From: Canada Revenue Agency. Due to the number of revisions, the changes have not been side-barred. The information in this document does not replace the law found in the Excise Tax Act and its Regulations. It is provided for your reference. The supply of basic groceries, which includes most supplies of food and beverages marketed for human consumption including sweetening agents, seasonings and other ingredients to be mixed with or used in the preparation of such food or beverages , is zero-rated. However, certain categories of foodstuffs, for example, carbonated beverages, candies and confectionery, and snack foods are taxable.
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- Confectionery Ingredients Bridge Indulgence with Health
- CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21
- US7709041B2 - Low-fat cocoa powder - Google Patents
- Archived - Food Safety Practices Guidance for Moulded Chocolate Manufacturers
- Fats in Food Products
- Basic Groceries
- Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease
- I drank Huel and Soylent for a month. This is what happened
Confectionery Ingredients Bridge Indulgence with Health
This application is a Continuation of U. The present invention relates to processing of cocoa. It particularly concerns processing cocoa mass to generate separated cocoa powder and cocoa butter, both at desirable quality levels and in desirable yields. Cocoa beans may be processed into cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Cocoa butter represents a portion of the fat content isolated from the cocoa beans.
The cocoa powder represents remaining solids, after processing to recover cocoa butter. Cocoa butters are widely utilized food additives. For example, cocoa butter is used in the production of chocolate. Cocoa powder is also used as a food additive for flavor and color, for example, to produce chocolate flavored milk, cake mixes and brownie mixes. In general, cocoa beans are harvested in tropical countries.
Beans from different regions do provide somewhat different tastes or characteristics. For example, for chocolate, many European manufacturers prefer beans from Ghana and Nigeria Ivory Coast because of their flavor. For top quality chocolate, South American, West Indian and other so-called flavor beans are often used.
The pressing industry may select beans containing fat with higher melting points, such as those obtained from Malaysia. Regardless of the source, the same general processing techniques have been used.
In typical processing, the cocoa beans are harvested within a husk. Typically, the beans are dried in the fields, and dehusked. The beans are then subjected to various forms of heating, for example to intense infrared treatment, to pop the shells and in some instances for microbiological control.
The shelled beans are generally referred to as cocoa nibs. The nibs are separated from the shells, for processing. In typical processing operations, the nibs are roasted and in some instances subjected to dutching alkali treatment or alkalization.
The nibs are then ground, often with significant generation of heat. The grinding is generally done to provide a fineness in the mass such that there will be no grittiness felt in the mouth, when eating resulting products containing the cocoa powder. The grinding is normally carried out in a series of mills; for example, pre-grinding to a size of less than microns using a hammer mill, blade mill, disc mill or ball mill, followed by fine grinding using a triple disc mill or staged agitator ball mills.
In general, sufficient grinding is conducted so that the resulting cocoa powder, after separation of the cocoa butter, will have a particle size of less than 1 wt. A typical average particle size would be between 2 microns and 20 microns. Some manufacturers do not grind the nibs sufficiently to achieve this fineness, but rather engage in further refinement with later processing steps.
At room temperature, it is a thick solid mass; however, when heated above the melting point of the fat it forms a viscous, flowable slurry. The moisture content of cocoa liquor is generally at a maximum of about 2.
The pH is typically within a range of 5. The shell content, by weight, is generally no more than about 1. In later processing, such mass is not necessarily used alone, but sometimes is blended with mass or liquor from other sources. In some instances the mass may be washed, to modify flavor or color. According to one report, whole cocoa beans have been processed without previous deshelling by continuous expeller techniques.
The expeller cake and various resulting cocoa waste materials would then apparently be defatted by means of solvent extraction. The defatted residues from such a process, however, would be unlikely to be useful as food products, since they would contain large particles, such as shells and miscellaneous ditrious associated with the shells, which provide an unpleasant feel to the product.
The isolated fat from such sources which may include fats from portions of the cocoa bean other than just nibs would also likely be of inferior quality. Cocoa butter, which primarily comprises triglycerides of acids such as oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, is a relatively valuable vegetable oil commodity.
It is somewhat unique among vegetable oils, because of the combination of its taste, mouth feel and melt characteristics. These, in part, result from crystalline forms of some of its constituents, which provide for a sharp melting point just below body temperature.
Again, this represents the practical maximum extent to which typical, conventional, mechanical pressing operations can remove cocoa fat from the cocoa liquor. Typically, the resulting cocoa cake after butter recovery also comprises a useful commodity. It is generally ground into a powder and packaged for a variety of used. For example, cocoa powder made in this manner is used as a flavorant and for color in such materials as cake mixes, frostings, cookies, chocolate and drink mixes.
Conversion of the cocoa cake to the cocoa powder is no trivial matter. To convert it to a powder, it must be cooled sufficiently and maintained sufficiently cool, while it is broken up; and, in some instances it must be further ground and sieved, again without generation of sufficient heat to reclump, due to the fat content.
In general it must be maintained below about C. Cocoa beans have been processed by pressing generally in the manner described above for many decades. These are applications in which it is desired that the ultimate food product which is manufactured contain relatively low amounts of various added fats or oils. In recent years, then, processes of reducing the fat content of cocoa powder have been examined. In general, fat-free cocoa powders, i. The supercritical extraction reduces the residual fat content of the cocoa powder, leaving the powder defatted.
Techniques for processing cocoa mass are described. In general, the techniques concern processing cocoa mass in a manner including steps of: a extracting cocoa mass with solvent to provide a solvent phase containing dissolved cocoa fat a residual solids phase comprising defatted cocoa solids; and, separating the solvent phase containing the dissolved cocoa fat from the solids phase.
A variety of separation techniques can be applied. Certain preferred ones are described below. In general, processing according to the present invention will be conducted under a pressure sufficient to allow for the solvent to be substantially in the liquid phase, while the process is conducted above the melting point of the cocoa fat.
For example, when butane is used, the pressure will typically be within a range of about 50 psia to about psia. Although various isomers can in some instances be used, generally the linear alkanes n-propane, n-butane, n-pentane are preferred. In general, this requires appropriate amounts, or extent, of extraction.
In some instances multiple stage extractions will be used to accomplish this. In at least some instances, such an extent of fat recovery can be achieved whether the fat content of the mass extracted is relatively high, i. Fat contents of less than 0. In general, when multi-stage extractions are conducted, it is typically preferable to contact the most defatted cake with the freshest solvent. That is, the preferred multi-stage extractions are conducted in a somewhat countercurrent fashion or form.
In general, preferred processes according to the present invention will involve extractions at pressures greater than atmosphere, typically about 50 psia to psia for butane or 50 psia to psia for propane. According to the present invention, preferred products are provided. These may comprise, in part, good quality or better cocoa butter achieved by the techniques; and, desirable cocoa powder products. As indicated above, in general many cocoa nib processing methods to isolate high quality cocoa butter and cocoa powder applied in the past have involved a step of mechanically pressing the cocoa mass, to generate cake and separated butter.
While various designs of equipment have been developed for this, in general the equipment -has been constructed to operate at high pressures, on the order of about psi. This has generally required relatively expensive, high-maintenance equipment. Also, a pressing operation is typically a batch operation. As such, processing using a pressing operation is relatively slow. As indicated above, the rate is greatly affected by the extent to which the fat is to be removed from the cocoa mass.
Efforts to obtain high cocoa butter yield, i. At some point, a practical limit is reached at which further fat removal cannot be readily accomplished. Different varieties of cocoa plants generate beans of different propensities with respect to pressing. Cocoa processing has therefore generally required a step of warehousing the cake for a day or so, or use of heat removal systems, to cool the cake down sufficiently for further processing to be undertaken.
A reason is that when the cake is hot, the residual fat melts and causes the cake to clump severely. That is, the portion of the cocoa powder, i. However, the fat content represents an inconvenience due to its weight and physical characteristics. Also, it may provide undesired nutritional characteristics.
Supercritical extractions of press cake with CO 2 , to reduce fat content in the cake, are undesirable, especially on a large scale, because relatively expensive high pressure equipment is needed, and large amounts of CO 2 are required. In addition, the relatively low solubility of fat in CO 2 typically on the order of a few percent or less by weight , reduces substantially the desirability of the process.
Also, CO 2 extractions in practice should be operated on a powder not a liquor because the high surface area is needed for a practical extraction. Thus, in general the physical characteristics of cocoa mass, coupled with the low solvency of CO 2 , severely limits mass transfer of cocoa fats into the solvent phase and the utility of CO 2 extractions. Due to the relative value of cocoa butter, by comparison to cocoa powder, it is desirable to recover as much of the fat content of a cocoa mass, as cocoa butter, as is reasonably and cost-effectively feasible.
However, as indicated hereinbelow, the preferred characteristics of cocoa butter are such that while isolation of the cocoa butter is desirable, it must be controlled in a manner which results in a cocoa butter of certain preferred physical and chemical characteristics i.
Also, cocoa powder contains many components responsible for its desirable flavor and color. It is preferred that cocoa processing be conducted in a manner such that undesirable modifications in the cocoa powder, with respect to those, are not made. For discussions of the complex compositions of cocoa powder see: 1 Hashim, L. The complete disclosures of these three references are incorporated herein by reference.
It is also preferred to provide a low fat, and preferably fat-free, cocoa powder. Another preference is for a process which generates solids, from the separation step, in a form that: 1 does not require substantial periods of precooling prior to storage; 2 does not require substantial processing grinding, etc.
These and other preferred characteristics and benefits are readily achievable with certain of the preferred techniques described herein. According to the present invention, a solvent extraction process is applied to cocoa mass, in order to provide for isolation of separated cocoa butter and cocoa powder therefrom.
Preferably the extraction is conducted with a relatively low molecular weight i. For example, propane s , butane s and pentane s or mixtures thereof, can be used. Either linear or branched forms of those hydrocarbons are useable; however, the linear hydrocarbons are preferred.
This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. For current information visit Food.
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21
Publication number: Abstract: An oil and fat composition is provided which can reduce cooked odors without using an additive such as emulsifier. The oil and fat composition includes an oil and fat produced by oxidizing a fresh oil and fat so that a difference in anisidine value before and after the oxidation is 0. An added anisidine value of the oil and fat composition is 0. Type: Application.
US7709041B2 - Low-fat cocoa powder - Google Patents
Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How To Make Cocoa Butter At Home
My Account Logout. All our powders are sold by weight not by volume. Each container lists the approximate number of servings on the supplement facts label. We include a scoop for your convenience. For example one serving for many of our products is 8 grams, which is approximately a level scoop. However, it is important to note that 8 grams of volume in a scoop can vary based on a number of factors. It is not uncommon to get more or less than the approximate servings in each container. What would be very unusual is for a container to have less than the stated amount of weight.
Archived - Food Safety Practices Guidance for Moulded Chocolate Manufacturers
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug on trees in the forests of India and Thailand. It is processed and sold as dry flakes pictured and dissolved in alcohol to make liquid shellac, which is used as a brush-on colorant, food glaze and wood finish. Shellac functions as a tough natural primer , sanding sealant , tannin -blocker, odour -blocker, stain , and high-gloss varnish. Shellac was once used in electrical applications as it possesses good insulation qualities and it seals out moisture.
Do not place in hot water or near radiators, stoves or other sources of heat. Contenu sous pression. This definition does not include any. Mixed nuts or a mixture of nuts shall consist of a mixture of nuts in which not less than five per cent by weight of each type of nuts is present in the mixture. The food has a protein rating of 20 or more, as determined by official method FO-1, Determination of Protein Rating , October 15, ,. The food has a protein rating of 40 or more, as determined by official method FO-1, Determination of Protein Rating , October 15, ,. Naming the food is sodium-free. Naming the food is low in sodium.
Fats in Food Products
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Choki choki. Rehuellah Leman. Yakhin, M.
This application is a Continuation of U. The present invention relates to processing of cocoa. It particularly concerns processing cocoa mass to generate separated cocoa powder and cocoa butter, both at desirable quality levels and in desirable yields. Cocoa beans may be processed into cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Cocoa butter represents a portion of the fat content isolated from the cocoa beans. The cocoa powder represents remaining solids, after processing to recover cocoa butter. Cocoa butters are widely utilized food additives.
Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease
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I drank Huel and Soylent for a month. This is what happened
As I think you can see, it can all be somewhat disorienting, especially for a guy who thought that Pez was pretty wild and crazy for the time. Putting their names aside for the moment, some of these products are quite creative in their use of ingredients. For example, in Atomic Fizzzion , pressurized carbon dioxide is injected into the candy in its molten form, trapping tiny bubbles inside when it cools into a solid. As the candy nuggets dissolve in the mouth, tiny explosions result.
Как вы нашли дорогу к. И еще -- почему вы пришли.
Он не задержался надолго: сердце защемило от мысли, что миллиарды людей не оставили иных следов своего существования, кроме этих борозд на песке. Ровная линия горизонта, наконец, сломалась, сморщилась и превратилась в горы, которые почти сразу же оказались под .