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Tobacco industryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Government coverup / collusion with big tobacco companies
The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. It is a global industry; tobacco can grow in any warm, moist environment, which means it can be farmed on all continents except Antarctica. Tobacco, one of the most widely used addictive substances in the world [ citation needed ] , is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by American farmers.
From to tobacco was the most valuable staple export from the English American mainland colonies and the United States. Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs : the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions.
The price also varies by specific species or cultivar grown, the total quantity on the market ready for sale, the area where it is grown, the health of the plants, and other characteristics individual to product quality. Since conclusive medical evidence of the deadly effects of tobacco consumption has led to a sharp decline in official support for producers and manufacturers of tobacco, although it contributes to the agricultural, fiscal, manufacturing, and exporting sectors of the economy.
For a history of how tobacco has been grown and marketed, see tobacco , smoking and articles on similar topics. The phrase "tobacco industry" generally refers to the companies involved in the manufacture of cigarettes , cigars , snuff , chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco.
China National Tobacco Co. Following extensive merger and acquisition activity in the s and s, four firms dominate international markets - in alphabetical order:. Altria, formerly called the Philip Morris Cos. Philip Morris Companies Inc. In most countries these companies either have long-established dominance, or have purchased the major domestic producer or producers often a former state monopoly.
India has its own major player, ITC Limited A small [ quantify ] number of state monopolies survive, as well as some small independent firms. Tobacco advertising is becoming increasingly restricted by the governments of countries around the world citing health issues as a reason to restrict tobaccos appeal [ citation needed ]. The tobacco industry in the United States has suffered greatly since the mids, when it was successfully sued by several U. The suits claimed that tobacco causes cancer, that companies in the industry knew this, and that they deliberately understated the significance of their findings, contributing to the illness and death of many citizens in those states.
The industry was found to have decades of internal memos confirming in detail that tobacco which contains nicotine is both addictive and carcinogenic cancer-causing. The industry had long denied that nicotine is addictive. The suit resulted in a large cash settlement being paid by a group of tobacco companies to the states that sued. Further, since the suit was settled, other individuals have come forth, in class action lawsuits , claiming individual damages.
New suits of this nature will probably continue for a long time. Since the settlement is a heavy tax on the profits of the tobacco industry in the US, regressive against smokers, and further settlements being made only add to the financial burden of these companies, it is debatable if the industry has a money-producing long term outlook. The tobacco industry has historically been largely successful in this litigation process, with the majority of cases being won by the industry. During the first 42 years of tobacco litigation between and the industry maintained a clean record in litigation  thanks to tactics described in a R.
Reynolds Tobacco Company internal memo as "the way we won these cases, to paraphrase Gen. Patton , is not by spending all of Reynolds' money, but by making the other son of a bitch spend all of his.
In Florida, the industry has lost 77 of the "Engle progeny" cases that have gone to trial. Supreme Court has also denied the industry's major grounds for appeal of Engle cases.
In June , U. Lawsuits against the tobacco industry are primarily restricted to the United States due to differences in legal systems in other countries.
Many businesses class ongoing lawsuits as a cost of doing business in the US and feel their revenue will be only marginally affected by the activities. Large tobacco companies have entered the electronic cigarette market by either buying some of the small e-cigarette companies or by starting their own e-cigarette companies.
Today, however, all transnational tobacco companies sell these products. Increased concentration of the ENDS market in the hands of the transnational tobacco companies is concerning to the public health community, given the industry's legacy of obfuscating many fundamental truths about their products and misleading the public with false claims, including that low-tar and so-called "light" cigarettes would reduce the harms associated with smoking.
Major tobacco companies are dominating the political and policy-making environments just as they have in conventional cigarette policy making. On May 11, , the U. This treaty places broad restrictions on the sale, advertising, shipment, and taxation of tobacco products. The U. Most recently, there has been discussion within the tobacco control community of transforming the tobacco industry through the replacement of tobacco corporations by other types of business organizations that can be established to provide tobacco to the market while not attempting to increase market demand.
On April 3, , The U. The plaintiffs' lawyers were confident that they would be able to win this suit due to the success of the Schwab case  wherein tobacco companies were found guilty of fraud-like charges because they were selling the idea that light cigarettes were safer than regular cigarettes.
The ruling by the three-judge panel will not allow the suit to be pursued as a class, but instead need proof for why individual smokers chose light cigarettes over regular cigarettes. Figures are in thousands of tonnes. Much of global tobacco production is used in the manufacturing of cigarettes.
The following is a chart compiled by Dr. Robert Proctor detailing the largest cigarette factories, accompanied by their estimated annual death toll due to the harms of cigarettes to health. The tobacco industry has had a long relationship with the entertainment industry. In silent era movies, back-lit smoke was often used by filmmakers to create sense of mystery and sensuality in a scene.
Later, cigarettes were deliberately placed in the hands of Hollywood stars as an early phase of product placement ,  until health regulating bodies tightened rules on tobacco advertisement and anti-smoking groups pressured actors and studio executives against such tactics. These issues have also constituted a recurring storyline in the AMC series Mad Men , from season 1 beginning with the pilot episode "Smoke Gets In Your Eyes" through season 7's midseason finale, "Waterloo".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of tobacco. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on May 24, Retrieved June 7, World Health Organization.
British Medical Journal. Epidemiology of the third wave of tobacco litigation in the United States, — NBC News. Retrieved US Food and Drug Administration. September 22, The American Journal of Medicine.
January Annual Review of Public Health. This article incorporates text by Stanton A. Glantz and David W. Bareham available under the CC BY 4. Clin J Oncol Nurs. Callard, D. Thompson and N. Archived from the original on New York Times. Tobacco Control. Pfirshing of New York beginning in He called the journal the "organ of the tobacco trade in the United States.
Major industries. Heavy Light. Tobacco Rolling paper Filter Additives. Cigarette card Cigarette smoking among college students Loosie Smoking fetishism Tobacco smoking. Chain smoking Cigarette smoking for weight loss Nicotine poisoning Passive smoking Third-hand smoke Schizophrenia and smoking Sidestream smoke Smoking cessation Tobacco harm reduction. Cultivation of tobacco Egyptian cigarette industry History of commercial tobacco in the United States Tobacco advertising.
Cigarette brands Cigarette smoke carcinogens Countries by cigarette consumption per capita Rolling papers Smoking bans. Electronic cigarettes. Construction Usage Marketing Regulation Safety Cloud-chasing Composition of electronic cigarette aerosol Composition of heat-not-burn product emissions Flavored tobacco Heat-not-burn product Pod mod Vape shop. Adverse effects of electronic cigarettes Vaping-associated pulmonary injury Effects of electronic cigarettes on human brain development Positions of medical organizations on electronic cigarettes List of vaping bans in the United States outbreak of lung illness linked to vaping products Hospitalized cases in the vaping lung illness outbreak Nicotine poisoning Nicotine salt.
List of electronic cigarette and e-cigarette liquid brands List of heat-not-burn products. Category Commons. Lists of countries by agricultural output rankings. Irrigation Land use. List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country.
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NCBI Bookshelf. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge about the chemistry and toxicology of cigarette smoke and provides data relevant to the evaluations and conclusions presented in the disease-specific chapters of this report. These commercial products have not been met with widespread consumer acceptance. In most cases, the data reported for chemical levels in mainstream smoke were derived under standard smoking conditions described by the U. These standard conditions are puff volume of 35 milliliters mL , two-second puff duration, one-minute puff frequency, and butt length defined as either 23 millimeters mm for nonfilter cigarettes or the length of the filter overwrap paper plus 3 mm. When alternative smoking regimens are used, levels of potentially harmful substances in smoke emissions usually differ from those measured under standard conditions. When people smoke, they do not use the puff volume and puff frequency programmed into smoking machines, and smoking habits vary significantly from person to person and cigarette to cigarette.
The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. It is a global industry; tobacco can grow in any warm, moist environment, which means it can be farmed on all continents except Antarctica. Tobacco, one of the most widely used addictive substances in the world [ citation needed ] , is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by American farmers. From to tobacco was the most valuable staple export from the English American mainland colonies and the United States. Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs : the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions. The price also varies by specific species or cultivar grown, the total quantity on the market ready for sale, the area where it is grown, the health of the plants, and other characteristics individual to product quality. Since conclusive medical evidence of the deadly effects of tobacco consumption has led to a sharp decline in official support for producers and manufacturers of tobacco, although it contributes to the agricultural, fiscal, manufacturing, and exporting sectors of the economy.
Vapes, vaporizers, vape pens, hookah pens, electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes or e-cigs , and e-pipes are some of the many terms used to describe electronic nicotine delivery systems ENDS. ENDS are noncombustible tobacco products. The liquid is heated to create an aerosol that the user inhales. ENDS may be manufactured to look like conventional cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. Some resemble pens or USB flash drives. Larger devices, such as tank systems or mods, bear little or no resemblance to cigarettes. Both the U. Food and Drug Administration and the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are working tirelessly to investigate the distressing incidents of severe respiratory illness associated with use of vaping products. In , FDA finalized a rule extending CTP's regulatory authority to cover all tobacco products , including electronic nicotine delivery systems ENDS that meet the definition of a tobacco product.
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Ceramics also known as fire clay is an inorganic, non-metallic solid article, which is produced by the art or technique of heat and subsequent cooling. The ceramics industry in India came into existence about a century ago and has matured over time to form an industrial base. From traditional pottery making, the industry has evolved to find its place in the market for sophisticated insulators, electronic and electrical items. The ceramic industry has been modernizing continuously, by newer innovations in product design, quality etc.
It gives production figures of tobacco in the world and in our country- state wise and variety wise. Harvesting, curing and post harvesting practices of tobacco are detailed in the report. The report also lists the different chemical constituents of tobacco. Though the usage of nicotine sulphate is banned in India but it has got good export potential. The report has not quantified the markets for the different products neither in volumes nor in value. Tobacco is grown with assistance of man with the leaf as the most valuable part of the plant. Almost all continents are capable of growing tobacco but the United States, China, India and Brazil are the leading countries to grow tobacco. The tobacco leaf is used in many forms today. In any case it is the nicotine content in the leaves, which attracted man to the tobacco plant.
Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by reacting alkali e. A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain composed of carbons and hydrogens with a carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metalion, usually a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and is soluble in nonpolar substances such as fats and oils , and the ionic end the salt of a carboxylic acid is soluble in water. Soap is made by combining tallow or other hard animal fat or vegetable or fish oil with an alkaline solution. The two most important alkalis in use are caustic soda and caustic potash. A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions.
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Раскрой мне твое сознание, как раньше, и ты позабудешь обо. Элвин долго молчал.
Полагаю, что в конце концов мы опоздали. Разочарование было таким горьким, что Олвин просто не решался заговорить снова, боясь, что голос выдаст его, и только молча смотрел на огромный мир под.
С поражающей воображение величественностью проворачивалась планета под кораблем, ее поверхность медленно поднималась им навстречу.
Тогда эти слова не означали для него ничего, но память запечатлела их с безупречной точностью. Он вспомнил, как оглядел тогда себя; теперь он уже подрос на пару дюймов, но, в сущности, тело его едва ли изменилось с момента рождения.
Он пришел в этот мир почти совершенно взрослым, и когда -- через тысячу лет -- наступит пора покинуть его, он будет все таким же, разве только чуточку выше ростом.
Он мог быть в обиде как на Учителя, поработившего его, так и на Элвина и Центральный Компьютер, обманом вернувших его в здравое состояние. Зона молчания была снята: нужда в секретности отпала. Момент, которого ждал Элвин, наступил.