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Produce fabrication sheep and goat breeding products

Produce fabrication sheep and goat breeding products

He is the author or editor of four books on yogurt and other dairy products. William J. Hurst, PhD , is a consultant in Mt. Gretna, Pennsylvania.

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Content:

Sustainability of Sheep and Goat Production Systems

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Milking Goats - Goat Farm in Holland

Small ruminants sheep and goats are essential components of the mixed farming systems in the hills of Nepal, and are found in all parts of country. They are mainly kept for meat, although wool sheep , fibre goats and manure are also important products from these animals. In the present subsistence farming system of the hills, farmers have little surplus agricultural produce to sell and so depend upon the sale of livestock and their products as a source of income.

However, because of their inherent ability to utilize mountain terrain, unsuitable for crop farming, a high proportion of sheep and goats are found in the hills. Resource-poor farmers of the hills, who cannot invest large sums of money in cattle and buffalo, prefer sheep and goat husbandry which has no social, religious or cultural taboos, or caste restrictions.

Small ruminants, in the hills of Nepal, are reared either under a sedentary or a migratory system. Sedentary flocks may be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed or completely grazed, whilst the migratory flocks are reared under an extensive management system. Many efforts have been made over the past three decades to increase production from sheep and goats, and this chapter will describe the existing sheep and goat resources, their management systems and the various efforts employed in trying to improve their production.

Table 1: Total population 's of small ruminants in Nepal by region during the year — Goats are more common in the hills, whereas sheep are almost equally distributed between the hills and mountains. The distribution of cattle and buffaloes displays a similar trend to goats. The proportion of the different livestock species in different regions of the country is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Ratio of different livestock species compared to sheep in different regions of Nepal. Tables 1 and 2 reveal that a comparatively higher proportion of sheep are found in the mountains than in other regions and that the highest number of livestock are found in the hills. Tables 3 and 4 show the trend in sheep and goat populations respectively in different regions of the country over the past five years. Tables 3 and 4 indicate that the overall population of sheep and goats in the country is increasing at an annual rate of 2.

However, population growth of small ruminants is not constant in all regions of the country. Sheep and goat populations are almost static in the high mountains, whereas in the Terai, the growth rate is high, especially for sheep.

Although the rate is not so pronounced in the hill regions as in the Terai, there is still a positive trend in population growth.

The distribution of sheep and goats in relation to human population in different parts of the country is presented in Table 5. Table 5 shows that the highest human per capita sheep and goat populations are found in the high mountain region of the country followed by the hills, with the Terai the lowest. These population distributions indicate the importance of sheep and goat husbandry in hill and mountain regions compared to the Terai.

Population distribution shows that small ruminant husbandry is popular in the hills of Nepal. The reasons for their popularity in these less-favoured hill regions are as follows. Sheep and goats contributed 2. Goats are the second largest producer of meat. The meat production trend from sheep and goats in Nepal over the past five years is presented in Table 6. Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage contribution to total meat production in the country.

Goat meat is the most popular in Nepal, and is accepted by every ethnic community. Goats are the main source of animal protein for certain ethnic castes which do not consume buffalo meat, chicken or pork. There is no prejudice against the slaughter of sheep and goats, and indeed, their sacrifice is essential for certain religious festivals.

Wool produced by sheep, and fibre by goats are the main raw materials for the production of warm garments such as sweaters, blankets and radi. Most of the wool and fibre produced in the country is used locally in the hill villages, for the production of various woollen goods by many different ethnic groups.

Very little of it is utilized by the carpet manufacturing industry based in the larger towns. The carpet industry relies almost entirely on the importation of large quantities of wool, mainly from New Zealand and Tibet. The total wool production of Nepal is presented in Table 7. The increase in wool production can be explained by an increase in the sheep population see Table 3 , rather than by an increase in animal productivity.

Woollen goods including carpets are a major source of foreign currency, and the carpet industry has grown rapidly over the past few years. The export of carpets alone was equivalent to Rs. In the same year, the export of other woollen goods realised the equivalent of Rs. Carpets are the single most valuable commodity exported from Nepal.

Sheep and goats play an important role in maintaining soil fertility, particularly in the hills, where the use of chemical fertilizer may be prevented either by unavailability or cost, or may still be unknown to the farmers. Nepalese farmers consider goat and sheep manure to be superior to that of other ruminants, and this concept is supported by laboratory analysis, in which sheep and goat manures were found to contain 0.

Assuming that 1. This is equivalent to Rs. The in-situ manuring system, practised by hill farmers in Nepal especially migratory sheep flocks has been shown to increase subsequent crop production by This increase in production was attributed to the nutrients supplied by sheep urine which contains 1. The role of urine as a fertilizer is confirmed by Joshi et al , who reported an Not all the goat skins produced in the country are marketed, and in many parts of the country goat skin is consumed as part of the carcass.

However, about 1. Sheep and goats make very effective use of a variety of different grazing lands, including rocky mountain terrain and alpine pastures, which cannot be utilized by other domestic animals. They convert relatively inaccessible low quality forage to high quality meat, wool and fibre. By their hardy nature, they can adapt to different climatic conditions and, depending on the availability of pasture land and the cropping pattern of an area, can also be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed, or grazed.

Goats can survive and produce satisfactorily on vegetation which is not consumed by any other species of domestic livestock. The economic value of sheep and goats is an important factor in their popularity with smallholder farmers.

The financial investment required for their husbandry is small, and capital investment for the purchase of animals, equipment and buildings is low. Most of the equipment and buildings can be constructed from locally available raw materials, so that even a poor farmer can invest. Due to the high turnover, they give a good return per unit of capital invested, and so provide an economically profitable enterprise.

In addition, small ruminants provide farmers with a ready source of cash. In the hills, crop production is often insufficient to meet family requirements and cannot be sold, but small ruminants are in high demand, and can be readily disposed of for cash. Family meat consumption can be curtailed for more urgent necessities which may arise, so that sheep and goats are therefore regarded as a symbol of wealth. Farmers in the villages are engaged as shepherds and in wool spinning work.

Available time in the morning or evening is utilized by village women in wool spinning and weaving, which is also a source of additional income. An estimated , additional people are involved in informal employment associated with the carpet industry, undertaking washing, carding, spinning, dyeing and weaving of wool on a household or cottage industry basis LMP, In the hills of Nepal, sheep and goat husbandry, like that of other livestock is an integral component of the subsistence mixed farming system.

The husbandry practised is influenced by the location, topography, and cropping pattern of an area, the availability of waste land, communal grazing land and forest areas, and by market prospects. The existing husbandry system can be broadly classified into sedentary and migratory.

This is the usual system of raising sheep and goats, and is practised in the low and mid-hills, the lower valleys and the Terai. Animals are kept in one area throughout the year and are penned at the homestead at night time. They may be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed or completely grazed. In cities, towns and peri-urban areas, goats are more common than sheep.

In such a system, only one or two goats are kept per family, and are maintained principally for meat production. Though they are often provided with a concentrate supplement, complete stall-feeding is practised by very few families, and semi-stall-feeding is the more common practice.

Under the latter, goats are let loose for a certain period of the day, but due to limited availability of grazing land and fodder, these animals are normally supplemented at the stall with roughage grasses, straw, fodder tree leaves and in some cases, food grains as concentrate.

However, the majority of the sedentary goat and sheep flocks are maintained under an extensive management system, where the animals are driven to the pasture land or forest for grazing during the day, and are not supplemented at the stall. Farmers in the mid-hills and valleys follow a specific traditional grazing management, in which the available grazing land is utilized in a rotational manner. Animals are moved to a new area each day completing the rotation in four to six days.

Farmers believe that this system allows adequate regrowth of grasses and vegetation inbetween grazing. However, availability of grass in a grazing area directly influences this practice, and pasture areas with good grasses are grazed more frequently than those that are less productive. The grazing of animals in a limited area throughout the year leads to the development of a heavy parasitic burden, so that associated parasitic diseases are a major constraint upon the productivity of this system.

Moreover, these sheep and goats have to compete for forage with cattle and buffaloes maintained under a similar system. Goat breeds reared under this system are the Khari in the hills, and the Terai goat in the Terai. A few Sinhal goats are kept in the high hill villages throughout the year. Among sheep, the Kage breed is found in the hills, valleys and some parts of the Terai.

The number of goats and sheep raised by a single family, is very variable and is influenced by the availability of free pasture or forest resources, and by the availability of family labour.

For goats, in the mid-hills, the number of animals per family can vary from one to twenty with an average flock size of seven Oli and Gatenby, The average flock size is similar for sheep, with a range from one or two animals per family, up to flocks of 20 to 50 animals Pradhan, On the whole, sheep are found in small localised areas, and are generally less abundant than goats.

This system of animal keeping is followed in the high hills and mountains of Nepal. The flocks migrate from the lower hills —m asl up to the high alpine pastures —m asl and back again as the climate determines the availability of fodder and forage.

Once arable cultivation begins, animals are forced to move higher up the hill, and they return later in the year after the crops have been harvested. This transhumance system of animal keeping is considered to be one of the oldest forms of livestock husbandry, having evolved at the time when animals were domesticated Owen, The pattern remains unchanged in Nepal, due to heavy interdependency of crops and livestock in agriculture Karki, In migratory flocks, sheep and goats are run together, with the goats acting as the lead animals Karki, This characteristic habit of the goat is useful in protecting sheep from predators Pradhan, Baruwal sheep and Sinhal goats, both well known for their flocking tendency and hardiness, are the principle breeds of this system in Nepal.

The figures showed that the ratio of sheep to goats was A similar ratio was recorded in the flocks of Kaski and Lamjung Districts by Ghimire et al , but large variations between districts occur. A typical migratory flock consists of — animals Karki, , but the flock size can vary within the range of 50— animals.

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Small ruminants sheep and goats are essential components of the mixed farming systems in the hills of Nepal, and are found in all parts of country. They are mainly kept for meat, although wool sheep , fibre goats and manure are also important products from these animals. In the present subsistence farming system of the hills, farmers have little surplus agricultural produce to sell and so depend upon the sale of livestock and their products as a source of income. However, because of their inherent ability to utilize mountain terrain, unsuitable for crop farming, a high proportion of sheep and goats are found in the hills. Resource-poor farmers of the hills, who cannot invest large sums of money in cattle and buffalo, prefer sheep and goat husbandry which has no social, religious or cultural taboos, or caste restrictions. Small ruminants, in the hills of Nepal, are reared either under a sedentary or a migratory system. Sedentary flocks may be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed or completely grazed, whilst the migratory flocks are reared under an extensive management system.

Sustainability of sheep and goat production systems has been investigated in this chapter in terms of environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Strategies to reduce waste from animal husbandry activities and the negative impact of animal husbandry on environment have been described. Social sustainability has been analyzed in relation to animal welfare and human—animal relationship. Economic sustainability of sheep and goat production systems in the Mediterranean countries has been addressed in terms of animal management plans to improve animal health, quality of products, and increase profitability of animal production systems.

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Но мы не пойдем в обход. Мы пойдем к вершине, что куда интереснее.

Ввиду того обстоятельства, что Земля постоянно отдавала свои наиболее дерзновенные умы, планета наша неизбежно стала очень консервативной и, наконец, воспротивилась ученым, создавшим Ванамонда. Без сомнения, в финальном действии она не играла никакой роли. Труд Империи был теперь завершен. Люди той эпохи окинули взором разоренные их отчаянными дерзаниями звезды и сделали свой выбор. Они оставят Вселенную Ванамонду.

Здесь кроется тайна - тайна, которой мы, возможно, не разрешим никогда, ибо и Ванамонд не в состоянии помочь. Нам известно лишь то, что Империя вступила в контакт с чем-то необычайным и грандиозным далеко у изгиба Космоса, у самых его пределов. Что это. Нам остается только гадать, но его призыв должен был быть безмерно настойчивым и безмерно обещающим. И очень скоро наши предки и прочие народы решили отправиться в путешествие, проследить которое мы не в состоянии.

Не была ли вспышка, которую они наблюдали, своего рода сигналом. От этой догадки захватывало дух, стоило только поразмыслить о последствиях. -- Олвин. -- раздался вдруг голос Хилвара, и в тихом этом возгласе звучала безошибочная нотка предостережения.

Он бежал из этого мира униженным - но взгляни, какой монумент они воздвигли. Огромная каменная колонна, вероятно, раз в сто превышала человеческий рост; она покоилась на металлическом круге, слегка приподнятом над равниной.

Поток становился все гуще и гуще, пока не превратился в целый водопад огня, растекающийся по земле лужами жидкого света. И в ушах Элвина, словно благословение, зазвучали слова - впрочем, уже не нужные: "Великие пришли. " Огонь коснулся его, не обжигая. Он охватил все вокруг, заполняя огромную чашу Шалмираны золотым сиянием. Глядя в восторге на открывшееся ему зрелище, Элвин понял, что это не сплошной поток света, что он имеет форму и строение.

Свет начал распадаться на отдельные образы, собираться в огненные вихри. Вихри эти все более и более стремительно вращались вокруг своей оси, центры их приподнялись, образуя колонны, внутри которых Элвин смог заметить загадочные, мимолетные фигуры. От этих сияющих идолов исходил слабый музыкальный напев, бесконечно далекий и завораживающе нежный.

"Великие пришли. " И на этот раз последовал ответ.

TABLE Production and Composition of Cow, Goat, and Sheep Milk Compared. The Holstein cow breed stands out as the milk volume producer, while.

Несколько секунд Хилвар стоял, глядя на водоворот и на изломанную землю за. Затем он кивнул на проход в скалах. Шалмирейн лежит вон в том направлении, -- уверенно проговорил он, Олвин не стал спрашивать, откуда это ему известно. Он принял как должное, что Хилвар в течение некоторого времени поддерживал контакт с кем-то из друзей за много миль от них, и ему при полном молчании передали всю необходимую информацию.

До прохода в скалах они добрались довольно быстро, а когда миновали его, то вышли на чрезвычайно интересное плато, полого снижающееся по краям. Теперь Олвин уже не испытывал ни усталости, ни страха -- только жадное чувство предвкушения волнующих событий возбуждало. Он понятия не имел о том, что именно ему предстоит обнаружить. Но то, что что-то будет обнаружено, не вызывало у него никаких сомнений. Вскоре характер поверхности резко изменился.

В Лизе мне сказали правду, хотя я и сам давно уже об этом догадался. Неужели же мы должны вечно, как сущие трусы, отсиживаться в Диаспаре, дедая вид, что, кроме него, ничего больше не существует, и только потому, что миллиард лет назад Пришельцы загнали нас на Землю.

Он затронул их потаенный страх -- страх, которого он никогда не разделял и всей глубины которого он никогда полностью не мог оценить, Пусть-ка теперь поступают, как хотят Он высказал им правду, как он ее Председатель Совета, нахмурившись, посмотрел на него: -- У тебя есть еще что-нибудь, что ты хотел бы сказать.

Прежде чем мы начнем обсуждение, что же следует предпринять. -- Только. Я бы хотел отвести этого робота к Центральному Компьютеру.

Судите меня по делам моим, хотя их и не много, а не по словам, пусть они и изобильны. Никогда прежде Олвин не встречал никого, похожего на Хедрона.

Шут оказался истинной личностью -- человеком, который, насколько мог судить Олвин, на две головы возвышался над всеобщим уровнем однообразия, столь типичным для Диаспара.

Но физическое здоровье -- свойство само по себе очень важное -- оказалось все же не главным для выполнения той задачи, которая теперь стояла перед. Его великолепному телу не хватало известных навыков. Летящая поступь Хилвара, та легкость, с которой он, не прилагая, казалось, ни малейших усилий, одолевал всякий подъем, будили в Олвине зависть и решимость не сдаваться до тех пор, пока он еще в состоянии переставлять ноги.

Он смотрел как бы на вечно застывшее море. Уходя на запад, километр за километром змеились песчаные дюны. Косое освещение резко выделяло их очертания.

В тот же миг шелест генераторов перешел в рев, потрясший корабль - звук, вдвойне впечатляющий, ибо Элвин впервые слышал протестующий крик машин. И на этом все закончилось; в ушах, казалось, звенела тишина.

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  1. Zulugis

    In my opinion, it is a lie.

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