Objectives The ultimate and long-term objective of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation is to halt the current and continuing loss of plant diversity. The Strategy will provide a framework to facilitate harmony between existing initiatives aimed at plant conservation, to identify gaps where new initiatives are required, and to promote mobilization of the necessary resources. The Strategy will be a tool to enhance the ecosystem approach to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and focus on the vital role of plants in the structure and functioning of ecological systems and assure provision of the goods and services such systems provide The Strategy will also:. Target 1: A widely accessible working list of known plant species, as a step towards a complete world flora. A working list of known plant species is considered to be a fundamental requirement for plant conservation. Some , scientific names are known for these , species.
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Objectives The ultimate and long-term objective of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation is to halt the current and continuing loss of plant diversity. The Strategy will provide a framework to facilitate harmony between existing initiatives aimed at plant conservation, to identify gaps where new initiatives are required, and to promote mobilization of the necessary resources.
The Strategy will be a tool to enhance the ecosystem approach to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and focus on the vital role of plants in the structure and functioning of ecological systems and assure provision of the goods and services such systems provide The Strategy will also:. Target 1: A widely accessible working list of known plant species, as a step towards a complete world flora. A working list of known plant species is considered to be a fundamental requirement for plant conservation.
Some , scientific names are known for these , species. In effect the target will require the compilation and synthesis of existing knowledge, focusing on names and synonyms, and geographical distribution. Both national flora and compilations and international initiatives are important in this respect. Further work on national and regional floras is necessary to lay the basis for the longer term aim of developing a complete world flora, including local and vernacular names.
Target 2: A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species, at national, regional and international levels. Over 60, species have been evaluated for conservation status according to internationally accepted criteria, of which 34, are classified as globally threatened with extinction IUCN, In addition, many countries have assessed the conservation status of their own floras.
There are currently about , known species. Of those still to be evaluated, sufficient information for a full assessment is only available for a proportion.
Thus, only a preliminary assessment will have been carried out on the remaining, "data-deficient" species. Subsequently, further fieldwork will be essential to enable more comprehensive assessments to be undertaken.
Target 3: Development of models with protocols for plant conservation and sustainable use, based on research and practical experience. Conservation biology research, and methodologies and practical techniques for conservation are fundamental to the conservation of plant diversity and the sustainable use of its components. These can be applied through the development and effective dissemination of relevant models and protocols for applying best practice, based on the results of existing and new research and practical experience of management.
Key areas where the development of models with protocols is required include: the integration of in situ and ex situ conservation; maintenance of threatened plants within ecosystems; applying the ecosystem approach; balancing sustainable use with conservation; and methodologies for setting conservation priorities; and methodologies for monitoring conservation and sustainable use activities.
Target 4: At least 10 per cent of each of the world's ecological regions effectively conserved. In general, forests and mountain areas are well represented in protected areas, while natural grasslands such as prairies and coastal and estuarine ecosystems, including mangroves, are poorly represented. The target would imply: i increasing the representation of different ecological regions in protected areas, and ii increasing the effectiveness of protected areas. In some cases, ecosystems restoration and rehabilitation may be necessary.
Effective conservation is understood to mean that the area is managed to achieve a favorable conservation status for plant species and communities. Various approaches are available for use in the identification of ecological regions, based on major vegetation types.
Further targets may be agreed in the future. Target 5: Protection of 50 per cent of the most important areas for plant diversity assured.
They would be identified primarily at local and national levels. Protection would be assured through effective conservation measures, including protected areas.
In the longer term the protection of all important plant areas should be assured. Target 6: At least 30 per cent of production lands managed consistent with the conservation of plant diversity. For the purpose of the target, production lands refer to lands where the primary purpose is agriculture including horticulture , grazing, or wood production.
Consistent with conservation of plant diversity implies that a number of objectives are integrated into the management of such production lands: Conservation of plant diversity which is an integral part of the production system itself i. Increasingly, integrated production methods are being applied in agriculture, including integrated pest management, conservation agriculture, and on-farm management of plant genetic resources. Similarly, sustainable forest management practices are being more broadly applied.
Against this background, and with the above understanding of the terms used, the target is considered feasible. Higher targets are appropriate for natural or semi-natural forests and grasslands. Conserved in situ is here understood to mean that populations of the species are effectively maintained in at least one protected area or through other in situ management measures.
In some countries this figure has already been met, but it would require additional efforts in many countries. The target should be seen as a step towards the effective in situ conservation of all threatened species. Target 8: 60 per cent of threatened plant species in accessible ex situ collections, preferably in the country of origin, and 10 per cent of them included in recovery and restoration programmes.
It is considered that this could be increased to meet the proposed target by , with additional resources, technology development and transfer, especially for species with recalcitrant seeds. Target 9: 70 per cent of the genetic diversity of crops and other major socio-economically valuable plant species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained. For any one species, therefore, the target is readily attainable.
Genetic diversity is also conserved through on farm management. By working with local communities, associated indigenous and local knowledge can also be maintained. Combining genebank, on farm, and other in situ approaches, the target could be reached for all crops in production, as well as major forage and tree species Other major socio-economically important species, such as medicinal plants, could be selected on a case-by-case basis, according to national priorities.
Through the combined actions of countries, some 2, or 3, species could be covered in all. Target Management plans in place for at least major alien species that threaten plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems.
There is no agreed reliable estimate of the number of alien species that threaten indigenous plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems to such an extent that they may be considered as "major".
It is recommended therefore that the target be established for an absolute number of such major invasive alien species. The wording "At least " is considered appropriate. The invasive alien species would be selected on the basis of national priorities, also taking into account their significance at regional and global levels. For many alien species, it is expected that different management plans will be required in different countries in which they threaten plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems.
This target would be considered as a first step towards developing management plans for all major alien species that threaten plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems.
The proposed formulation of the target is more precise since it focuses on those species that are actually threatened by international trade. So formulated, the target is attainable and is complementary to target Species of wild flora endangered by international trade include but are not limited to species listed on CITES appendix 1.
The target is consistent with the main purpose of the CITES Strategic Plan to : "No species of wild flora subject to unsustainable exploitation because of international trade". Target 30 per cent of plant-based products derived from sources that are sustainably managed. Plant-based products include food products, timber, paper and other wood-based products, other fibre products, and ornamental, medicinal and other plants for direct use.
Sources that are sustainably managed are understood to include: Natural or semi-natural ecosystems that are sustainably managed by avoiding over-harvesting of products, or damage to other components of the ecosystem , excepting that commercial extraction of resources from some primary forests and near-pristine ecosystems of important conservation value might be excluded.
Sustainably managed, plantation forests and agricultural lands. In both cases, sustainable management should be understood to integrate social and environmental considerations, such as the fair and equitable sharing of benefits and the participation of indigenous and local communities.
Indicators for progress might include: Direct measures e. Assessment of progress will be assisted by the development of criteria and indicators of sustainable agricultural and forest management. Against this baseline, the target is considered to be attainable. It would be applied to each category of plant-based products, understanding that for some categories it will be more difficult to reach and more difficult to monitor progress.
Implementation would require a combination of product-specific and sector-wide approaches, consistent with the Convention's programme of work on agricultural biodiversity. Target The decline of plant resources, and associated indigenous and local knowledge innovations and practices, that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, halted.
Plant diversity underpins livelihoods, food security and health care. This target is consistent with one of the widely agreed international development targets, namely to "ensure that current trends in the loss of environmental resources are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by ". It is recommended feasible to halt the decline by and subsequently to reverse the decline. Relevant plant resources and methods to address their decline are largely site specific and thus implementation must be locally driven.
The scope of the target is understood to encompass plant resources and associated ethnobotanical knowledge. Measures to address the decline in associated indigenous and local knowledge should be implemented consistent with the Convention's programme of work on Article 8 j and related provisions.
Target The importance of plant diversity and the need for its conservation incorporated into communication, education and public awareness programmes. Communication, education and the raising of public awareness about the importance of plant diversity are crucial for the achievement of all the targets of the strategy.
This target is understood to refer to both informal and formal education at all levels, including primary, secondary and tertiary education. Key target audiences include not only children and other students, but also policy-makers and the public in general. Consideration should be given to developing specific indicators to monitor progress towards achievement of the overall target. It may be helpful to develop indicators for specific target audiences.
Given the strategic importance of education about plant conservation, this issue should be included not only in environmental curricula, but should also be included in broader areas of mainstream education policy. Target The number of trained people working with appropriate facilities in plant conservation increased, according to national needs, to achieve the targets of this Strategy. The achievement of the targets included in the Strategy will require very considerable capacity-building, particularly to address the need for conservation practitioners trained in a range of disciplines, with access to adequate facilities.
In addition to training programmes, the achievement of this target will require long-term commitment to maintaining infrastructure. Capacity-building should be based on national needs assessments.
It is likely that the number of trained people working in plant conservation world-wide will need to double by Given the current geographical disparity between biodiversity and expertise, this is likely to involve considerably more than a doubling of capacity in many developing countries, small island developing States and countries with economies in transition.
Increased capacity should be understood to include not only in-service training, but also the training of additional staff and other stakeholders, particularly at the community level. Target Networks for plant conservation activities established or strengthened at national, regional and international levels. Networks can enhance communication and provide a mechanism to exchange information, know-how and technology.
Networks will provide an important component in the coordination of effort among many stakeholders for the achievement of all the targets of the strategy.
They will also help to avoid duplication of effort and to optimise the efficient allocation of resources. Effective networks provide a means to develop common approaches to plant conservation problems, to share policies and priorities and to help disseminate the implementation of all such policies at different levels. They can also help to strengthen links between different sectors relevant to conservation, e.
Networks provide an essential link between on-the-ground conservation action and coordination, monitoring and policy development at all levels.
This target is understood to include the broadening of participation in existing networks, as well as the establishment, where necessary, of new networks.
Manufacturing comprises more than half of the Philippines's industrial sector and accounts for almost a quarter of the country's Gross Domestic Product GDP. From an annual growth rate of 5. Manufacturing industries have higher employment, income and output multipliers relative to the agriculture and services sectors. Manufacturing also promotes stronger inter-industry and inter-sectoral linkages, firm productivity, technological development and innovation. As such, the growth of the manufacturing industry improves the upgrading and diversification in the agricultural sector, as well as drives demand for higher value-added services. Taking all these into consideration, the Philippines is accelerating the manufacturing sector's competitiveness towards the achievement of sustainable and inclusive development in the country.
Theoretical and Practical Evaluation of Jatropha as Energy Source Biofuel in Tanzania
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This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms. Key words Food and nutrition security; Food sovereignty; Agro-ecology; Family farming; Food policies. This paper aims at stressing the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture NSA approach in the context of recent developments in Brazil related to food and nutrition sovereignty and security FNSS and the right to adequate food RtF.
The central starting point of the paper is that well-known classical patterns of creating innovations are changing. This has twofold consequences: On the one hand, the so-called high-tech industry influences non-high-tech branches as well as important suppliers of innovative solutions. On the other hand, the particular requirements and conditions of so-called low-tech branches affect companies of high-tech industries as specific drivers of innovation, too. They are considered the main drivers of knowledge creation and innovation and prototypes of new collective forms of organization. In fact, in mature economic segments of the so-called Old Economy manufacturing as well as innovation processes are increasingly performed in global, national or local innovation and training networks. As a consequence, functions not considered to be strategically important, are sourced out to other companies with which network-style relationships are established. And how are these co-operative links maintained? In this context it is of special importance to understand how cross-company innovation processes are structured and organized. With special regard to matters relating to the work force the paper discusses distinct features and strategies of low tech companies which allow them to generate and reproduce a competitive and innovative knowledge base by means of a strategic establishment of innovation and training alliances.
Please bookmark our new home page for new articles and full archive content. If you have any questions regarding this transition, please visit our FAQ or email Matt Wascavage, Director of Publications, at mwascavage sciencesocieties. However, NEC is also one of the areas that are most significantly affected by climate change in this country. Maize is sensitive to climatic changes, and to develop effective strategies for guaranteeing regional food security, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the impacts of climate change and the effectiveness of adaptation measures in NEC.
His initial research focus was on the physiological roles of dopamine in the brain. He also published research articles on the neuropharmacological effects of plant extracts. During his tenure at NIPRD, he initiated and directed the research and development of Niprisan; a standardized phytomedicine for the prophylactic management of sickle cell disorder. Niprisan is generally regarded as clinically safe and effective. Professor Wambebe has published over peer reviewed articles in international journals and contributed chapters to books. CRC Press , 29 ene. Despite the relevance of and empirical evidence for African Traditional Medicine, based on African Indigenous Medical Knowledge AIMK , research and development of new phytomedicines from this continent has been slow. The book documents some of the success stories from the continent related to AIMK and serves as a one-step reference for all professionals interested in the research and development of medical interventions - including pharmacognosists, ethnobiologists, botanists, phytochemists, pharmacologists and medical scientists. Chapter 5. Chapter 2.
For large scale production of clonal plants, somatic embryogenesis SE has many advantages over other clonal propagation methods such as the rooting of cuttings. In particular, the SE process is more suited to scale up and automation, thereby reducing labor costs and increasing the reliability of the production process. Furthermore, the plants resulting from SE closely resemble those from seeds, as somatic embryos, like zygotic seed embryos, develop with good connection between root and shoot, and without the plagiotropism often associated with propagation by cuttings. For practical purposes in breeding programs and for deployment of elite clones, it is valuable that a virtually unlimited number of SE plants can be generated from one original seed embryo; and SE cultures clones can be cryostored for at least 20 years, allowing long-term testing of clones. To date, there has however been limited use of SE for large-scale plant production mainly because without automation it is labor-intensive. Development of automation is particularly attractive in countries with high labor costs, where conifer forestry is often of great economic importance. Various approaches for automating SE processes are under investigation and the progress is reviewed here, with emphasis on conifers. These approaches include simplification of culture routines with preference for liquid rather than solid cultures, use of robotics and automation for the harvest of selected individual mature embryos, followed by automated handling of germination and subsequent planting.
Springer Shop Amazon. This volume is the product of a conference on the theme 'Development - the Next Twenty-five Years' which the Institute of Social Studies held in Decem ber to mark its own twenty-fifth anniversaryas a centre of development studies. We felt it appropriate at that point in time to caU together specialists from all over the world in an attempt to assess the 'state of play' in our field as we move into the last quarter of the twentieth century. Although it was inevitable that the participants should represent the past and it was several times re marked that, in that sense, there were too few women present , the earnest and sometimes heated discussions looked to the future as much as to what had happened in the last twenty-five years. As the discussions proceeded, three things became apparent. Firstly , although the papers submitted did not fully reveal it, the ongoing debate between radicals and moderates, those who saw possibilities of change only basically through a direct break with existing structures and those who felt change possibIe within them, is by no means at an end.
Но уже наступил и отошел в прошлое поворотный миг истории - и человечество двинулось к новому, неизвестному будущему. В эту ночь Элвин и Хилвар больше не спали. С первыми проблесками рассвета они свернули лагерь.
Он не верил, что сам сможет выйти за пределы Диаспара, но уже понимал импульс, побудивший Элвина совершить. Вопрос Президента застал его врасплох, но Джезерак быстро овладел .
Между нашими двумя культурами простирается пропасть столь же бездонная, как и та, что некогда разделяла Землю и ее древние инопланетные колонии. Подумайте хотя бы об одном этом факте, Олвин.
Великие, - сказало существо. - С планет вечного дня.