One of the most crucial aspects of home maintenance is drain upkeep. When drains and water pipes fail to work properly, it's impossible to cook, clean or do much of anything. Therefore, it's important to care for your water pipes and know when to call for home drain maintenance. Additionally, it helps to know the worst from the best types of home water pipes, how they can be identified and maintained and when and if they should be repaired or replaced. Over the course of several years, the average homeowner or apartment tenant is bound to need some form of drain pipe maintenance. Of course, the frequency of such occurrences can be minimized with some basic, timely drain upkeep.
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- Pipeline design consideration and standards
- Steel Pipe Elbow
- Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Home Drain Pipes
- 600mm Di Pipe
- How to Take Care of Your Radiators
- Introduction to Cast Iron: History, Types, Properties, and Uses
- Medium pressure ductile iron gas pipes not owned by major gas distribution networks
- National fittings pdf
- Toilet Drain Pipe
Pipeline design consideration and standardsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fastest Way to Cut Cast Iron Pipe
The presence of iron in everyday life began in about BCE, encompassing a wide range of uses from farming implements to weapons of war. Blacksmiths became a critical profession, working with iron to change its properties and shape the material into tools. Another milestone for metals would follow—the Industrial Revolution changed the way metals were produced and worked into products, including iron.
There are two major types of iron produced: wrought iron and cast iron. Within those, cast iron includes its own family of metals. The first type of iron produced and worked by blacksmiths was wrought iron. It is virtually pure elemental iron Fe that is heated in a furnace before being wrought worked with hammers on an anvil.
Hammering iron expels most of the slag from the material and welds the iron particles together. During the industrial revolution and the associated acceleration of construction activities, a new use for wrought iron was discovered. Its high tensile strength resistance to breaking when under tension made it ideal to use for beams in large construction projects such as bridges and high-rise buildings.
However, the use of wrought iron for this purpose was largely abandoned in the early 20th century when steel products were developed with superior performance to iron for construction applications. Wrought iron has become famous for decorative pieces.
Churches of the 15th and 16th century contain fine wrought iron pieces produced by skilled artisans. In the modern world, railings, doors, and benches are still made from wrought iron as custom pieces. After smelting, the metal is poured into a mold. The primary difference in production between wrought iron and cast iron is that cast iron is not worked with hammers and tools.
Small amounts of manganese and some impurities like sulfur and phosphorous may also be present. Differences between wrought iron and cast iron can also be found in the details of chemical structure and physical properties. Although both steel and cast iron contain traces of carbon and appear similar, there are significant differences between the two metals.
The higher carbon content of cast iron means that it solidifies as a heterogeneous alloy, and therefore has more than one microcrystalline structure present in the material. It is the combination of high carbon content, and the presence of silicon, that gives cast iron its excellent castability.
Various types of cast irons are produced using different heat treatment and processing techniques, including gray iron, white iron, malleable iron, ductile iron, and compacted graphite iron. Gray iron is characterized by the flake shape of the graphite molecules in the metal. The name gray iron comes from this characteristic. It is possible to control the size and matrix structure of the graphite flakes during production by adjusting the cooling rate and composition.
Gray iron is not as ductile as other forms of cast iron and its tensile strength is also lower. However, it is a better thermal conductor and has a higher level of vibration damping. It has a damping capacity that is 20—25 times higher than steel and superior to all other cast irons. Gray iron is also easier to machine than other cast irons, and its wear resistance properties make it one of the highest volume cast iron products.
Our hardscape products are made of grey iron. Vibration damping and wear resistance are properties that make this the right material for many street applications. Raw grey iron also produces a patina that keeps it safe from destructive corrosion even outdoors. With the right carbon content and a high cooling rate, carbon atoms combine with iron to form iron carbide.
This means that there are little to no free graphite molecules in the solidified material. When white iron is sheared, the fractured face appears white due to the absence of graphite. The cementite microcrystalline structure is hard and brittle with a high compressive strength and good wear resistance. In certain specialized applications, it is desirable to have white iron on the surface of the product.
This can be achieved by using a good conductor of heat to make part of the mold. This will draw heat out of the molten metal quickly from that specific area, while the rest of the casting cools at a slower rate. One of the most popular grades of white iron is Ni-Hard Iron.
The addition of chromium and nickel alloys gives this product excellent properties for low impact, sliding abrasion applications. White iron can be further processed into malleable iron through a process of heat treatment.
An extended program of heating and cooling, results in the breakdown of the iron carbide molecules, releasing free graphite molecules into the iron. Different cooling rates, and the addition of alloys, produces a malleable iron with a microcrystalline structure.
Ductile iron , or nodular iron, obtains its special properties through the addition of magnesium into the alloy. The presence of magnesium causes the graphite to form in a spheroid shape as opposed to the flakes of gray iron. Composition control is very important in the manufacturing process. Small amounts of impurities such as sulfur and oxygen react with the magnesium, affecting the shape of the graphite molecules. Different grades of ductile iron are formed by manipulating the microcrystalline structure around the graphite spheroid.
This is achieved through the casting process, or through heat treatment, as a downstream processing step. Because ductile iron deforms on impact, rather than shattering into shards, we use the material to make our cast iron bollards. Compacted graphite iron has a graphite structure and associated properties that are a blend of gray and white iron.
The microcrystalline structure is formed around blunt flakes of graphite which are interconnected. An alloy, such as titanium, is used to suppress the formation of spheroidal graphite. Compacted graphite iron has a higher tensile strength and improved ductility compared to gray iron.
The microcrystalline structure and properties can be adjusted through heat treatment or the addition of other alloys. The mechanical properties of a material indicate how it responds under specific stresses, which helps to determine its suitability for different applications. Specifications are set by organizations such as the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM so that users can purchase materials with confidence that they meet the requirements for their application.
In order to qualify cast products according to their specifications, a standard practice is to cast a test bar along with the engineered castings. The ASTM tests are then applied to this test bar and the results are used to qualify the entire batch of castings.
Specifications are also important when welding cast iron parts together. The weld must meet or exceed the mechanical properties of the material being welded together—otherwise, fractures and failures can occur.
This table summarizes some of the key mechanical properties for various grades of cast iron. The various properties of different types of cast iron results in each type being suited for specific applications.
One of the key characteristics of gray iron is its ability to resist wear even when lubrication supply is limited e.
Gray iron is used to make engine blocks and cylinder heads, manifolds, gas burners, gear blanks, enclosures, and housings. The chilling process used to make white iron results in a brittle material that is very resistant to wear and abrasions.
For this reason, it is used to make mill linings, shot-blasting nozzles, railroad brake shoes, slurry pump housings, rolling mill rolls, and crushers. Ni-Hard Iron is specifically used for mixer paddles, augers and dies, liner plates for ball mills, coal chutes, and wire guides for drawing wires. Ductile iron itself can be broken down into different grades, each with their own property specifications and most suitable applications.
It is easy to machine, has good fatigue and yield strength, while being wear resistant. Its most well-known feature, however, is ductility. Ductile iron can be used to make steering knuckles, plow shares, crankshafts, heavy duty gears, automotive and truck suspension components, hydraulic components, and automobile door hinges.
Different grades of malleable iron correspond to different microcrystalline structures. Specific attributes that make malleable iron attractive are its ability to retain and store lubricants, the non-abrasive wear particles, and the porous surface which traps other abrasive debris. Malleable iron is used for heavy duty bearing surfaces, chains, sprockets, connecting rods, drive train and axle components, railroad rolling stock, and farm and construction machinery.
Compacted graphite iron is beginning to make its presence known in commercial applications. The combination of the properties of gray iron and white iron create a high strength and high thermal conductivity product—suitable for diesel engine blocks and frames, cylinder liners, brake discs for trains, exhaust manifolds, and gear plates in high pressure pumps.
The hardness properties of cast iron demand careful selection of machine tool materials. Coated carbides are effective in production machining environments, but newer materials are being developed continuously as technology improves.
Surface finishing of cast iron products varies greatly according to the use. A few common applications:. From its early use over 3, years ago, iron has remained an integral part of human society. Iron production has come a long way since the centuries of working iron by blacksmiths to the invention of cast iron in the industrial age. Since then, wrought iron has become largely obsolete except for decorative uses.
Contrastingly, cast iron is still progressing in terms of composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties—continuing to make its mark in the modern world.
Not sure what you're looking for? Browse through our products or contact our customer service department. Call us Email us. A versatile metal, cast iron has many unique applications in the commercial and industrial world.
June 26, Cast iron has excellent castability due to the combination of high carbon content and silicon. Types of iron There are two major types of iron produced: wrought iron and cast iron. Wrought iron The first type of iron produced and worked by blacksmiths was wrought iron. Cast iron design details are produced by smelting metal and pouring it into a mold. Gray iron Gray iron is characterized by the flake shape of the graphite molecules in the metal. White iron With the right carbon content and a high cooling rate, carbon atoms combine with iron to form iron carbide.
Malleable iron White iron can be further processed into malleable iron through a process of heat treatment. Ductile iron Nodular iron Ductile iron , or nodular iron, obtains its special properties through the addition of magnesium into the alloy.
Glue the remaining pieces of pipe and fittings into place, working your way from the main drain pipe back to the location of the toilet. Also notice the drain is centered right in the middle of this 30 inch vanity. Find out how much Roto Rooter drain cleaning services cost. See the average drain pipe repair cost. I need to move a toilet drainJust discovered that the existing drain is about a 6" diameter PVC pipe. I recently raised a toilet almost 1 cm off the floor easily using grout.
Steel Pipe Elbow
Steel pipe elbow is a key parts in a piping system for to change the fluid flow direction. It is used to connect two pipes with same or different nominal diameters, and to make the pipe turn to a certain direction of 45 degree or 90 degree. Elbow could be ranged from direction angle, connection types, length and radius, material types. As we know, according to fluid direction of the pipelines, elbow can be divided into different degrees, such as 45 degree, 90 degree, degree, which are most common degrees. Also there has 60 degree and degree, for some special pipelines. The elbow radius mean curvature radius.
Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Home Drain Pipes
The primary piping elements include steel pipes, connecting elements flanges, pipe bends, pipe elbows, tees , stop and shut-off-and-regulating valves slide gates and valves , drain devices, expansion joints, supporting structures and parts, hangers and fastening elements, thermal insulation. Along the whole strait pipe section should be used fittings, flanges, elbows, tees and adapters of the same internal diameter port area. Each shipped by the company pipe bend is accompanied with a quality certificate certificate of manufacture of the pipe bend. There are adapting and flush joint tees. Flush joint tees are used in case both the main and branch pipes diameters are the same; adapting tees are required in case those diameters are different. The supports are divided into fixed and movable ones. Our company supplies the following types of pipeline hangers: clamp hangers, welded hangers, spring hangers. The hanger may consist of one or more chains which is a set of serially connected components and assembly units used to transmit pipeline weight to building structure , it can also be combined, that is consist of one or two chains splitting into two or four chains. Structural elements form mechanically assembled hanger chain without the use of welding.
600mm Di Pipe
Flexible pipe must deflect to reach its maximum installed performance. Since rods are helically wrapped under tension , the structural integrity of these pipes is greatly enhanced because of the interlocking of steel elements of the pipe. This standard describes the manufacture of circumferentially reinforced concrete pressure pipe, without a steel cylinder and not prestressed, in sizes from 12 in. If you are using for loops, you are most likely coding R as if it was C or Java or something else.
The presence of iron in everyday life began in about BCE, encompassing a wide range of uses from farming implements to weapons of war. Blacksmiths became a critical profession, working with iron to change its properties and shape the material into tools. Another milestone for metals would follow—the Industrial Revolution changed the way metals were produced and worked into products, including iron. There are two major types of iron produced: wrought iron and cast iron. Within those, cast iron includes its own family of metals. The first type of iron produced and worked by blacksmiths was wrought iron. It is virtually pure elemental iron Fe that is heated in a furnace before being wrought worked with hammers on an anvil. Hammering iron expels most of the slag from the material and welds the iron particles together. During the industrial revolution and the associated acceleration of construction activities, a new use for wrought iron was discovered. Its high tensile strength resistance to breaking when under tension made it ideal to use for beams in large construction projects such as bridges and high-rise buildings. However, the use of wrought iron for this purpose was largely abandoned in the early 20th century when steel products were developed with superior performance to iron for construction applications.
How to Take Care of Your Radiators
Was your condominium or apartment building built before ? Are you experiencing regular toilet stoppages and backups, tree root intrusion, or sewer odors? If so, the long-term solution is NOT having your sewer lines snaked every few months. The older the building, the more property managers and board members need to be aware of the infrastructure systems within the building. Did you know?
Introduction to Cast Iron: History, Types, Properties, and Uses
This website uses non-intrusive cookies to improve your user experience. You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Beta This is a new way of showing guidance - your feedback will help us improve it. This OC sets out the background and risks associated with medium pressure 75 mbar — 2 bar ductile iron MPDI gas pipes, which may be found in premises and networks not operated by the major gas distribution networks. It advises inspectors on action that should be taken and sources of technical support. The attached Information Document may be given to enquirers and brought to the attention of employers and site owners where these pipes are or could be found. This OC has been revised to reflect major structural changes in the gas industry in July Iron gas distribution mains have a known history of failure. Cast iron mains can fail unpredictably through fracture if exposed to excessive loading e. Ductile iron pipe, which was introduced in the s in response to problems with cast iron, has greater strength and flexibility, but was later found to fail unpredictably through corrosion.
Medium pressure ductile iron gas pipes not owned by major gas distribution networks
National Clay Pipe Institute - ncpi. In addition to all standard fittings, joints types available include push-in, mechanical, seal anchor and flanged. The B series pipe straps are designed to support pipe from channel strut. In recent years this practise has spread to DI ductile iron water pipes and may consultants are now detailing rocker pipes on ductile iron pressure pipes.
National fittings pdf
Ductile iron pipe is a pipe made of ductile cast iron commonly used for potable water transmission and distribution. In highly corrosive environments loose polyethylene sleeving LPS to encase the pipe may also be used. Life expectancy of unprotected ductile iron pipes depends on the corrosiveness of soil present and tends to be shorter where soil is highly corrosive. Ductile iron pipe manufactured in the United States has been certified as a sustainable product by the Institute for Market Transformation to Sustainability.
Toilet Drain Pipe
Before embarking on any maintenance or repairs to old radiators, it is important to know whether you have steam or hot-water radiators. The simplest way to tell is to look at the number of pipes coming from your radiator: if there is only one pipe, then it is a steam system.
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