A forklift also called lift truck , jitney , fork truck , fork hoist , and forklift truck is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances. Forklifts have become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing. The middle nineteenth century through the early 20th century saw the developments that led to today's modern forklifts. The forerunners of the modern forklift were manually powered hoists that were used to lift loads. This was in part due to the labor shortages caused by the war. In , Clark in the United States began developing and using powered tractor and powered lift tractors in their factories.
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A forklift also called lift truck , jitney , fork truck , fork hoist , and forklift truck is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances. Forklifts have become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing.
The middle nineteenth century through the early 20th century saw the developments that led to today's modern forklifts. The forerunners of the modern forklift were manually powered hoists that were used to lift loads. This was in part due to the labor shortages caused by the war. In , Clark in the United States began developing and using powered tractor and powered lift tractors in their factories.
The introduction of hydraulic power and the development of the first electric power forklifts, along with the use of standardized pallets in the late s, helped to increase the popularity of forklift trucks. Warehouses needed more maneuverable forklift trucks that could reach greater heights and new forklift models were made that filled this need.
Safety features such as load backrests and operator cages, called overhead guards, began to be added to forklifts produced in this era.
Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified maximum weight and a specified forward center of gravity. This information is located on a nameplate provided by the manufacturer, and loads must not exceed these specifications. In many jurisdictions, it is illegal to alter or remove the nameplate without the permission of the forklift manufacturer.
An important aspect of forklift operation is that it must have rear-wheel steering. While steering, as there is no caster action, it is unnecessary to apply steering force to maintain a constant rate of turn. Another critical characteristic of the forklift is its instability. The forklift and load must be considered a unit with a continually varying center of gravity with every movement of the load.
A forklift must never negotiate a turn at speed with a raised load, where centrifugal and gravitational forces may combine to cause a disastrous tip-over accident. The forklift is designed with a load limit for the forks which is decreased with fork elevation and undercutting of the load i. A loading plate for loading reference is usually located on the forklift. A forklift should not be used as a personnel lift without the fitting of specific safety equipment, such as a "cherry picker" or "cage".
Forklifts are a critical element of warehouses and distribution centers. Often, forklift drivers are guided into the bay through guide rails on the floor and the pallet is placed on cantilevered arms or rails. These maneuvers require well-trained operators. Since every pallet requires the truck to enter the storage structure, damage is more common than with other types of storage. In designing a drive-in system, dimensions of the fork truck, including overall width and mast width, must be carefully considered.
Forklift hydraulics are controlled either with levers directly manipulating the hydraulic valves or by electrically controlled actuators, using smaller "finger" levers for control. The latter allows forklift designers more freedom in ergonomic design. Forklift trucks are available in many variations and load capacities.
In a typical warehouse setting, most forklifts have load capacities between one and five tons. Larger machines, up to 50 tons lift capacity, are used for lifting heavier loads, including loaded shipping containers. In addition to a control to raise and lower the forks also known as blades or tines , the operator can tilt the mast to compensate for a load's tendency to angle the blades toward the ground and risk slipping off the forks.
Tilt also provides a limited ability to operate on non-level ground. Skilled forklift operators annually compete in obstacle and timed challenges at regional forklift rodeos. The following is a list, in no particular order, of the more common lift truck types: .
At the other end of the spectrum from the counterbalanced forklift trucks are more 'high end' specialty trucks:. These are, unlike most lift trucks, front-wheel steer and are a hybrid VNA very narrow aisle truck designed to be both able to offload trailers and place the load in narrow aisle racking. Increasingly these trucks are able to compete in terms of pallet storage density, lift heights and pallet throughput with guided very narrow aisle trucks, while also being capable of loading trucks, which VNA units are incapable of doing.
These are rail- or wire-guided and available with lift heights up to 40 feet non-top-tied and 98 feet top-tied. Two forms are available: 'man-down' and 'man-riser', where the operator elevates with the load for increased visibility or for multilevel 'break bulk' order picking.
This type of truck, unlike articulated narrow aisle trucks, requires a high standard of floor flatness. Omnidirectional technology such as Mecanum wheels can allow a forklift truck to move forward, diagonally and laterally, or in any direction on a surface.
An omnidirectional wheel system is able to rotate the truck degrees in its own footprint or strafe sideways without turning the truck cabin. One example is the Airtrax Sidewinder. This forklift truck has also made an appearance in the TV series called 'Mythbusters'.
In North America, some internal combustion powered industrial vehicles carry Underwriters Laboratories ratings that are part of UL UL is a two-stage Safety Standard.
This is a voluntary standard, and there is no requirement in North America at least by any Government Agency for manufacturers to meet this standard. If you require higher levels of protection you must contact your local Underwriter's Laboratory Office and ask them what the correct safety standard is for your workplace. UL is the Electric equivalent of UL As with UL it is a two-stage standard. These are for operation in potentially explosive atmospheres found in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and drink, logistics or other industries handling flammable material.
In order to decrease work wages, reduce operational cost and improve productivity, automated forklifts have also been developed. Below is a list of common forklift attachments: . Any attachment on a forklift will reduce its nominal load rating, which is computed with a stock fork carriage and forks. The actual load rating may be significantly lower. It is possible to replace an existing attachment or add one to a lift that doesn't already have one. Considerations include forklift type, capacity, carriage type, and number of hydraulic functions that power the attachment features.
As mentioned in the preceding section, replacing or adding an attachment may reduce down-rate the safe lifting capacity of the forklift truck See also General operations, below. Forklift attachment manufacturers offer online calculators to estimate the safe lifting capacity when using a particular attachment. However, only the forklift truck manufacturer can give accurate lifting capacities. Before installing any attachment contact your local authorized dealer of your forklift brand and ask them to begin re-rating your lift according to the attachment you want to install.
Once re-rated the forklift should have a new factory authorized specification plate, to replace the original plate, installed showing the new rating for the lift. In the context of attachment, a hydraulic function consists of a valve on the forklift with a lever near the operator that provides two passages of pressurized hydraulic oil to power the attachment features.
Sometimes an attachment has more features than your forklift has hydraulic functions and one or more need to be added. There are many ways of adding hydraulic functions also known as adding a valve.
The forklift manufacturer makes valves and hose routing accessories, but the parts and labor to install can be prohibitively expensive. Other ways include adding a solenoid valve in conjunction with a hose or cable reel that diverts oil flow from an existing function. However, hose and cable reels can block the operator's view and are problematic, easily damaged.
There are many national as well as continental associations related to the industrial truck industry. Some of the major organizations are listed as:. There are many significant contacts among these organizations and they have established joint statistical and engineering programs. The statistics are separated by area continent , country and class of machine. While the statistics are generic and do not count production from most of the smaller manufacturers, the information is significant for its depth.
These contacts have brought to a common definition of a Class System to which all the major manufacturers adhere. Forklift safety is subject to a variety of standards worldwide. ITSDF is a non-profit organization whose only purpose is the promulgation and modernization of the B56 standard. In many countries, forklift truck operators must be trained and certified to operate forklift trucks. Certification may be required for each individual class of lift that an operator would use.
Forklift training has many names, such as forklift licensing or forklift certification. Whichever term is used, training must adhere to federal or national standards. Health care providers do not recommend that workers who drive or use heavy equipment such as forklifts treat chronic or acute pain with opioids. A major component of these regulations deals with forklift operator training. The standard requires employers to develop and implement a training program based on the general principles of safe truck operation, the types of vehicle s being used in the workplace,  the hazards of the workplace created by the use of the vehicle s , and the general safety requirements of the OSHA standard.
OSHA believes that trained operators must know how to do the job properly and do it safely as demonstrated by workplace evaluation. Formal lecture, video, etc. Employers must also certify that each operator has received the training and evaluate each operator at least once every three years.
Prior to operating the truck in the workplace, the employer must evaluate the operator's performance and determine the operator to be competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely. Refresher training is needed whenever an operator demonstrates a deficiency in the safe operation of the truck.
In the UK, the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations state that operators of forklift trucks must be adequately trained, the general standards of that training and good operating practice are found in the HSE Code of Practice Third edition  issued in Third party organisations have developed de facto 'best practice' standards for forklift training, commonly referred to in the UK as a 'forklift licence', these are no longer recognised as proof of training as defined in the COP third edition and as such training is not a legal requirement as is commonly believed.
In the UK, forklift training is carried out by a number of different voluntary standard training organisations, They can be directly recognised by the HSE who have formed a new organisation known as "Accrediting Body Association Work place transport ".
Forklift instructors throughout the UK tend to operate either as small independent training companies or as a part of a larger training provider. Training is delivered in one of two ways; on-site sometimes referred to as in-house training where training is delivered to a clients' premises making use of their own equipment, or off-site public courses at a training centre.
Training centres offer the opportunity for the unemployed with little or no forklift operating experience to achieve a certificate of competence and increase their employment opportunities. Training certification standards at schools tends to follow closely the standard required by their individual Training Standards Accrediting Body to which they are affiliated.
It is not unusual for a Training school to be registered with one or more body at any one time. The British Industrial Truck Association BITA categorises the different forklift truck types into groups and assigned a unique identifier to each classification. Forklift training certificates display the appropriate BITA classification to clearly identify the confines of the certification.
Prior to all States and Territories of Australia independently regulated occupational health and safety in that state, including forklift licensing.
This guideline is aimed at employers, engineers, designers, manufacturers and distributors of machinery. WorkSafe has also developed a set of fact sheets for specific machinery. Though relevant to employers, these fact sheets are mostly aimed at operators and employees. While this guidance has not been updated to reflect current work health and safety legislation the Health and Safety at Work Act and regulations , it may still contain relevant information and practices to keep workers and others healthy and safe. Please read this guidance in conjunction with all relevant industry standards that apply to you as a PCBU.
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Stymied by stickering? Exasperated by XML? And just what is Poka Yoke , anyway? Let Inbound Logistics' glossary of transportation, logistics, supply chain, and international trade terms help. ABC Analysis: A classification of items in an inventory according to importance defined in terms of criteria such as sales volume and purchase volume.
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Industrial robot Autonomous research robot Domestic robot. Home automation Banking automation Laboratory automation Integrated library system Broadcast automation Console automation Building automation. Automated attendant Automated guided vehicle Automated highway system Automated pool cleaner Automated reasoning Automated teller machine Automatic painting robotic Pop music automation Robotic lawn mower Telephone switchboard Vending machine. An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle AGV is a portable robot that follows along marked long lines or wires on the floor, or uses radio waves, vision cameras, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in industrial applications to transport heavy materials around a large industrial building, such as a factory or warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle broadened during the late 20th century. The AGV can tow objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: VIDEO 5.10 Coca-Cola Automated warehouse from System Logistics
When completing form T, Statement of Business or Professional Activities , form T, Statement of Fishing Activities , or form T, Statement of Farming Activities , you have to enter an industry code that corresponds to your main business activity. If your business has more than one activity, use the code that most closely describes your main business activity. For example, you might operate a bookstore in which you sell postage stamps. If none of the generalized industry codes closely describes your main business activity, you can get a suitable code from the complete list of North American Industry Classification System codes NAICS maintained by Statistics Canada. If you are filing your return electronically, you have to use the industry codes from your tax preparation software. Only use the industry codes listed below if you are filing your General Income Tax and Benefits Return on paper. You will not receive a reply. Skip to main content Skip to "About government". List of industry codes. Lawrence Seaway, Great Lakes system, operate ocean-going cruise ships Department stores Other retail stores Sales department stores except discount , department stores, retail, discount department stores, operation of selected department store departments by separate establishments, on a concession basis Direct selling establishments Direct Sales non-store retailing, except direct-response advertising and operating vending machines.
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Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together.
Occupational Safety General Regulations. Occupational Health and Safety Act. Table of Contents. Part 1 - Title and Definitions. Part 2 - General. Duties of parties. Conflict with these regulations. Compliance with standards incorporated by reference. Compliance with policies, procedures, plans and codes of practice.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. From its earliest days, the electric power industry has been able to provide, or rapidly restore, essential services during various types of natural emergencies. This sabotage threat continued at a reduced level through the Cold War, but the main physical security concerns during that period were domestic problems with vandalism, theft, and tampering. Potential terrorist attacks against electric power systems include sabotage; physical assault; disruption of sensors, information systems, and computer networks; tampering with process safety; disruption of fail-safe systems; and indirect attacks such as disruption of water, fuel, or key personnel. Although al-Qaeda has received the greatest attention, the U. Department of State lists over 42 international terrorist groups operating around the world today Department of State, , p.
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It focuses on power transmission, distribution and power-plant automation serves electric, gas and water utilities, as well as industrial and commercial customers. ABB also delivers automation systems that measure, control, protect and optimize plant applications across a range of industries. It successfully integrated subsidiary companies and , employees operating in countries. Based in Atlanta, Georgia, GE Energy works in all areas of the energy industry including coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy; renewable resources such as water, wind, solar and biogas; and other alternative fuels.
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