Natural Science Vol. Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- Some Properties of Linen Fabric
- Cotton Linen Fabric
- Pandora de Balthazár gives antique linens their place in the sun and the home
- Textile printing
- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax
Some Properties of Linen FabricVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to soften linen fabric - FAST!
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away.
The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven. Linen fabric is a popular choice for warm-weather clothing. It feels cool in the summer but appears crisp and fresh even in hot weather. Household linens truly made of linen become more supple and soft to the touch with use; thus, linen was once the bedsheet of choice.
While the flax plant is not difficult to grow, it flourishes best in cool, humid climates and within moist, well-plowed soil. The process for separating the flax fibers from the plant's woody stock is laborious and painstaking and must be done in an area where labor is plentiful and relatively inexpensive. It is remarkable that while there is some mechanization to parts of the fiber preparation, some fiber preparation is still done by hand as it has been for centuries.
This may be due to the care that must be taken with the fragile flax fibers inside the woody stalk, which might be adversely affected by mechanized processing. However, the grade of fiber the plants yield in different parts of the world varies.
Many believe that Belgium grows the finest-quality flax fibers in the world, with Scottish and Irish linen not far behind. There is no commercial production of linen fabric in any significant quantity in the United States except, perhaps, by individual hand spinners and hand weavers. Thus, the linen fabrics Americans use and wear are nearly all imported into the country from one of these flax-growing and weaving countries.
Flax has been cultivated for its remarkable fiber, linen, for at least five millennia. The spinning and weaving of linen is depicted on wall paintings of ancient Egypt. As early as 3, B. Mentioned several times in the Bible, it has been used as a cool, comfortable fiber in the Middle East for centuries as well. Ancient Greeks and Romans greatly valued it as a commodity.
Finnish traders are believed to have introduced flax to Northern Europe where it has been under cultivation for centuries. Both wool and linen were tremendously important fibers in the New World.
Relatively easy to grow, American settlers were urged to plant a small plot of flax as early as the seventeenth century. While flax is easy to grow, settlers knew all too well the tedious chore of processing the woody stalks for its supple linen. Before the industrial revolution much sturdy, homemade clothing was woven from linen cultivated, processed, spun, dyed, woven, and sewn by hand. It may be argued that until the eighteenth century, linen was the most important textile in the world.
By the late eighteenth century, cotton became the fiber that was most easily and inexpensively processed and woven in the mechanized British and New England textile mills.
By the s, linen production had virtually been abandoned in the United States because it was so much cheaper to buy the factory-made cotton. Some New Englanders of Scot or Irish background continued to cultivate some flax for processing into linen used for fancy domestic linens such as bedsheets, toweling, and decorative tableclothes as their ancestors had for centuries.
However, most Americans abandoned the cultivation of the plant in this country and instead chose cheap cotton that was carded, spun, woven, and roller-printed for just pennies a yard. Thereafter and until recently, a different variety of flax plant was raised in this country not for its linen fibers but for its seeds which exude a useful vegetable oil known as linseed oil when pressed.
All that is needed to turn flax fiber into linen, and then spin and weave the linen fibers into linen fabric is the cellulose flax fiber from the stem of the flax plant. The process for separating the fibers from the woody stalk can use either water or chemicals, but these are ultimately washed away and are not part of the finished material.
The manufacture of linen yarn requires no special design processes. All that has to be determined prior to manufacturing is the thickness of the yarn to be spun. That will depend on the grade of linen in production and the demands of the customer. European flax wheel used to spin flax into linen thread. This is a European "flax wheel" used to spin flax into linen thread within the home.
Folklore tells us that it was brought by Henry Ford's Irish grandmother to the New World; it was one of the few family keepsakes Ford had from his Irish ancestors. In fact, it was not unusual for the Scots or Irish to bring such wheels to this country. The British Isles have a long and proud linen tradition, and even decades after others abandoned linen production for cotton in the New World the Irish and Scots here tenaciously clung to their linen-making traditions.
Ford's grandmother placed unspun flax on the tall, vertical, turned distaff and then push the treadle with her foot to power the wheel. The bobbin and flyer mounted horizontally in the center of the wheel would spin the flax and wind it on the bobbin at the same time.
The rather small wheel below the bobbin required the spinner to treadle rafher fast to keep it moving and because of the small wheel this spinning wheel was not a popular style. It is lovely to look at, though, as this flax wheel is rather fancy, with inlaid bone or ivory set within the wheel. Some refer to this type of European spinning wheel as a "castle" or "parlor" wheel because of its lovely inlays and turnings. Flax plants are poor competitors with weeds. Weeds reduce fiber yields and increase the difficulty in harvesting the plant.
Tillage of the soil reduces weeds as do herbicides. When the flax plants are just a few inches high, the area must be carefully weeded so as not to disturb the delicate sprouts. In three months, the plants are straight, slender stalks that may be ft cm in height with small blue or white fibers.
Flax plants with blue flowers yield the finest linen fibers. Retting may be accomplished in a variety of ways. In some parts of the world, linen is still retted by hand, using moisture to rot away the bark. The stalks are spread on dewy slopes, submerged in stagnant pools of water, or placed in running streams. Workers must wait for the water to begin rotting or fermenting the stem—sometimes more than a week or two. However, most manufacturers use chemicals for retting. The plants are placed in a solution either of alkali or oxalic acid, then pressurized and boiled.
This method is easy to monitor and rather quick, although some believe that chemical retting adversely affects the color and strength of the fiber and hand retting produces the finest linen. Vat or mechanical retting requires that the stalks be submerged in vats of warm water, hastening the decomposition of the stem.
The flax is then removed from the vats and passed between rollers to crush the bark as clean water flushes away the pectin and other impurities. Of greatest concern are the chemicals used in retting.
These chemicals must be neutralized before being released into water supplies. The stalks, leaves, seed pods, etc. The only other concern with the processing of linen is the smell—it is said that hand-retted linen produces quite a stench and is most unpleasant to experience. The Irish Linen Guild. Irish Linen: The Fabric of Elegance. Jerde, Judith. Encyclopedia of Textiles.
NY: Facts on File Inc. Koob, Katharine. Linen Making in New England. Calhoun, Wheeler and Lee Kirschner. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 4 Linen Linen. Once flax is harvested and the fiber removed from the stalks, a scutching machine removes the broken outer layer called shives. The fiber is combed and separated by length. Line fibers long linen fibers are spun into linen yarn.
Periodicals Calhoun, Wheeler and Lee Kirschner. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. Also read article about Linen from Wikipedia. User Contributions: 1. Hi, Just want to know what machinery set up we use to spin linen yarn.
Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: Name:. E-mail: Show my email publicly. Human Verification:. Public Comment: characters. Send comment. Licorice Mercury.
Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven.
Cotton Linen Fabric
The components of flax Linum usitatissimum stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting dew retting , and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed.
Pandora de Balthazár gives antique linens their place in the sun and the home
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B. Hemp is called a fiber of hundred uses.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linen Club Latest Commercial
Account Options Login. Koleksiku Bantuan Penelusuran Buku Lanjutan. Dapatkan buku cetak. University of California Pr Amazon. Belanja Buku di Google Play Jelajahi eBookstore terbesar di dunia dan baca lewat web, tablet, ponsel, atau ereader mulai hari ini. Ross Frank. University of California Press , 29 Jan - halaman.
I hope you are all looking forward to a fulfilling Zydex Industries. We thought it would be a good idea to take a look, individually, at some of the chemicals used in textile processing and try to answer those questions: what the chemicals are designed to do, what they can do to us — and whether we can avoid using them. One thing I know for sure — the textile industry uses lots of chemicals.
By dallasnews Administrator. It fuels her passion for bringing culture and stories from around the world to those who appreciate the quality of handmade, expertly sewn textiles from the distant past. Their farmhouse was destroyed by fire, taking their treasures from the past away forever. Rebuilding their lives, the robust family moved to the city of Dalton. Her company provides and cares for luxurious antique bedclothes of cotton, linen and silk. It also produces her European Sleep System and goose-down products, pillows and bedding. Linens were easy to travel with and fun to hunt for during those trips. In , however, she was severely injured in a car accident, requiring extensive surgery and months of bed rest.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Fazal Cloth Mills Ltd. Buy Pakistani stitched and unstitched designer dresses and accessories by Bonanza. Apply for latest Multan Fabrics Pvt Ltd jobs in , advertisement careers and get hired. We are also working on opening filter clinics around Multan city to provide quick access to emergency care for citizens and reduce workload at the institute. B2B Marketplace Bridging the gap between buyers and sellers, Fibre2Fashion is one of the most dynamic global B2B marketplaces and is trusted by leading businesses across countries. It has exported
Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax
An easy-to-use format with five distinct sections — covering the PACU, anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, nursing care, and special considerations — means you get five books in one. Nursing and pharmacologic interventions are integrated with in-depth coverage of pathophysiology, and updated content includes the latest standards and current issues affecting perianesthesia nursing practice. Jan Odom-Forren. Five separate sections provide comprehensive coverage, including: the PACU, anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, nursing care, and special considerations.
Colony, 7th Street Surampatti P. Erode, Tamil Nadu. Mumbai, Maharashtra.
The conventional scouring process involving the harsh environment is slowly being replaced with environment friendly approach using enzymes. These enzymes remove the non cellulosic impurities present in the fabric. Such a process would enhance the absorbency of the fabric without appreciable strength loss and also would help in the proper dyeing and finishing of the fabric. In the present work pectinase enzyme was isolated from Fusarium sp.