-sensitive ad hesives PSAs a nd p ressuresensitive products PSPs in past years imposed a de tailed and critical examination of their s cience a nd te chnology.
The destination of this handbook is twofold. On the one hand, it is addressed to scientists focusing on the fundamental processes underlying the complex phenomenon of pressure-sensitive adhesion; on the other hand, it is intended for industrial researchers who are involved in the practical application of these fundamentals for the development of various products and specialists working in various end-use domains of PSPs.
Fundamentals of P ressure S ensitivity c ontains d etailed c haracterizations of t he processes occurring in PSAs at all stages of the life of an adhesive joint: its formation under compressive force, under service as the bonding force is removed, and under adhesive bond fracture when the main type of deformation is extension.
Technology of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Products describes particular features of the behavior of different classes of PSAs, for example, rubber—resin-based adhesives, acrylics, and silicones, and discusses the synthesis of pressure-sensitive raw materials, their formulation, and the manufacture of PSAs and PSPs. The PSPs manufactured using v arious r aw mater ials a nd te chnologies described i n Technology o f P ressureSensitive Adhesives and Products are applied in different domains.
This book, Applications of P ressure-Sensitive Adhesives and P roducts, de scribes t he main classes and representatives of PSPs, as well as their competitors, end use, application domains, application technology, and tests.
Chapter 1 de scribes the build-up, classes, and main representatives of c lassic P SPs. E xamination ba sed on t heir c onstruction components a nd build-up allows further detailed discussion of some special products developed recently that have vii.
The PSPs are described according to their build-up i. Preparation, electroconducting, a nd ad hesive properties of such ad hesives are discussed. Application of electrically conducting adhesives in iontophoretic systems for controlled transdermal drug delivery is also described.
The chemistry, the physics, and the processing of these PSAs are examined. Chapter 4 describes the end-use domains of the main PSPs i. In the second part of Chapter 5, the so-called hydrocolloid formulations are described, based on emulsions. Until recently, the problems of PSA wear on human skin comprised an area of empirical qualitative expertise of researchers dealing with the development of adhesive dressings and patches for transdermal drug delivery.
Mechanisms of PSA i nteraction w ith t he epidermis of human skin, which have g reat practical a nd theoretical importance, are also the subject of investigation in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 describes the manufacturing competitors of adhesive-coated PSPs. A broader range of products with pressure-sensitive properties exists now compared with some decades ago, and some are not c oated with PSAs. Rather, t hey h ave a n i nherent p ressure s ensitivity.
O ther p roducts a re ad hesive-free. P SPs a re mo re t han P SAs b ecause p roduct c onstruction c an c ontribute to self-adhesive behavior. In some domains of PSP application, a technical solution ma y b e g iven by eng ineering o f pl astics o r ad hesives.
The s elf-adherence c an b e controlled by application conditions e. Thei r manufacture, performance characteristics, and end use are presented in comparison with classic adhesive-coated self-adhesive products. Fundamental research focused on PSAs and PSPs, as well as t he manufacture technology of pressure-sensitives, requires test methods t hat allow control and characterization of the raw materials used for PSAs, tests of the processability o f t he ad hesive, te sts o f t he ad hesive p erformances o f t he P SAs a nd P SPs, tests of the convertibility of the pressure-sensitive web, and tests of the application performance of the products.
Such tests are tools for industrial quality assurance and serve as a c ontrol mo dality of te chnological d iscipline or end-use appl icability. Various i nhouse and standard test methods were developed and are still in use. Some as noted in Fundamentals of P ressure Sensitivity a llow t he correlation of macromolecular science with practical requirements.
A critical view of test methodology science versus industry is presented. To illustrate the different topics and issues discussed, we have referred to a number of commercially available products. We t hank o ur c ontributors f or t heir efforts. After exploring his initial interest in macromolecular science, he transferred to the plastics processing and adhesive converting industry as research and development manager, where he has worked for three decades.
Benedek received his P hD i n p olymer c hemistry a nd eng ineering te chnology f rom P olytechnic University of Temeswar. Mikhail M. In he graduated with honors from M. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, and in he earned his PhD in polymer science from the same university for the investigation of polyelectrolyte complexes with ionic surfactants and lipids.
His early research interests were associated with the mechanisms of the formation and molecular structure of interpolymer complexes. Since he h as wo rked i n t he i ndustry o f p olymers f or me dical u sage a s a de veloper o f hydrophilic pressure-sensitive adhesives for skin application in transdermal therapeutic systems and wound dressings. He received international recognition comparatively late: his e arliest c ontacts w ith c olleagues b eyond t he b orders o f f ormer S oviet Union d ate to o nly.
I n , a f amous s cientist a nd v ice p resident o f t he Ru ssian A cademy of S ciences, ac ademician Nic olai A. Topchiev I nstitute xi.
L ater t hat ye ar, F eldstein e stablished long-term and large-scale research cooperation with a leading pharmaceutical company, Corium International, Inc. In , Feldstein earned his DrSc in polymer science from the A. Topchiev Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since the second half of the s, Feldstein has focused on the molecular origins of pressure-sensitive adhesion and the interrelationship between adhesion and other properties of polymer blends.
Feldstein is the author of nearly research papers, 7 book chapters, and 25 patents. Feldstein is also an associate editor of the Journal of Adhesion. PSPs may have a si mple or sophisticated construction, depending on t heir end u se.
The build-up of PSPs was described i n detail by B enedek i n a p revious book . Thi s chapter presents only the principles of build-up of the main PSPs.
Generally, PSPs are web- or sheet-like constructions that exhibit self-adhesion. In principle, such products include the component s that ensures the re quired me chanical p roperties a nd t he c omponent s t hat p rovides ad hesion. I n special cases, a sole component e. D evelopment o f t he c ontrol o f debonding re sistance, t hat i s, adv ances i n remov able p roducts, w as de cisive f or t he development of a dhesiveless s elf-adhesive pro ducts.
G enerally, re movability re quires peel reduction. Peel reduction is correlated to t ack reduction. On t he ot her hand, t he application of PSPs requires a minimum amount of tack. That means that for certain end uses self-adhesive products without PSA can also be suggested see Chapter 7 in this book. In a c lassic, p ressure-sensitive ad hesive-coated p roduct, ad hesivity w as p rovided b y t he PSA. Therefore, t he ad hesive w as t he mo st i mportant c omponent of P SPs.
According to t he s heet-like, t hat i s, t he d iscrete f orm o f t he P SP e. Thus, mono webs i. Monoweb c onstructions uncoated a nd c oated a nd multiweb constructions were described, uncoated and coated monoweb constructions were investigated i n c omparison w ith c oated o nes, a nd v arious c oated mo noweb c onstructions were a lso ex amined co mparatively.
This product can have a sophisticated multilayer build-up, which is a permanent construction, in comparison with temporary multilayer constructions that can be disassembled during their use i. Figure 1. Principally, this is allowed by their web-like manufacture and use, in which the carrier material also plays the role of backing. Classic monoweb constructions e. A s d iscussed p reviously see C hapter 1 0 in Technology of P ressure-Sensitive Adhesives , t he ad hesive l ayer c an b e appl ied w ith various coating techniques such as those used in the converting coating or printing industry or in plastics manufacturing extrusion and calendering.
As discussed in Technology of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Products, Chapter 8, because of the broad range of raw materials available for PSAs and the sophisticated adhesive coating technologies now in use see Technology of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Products, Chapter 10 , the adhesive properties of a PSP can be easily regulated by coating a solid-state carrier material with a low-viscosity PSA with controllable chemistry-related adhesive characteristics that can also be regulated by coating geometry.
The choice of mono- or multiweb PSP construction depends on its adhesivity. Principally, PSPs coated with a contact adhesive e. Generally, in such products the existence of a solid-state carrier material is imposed by its application technology. The carrier acts as a face stock material as well as a release.
Adhesives Setting by Polyaddition. Adhesion Theories. Adhesives Setting by Polycondensa- 3. Raw Materials for Adhesives. Vulcanizing Adhesives.
Compare preproduction test and qualification test. ASTM D ; in building construction, failure of the bond between the sealant, adhesive, or coating and the substrate surface. ASTM C a ; in pressure sensitive tapes, when performing a loop tack test, after the initial touch of the coated stock to the stainless steel plate, all of the adhesive remains on the coated stock. Compare cohesion failure. Compare coupling agent and primer. Discussion—The adhesion promoter may be added to an adhesive formulation or applied to the substrate. See also glue, gum, mucilage, paste, resin, and sizing.
More particularly, the present invention relates to compositions and methods of manufacturing lime pellets, and methods of using lime pellets in asphalt manufacturing and paving. Typically, an asphalt pavement includes an aggregate and asphalt cement mixed together in what is commonly referred to as hot mix asphalt HMA. The asphalt cement is a hydrocarbon-rich substance such as, or prepared from, bitumen, and is used to bind the aggregate into a pavement. The type and amount of aggregate can vary, and it provides structural reinforcement and durability to the HMA. While the asphalt cement functions as a continuous phase that binds the aggregate materials together, it is well known that various additives such as lime can be used to improve the durability and longevity of asphalt pavements. Such improvements have included anti-strip characteristics and reduced deformation or softening of the asphalt pavement over time.
Rubber cement is an adhesive made from elastic polymers typically latex mixed in a solvent such as acetone , hexane , heptane or toluene to keep them fluid enough to be used. This makes it part of the class of drying adhesives : as the solvents quickly evaporate, the rubber solidifies, forming a strong yet flexible bond. Rubber cement is simply a mixture of solid rubber in a volatile solvent that will dissolve it. When the cement is applied, the solvent evaporates, leaving the rubber as the adhesive. Almost any rubber pre- vulcanized or not can be used. Early solvents used included chloroform and benzene. In the United States of America, current formulations include n-heptane. In the UK, a product called Marabu-Fixogum uses acetone.
Technology Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and
The Chemistry of Rubber. United States Rubber Co. Latex and crude rubber
Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number Hardcover This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users.
Невольно хотелось оставить все на следующий. Но следующего раза могло и не Под тусклым светом звезд, немалая часть которых померкла за время, прошедшее после постройки Шалмираны, Элвин боролся с противоречивыми мыслями и, наконец, принял решение. Ничто не изменилось; горы по-прежнему сторожили дремавшую страну. Но уже наступил и отошел в прошлое поворотный миг истории - и человечество двинулось к новому, неизвестному будущему.
В эту ночь Элвин и Хилвар больше не спали. С первыми проблесками рассвета они свернули лагерь. Холм окропился росой, и сверкающие бриллианты на стебельках и листьях восхитили Элвина.
То тут, то там какой-нибудь лесной исполин ухитрялся вскарабкаться на несколько десятков футов над соперничающими с ним соседями, которые немедленно образовывали короткое содружество, с тем, чтобы свалить его и ликвидировать набранное нахалом преимущество.
Это была молчаливая война, и велась она слишком медленно, чтобы быть заметной глазу, но впечатление безжалостного, жестокого конфликта было просто ошеломляющим. Плато же по сравнению с лесом казалось скучным и не обремененным никакими событиями, Оно было плоским, если не считать нескольких дюймов перепада по высоте между одним его краем и другим, и простиралось далеко, до самого горизонта.
Было похоже, что оно заросло редкой, похожей на проволоку травой. Они опустились над ним до высоты в пятьдесят футов, но так и не разглядели никаких признаков животной жизни, что, по мнению Хилвара, было несколько странно. Он решил, что, возможно, приближение корабля загнало обитателей плато под землю. Они висели над самой поверхностью, пока Олвин пытался убедить Хилвара, что открыть воздушный шлюз -- совсем безопасно, а Хилвар, со своей стороны, терпеливо объяснял ему, что такое вирусы, бактерии и грибки, и Олвин не мог их себе вообразить и еще меньше был способен понять, какое они имеют к нему отношение.
Горожане вовсе не стремились возвратить минувшее -- им было так славно в их вечной осени. Свершения Галактической Империи принадлежали прошлому и могли там и оставаться, поскольку всем памятно было, как именно встретила Империя свой конец, а при мысли о Пришельцах холод самого Космоса начинал сочиться в их кости.
И, стряхнув наваждение, они снова погружались в жизнь и теплоту родного города, в долгий золотой век, начало которого уже затерялось во времени, а конец отстоял на еще более невообразимый срок. Многие поколения мечтали об этом веке, но достигли его лишь .
Как равный, он должен был встретить расы тех миров, от которых однажды отвернулся. Он должен был в истории Вселенной сыграть роль, достойную. Он осуществил все эти деяния.
Будто стук огромного сердца донесся до него из глубин озера. Они отряхнули воду с волос и уставились друг на друга в молчаливом подозрении. Обоим не хотелось высказывать вслух одну и ту же догадку: в озере есть жизнь.
Или самим Ярланом Зеем, когда он перестроил город. ) Экран монитора показал им длинную вертикальную шахту, уходившую в глубину, но они смогли рассмотреть лишь начало этой шахты, так как изображение вскоре исчезло. Как уже известно было Элвину, это означало, что запрашиваемая информация монитору недоступна. Элвин едва успел сообразить это, как экран засветился вновь.