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Produce plant electric devices

Produce plant electric devices

Account Options Sign in. Technical Translations , Volumen9,Parte2. Unedited rough draft trans of Akademiya Meditsinskikh. Abstract trans of Stiinta si Tehnica Rumania A bibliography compiled from the cardfile on reser. Education Hungary Scientific.

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This device uses the cold night sky to generate electricity

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Energy 101: Electricity Generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry , it is the stage prior to its delivery to end users transmission , distribution , etc.

A characteristic of electricity is that it is not freely available in nature in large amounts, so it must be "produced" that is, transforming other forms of energy to electricity. Production is carried out in power stations also called "power plants".

Electricity is most often generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators , primarily driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind.

Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power. The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered in the s and early s by British scientist Michael Faraday.

His method, still used today, is for electricity to be generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.

Central power stations became economically practical with the development of alternating current AC power transmission, using power transformers to transmit power at high voltage and with low loss. In , commercial electricity production started with the coupling of the dynamo to the hydraulic turbine.

In , the mechanical production of electric power began the Second Industrial Revolution and created inventions using the energy, whose major contributors were Thomas Alva Edison and Nikola Tesla. Previously the only way to produce electricity was by chemical reactions or using battery cells, and the only practical use of electricity was for the telegraph.

Electricity generation at central power stations started in , when a steam engine driving a dynamo at Pearl Street Station produced a DC current that powered public lighting on Pearl Street , New York. The new technology was quickly adopted by many cities around the world, which adapted their gas-fueled street lights to electric power, and soon after electric lights would be used in public buildings, in businesses, and to power public transport, such as trams and trains.

The first power plants used water power or coal; [1] and today a variety of energy sources are used, such as coal , nuclear , natural gas , hydroelectric , wind , and oil , as well as solar energy , tidal power , and geothermal sources. The use of power-lines and power-poles has been significantly important in the distribution of electricity. Several fundamental methods exist to convert other forms of energy into electrical energy. The triboelectric effect , piezoelectric effect , and even direct capture of the energy of nuclear decay Betavoltaics are used in niche applications, as is a direct conversion of heat to electric power in the thermoelectric effect.

Utility-scale generation is done by rotating electric generators, or by photovoltaic systems. A very small proportion of electric power distributed by utilities is provided by batteries.

US electricity generation by type. Sources of electricity in France in Electric generators transform kinetic energy into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faraday's law. It can be seen experimentally by rotating a magnet within closed loops of conducting material e. Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in which mechanical energy forces a generator to rotate:.

Electrochemistry is the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery. Electrochemical electricity generation is important in portable and mobile applications. Currently, most electrochemical power comes from batteries. Open electrochemical systems, known as fuel cells , can be used to extract power either from natural fuels or from synthesized fuels. Osmotic power is a possibility at places where salt and fresh water merge.

The photovoltaic effect is the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells. Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to DC electricity. Power inverters can then convert that to AC electricity if needed.

Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar power electricity is still usually more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels.

Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have dramatically accelerated the deployment of solar panels. The selection of electricity production modes and their economic viability varies in accordance with demand and region. The economics vary considerably around the world, resulting in widespread residential selling prices , e.

Hydroelectric plants , nuclear power plants , thermal power plants and renewable sources have their own pros and cons, and selection is based upon the local power requirement and the fluctuations in demand. All power grids have varying loads on them but the daily minimum is the base load, often supplied by plants which run continuously. Nuclear, coal, oil, gas and some hydro plants can supply base load. Thermal energy may be economical in areas of high industrial density, as the high demand cannot be met by local renewable sources.

The effect of localized pollution is also minimized as industries are usually located away from residential areas. These plants can also withstand variation in load and consumption by adding more units or temporarily decreasing the production of some units. Nuclear power plants can produce a huge amount of power from a single unit. However, disasters in Japan have raised concerns over the safety of nuclear power, and the capital cost of nuclear plants is very high.

Hydroelectric power plants are located in areas where the potential energy from falling water can be harnessed for moving turbines and the generation of power. It may not be an economically viable single source of production where the ability to store the flow of water is limited and the load varies too much during the annual production cycle.

Due to advancements in technology, and with mass production, renewable sources other than hydroelectricity solar power, wind energy, tidal power, etc.

Many governments around the world provide subsidies to offset the higher cost of any new power production, and to make the installation of renewable energy systems economically feasible.

However, their use is frequently limited by their intermittent nature ; sometimes less than demand, sometimes more than transmission constraints allow, in which case their production may be curtailed.

Electric generators were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current in the s. In general, some form of prime mover such as an engine or the turbines described above, drives a rotating magnetic field past stationary coils of wire thereby turning mechanical energy into electricity. Almost all commercial electrical power on Earth is generated with a turbine , driven by wind, water, steam or burning gas. The turbine drives a generator, thus transforming its mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction.

There are many different methods of developing mechanical energy, including heat engines , hydro, wind and tidal power. Most electric generation is driven by heat engines. The combustion of fossil fuels supplies most of the energy to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission and some from renewable sources.

Turbine types include:. Although turbines are most common in commercial power generation, smaller generators can be powered by gasoline or diesel engines. These may used for backup generation or as a prime source of power within isolated villages. Total worldwide gross production of electricity in was 25,TWh. Sources of electricity were coal and peat The in-house consumption of electricity and power transmission losses were , ktoe.

Variations between countries generating electrical power affect concerns about the environment. Transportation emissions are close behind, contributing about one-third of U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process of generating electrical power. Natural Gas Hydro Nuclear fission Oil 3. Non hydro renew. See also: Cost of electricity by source and Electricity pricing.

Main article: Electric generator. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March Main article: World energy resources and consumption. See also: Electricity consumption. December Main article: Environmental impact of electricity generation. See also: Global warming and Coal phase out. Main article: Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources.

Energy portal Renewable energy portal Engineering portal. Generation expansion planning Cogeneration : the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Diesel generator Distributed generation Electric power transmission Engine-generator World energy consumption : the total energy used by all of human civilization. Retrieved International Energy Agency. Department of Energy. Retrieved 20 June May 1, World Coal Association. The Seattle Times.

Archived from the original on US Environmental Protection Agency. UK Parliament. Retrieved 15 May Burgherr, G.

It may sound like an idea dreamed up at Woodstock with the help of some mind-altering substances, but researchers are finding ways to tap into the power of photosynthesis to generate at least small amounts of electricity. As it turns out, plants are more efficient than they need to be, and they disperse excess energy that we can collect.

We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. The company is developing technology that generates electricity from living plants without damaging them. Especially suitable for wet areas such as rice paddy fields, it could provide clean power to remote communities.

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry , it is the stage prior to its delivery to end users transmission , distribution , etc. A characteristic of electricity is that it is not freely available in nature in large amounts, so it must be "produced" that is, transforming other forms of energy to electricity. Production is carried out in power stations also called "power plants". Electricity is most often generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators , primarily driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power. The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered in the s and early s by British scientist Michael Faraday.

How plants can generate electricity to power LED light bulbs

In , scientist Michael Faraday discovered that when a magnet is moved inside a coil of wire, an electric current flows in the wire. An electricity generator is a device that converts a form of energy into electricity. Generators operate because of the relationship between magnetism and electricity. Generators that convert kinetic mechanical energy into electrical energy produce nearly all of the electricity that consumers use. A common method of producing electricity is from generators with an electromagnet —a magnet produced by electricity—not a traditional magnet.

By Maria Temming. October 22, at am.

Sustainable energy sources, which are pollution free and environmentally friendly, are one of the key challenges of world's future society. The interdisciplinary team of roboticists and biologists at IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia in Pontedera Pisa, Italy , found that living plants can help with electricity. Fabian Meder, Barbara Mazzolai and their coworkers at IIT discovered that living plants are literally "green" power source, which may become one of future's electricity supplies that perfectly integrates in natural environments and is accessible all over the world. Researchers discovered that plants can generate, by a single leaf, more than Volts, enough to simultaneously power LED light bulbs. Researchers also showed that an "hybrid tree" made of natural and artificial leaves can act as an innovative "green" electrical generator converting wind into electricity. The research team is based at Center for Micro-Bio Robotics CMBR of IIT in Pontedera Pisa, Italy , coordinated by Barbara Mazzolai, and their goal is to perform advanced research and to develop innovative methodologies, robotic technologies and new materials, inspired by the natural world. Bio-inspired approaches can therefore help to develop robots and technologies that are more suitable for unstructured environments than today's solutions. In Barbara Mazzolai coordinated the EU funded project Plantoid, which brought to the realization of the first plant robot in the world. In this last study, the research team studied plants and showed that leaves can create electricity when they are touched by a distinct material or by the wind. Certain leaf structures are capable to convert mechanical forces applied at the leaf surface into electrical energy, because of the specific composition that most plant leaves naturally provide.

Electricity generation

Затем младший по возрасту снова обратился к Элвину: - У тебя не было каких-либо. затруднений?. - Никаких, - сказал Элвин, решив ввести их в еще большее смущение.

Скалы, которые были способны потрясти мир и обратить его в прах, обернулись пламенем и громом и потерпели сокрушительное поражение, натолкнувшись на эти стены и на ту энергию, которая ожидала за ними своего часа. Когда-то это такое мирное небо полыхало огнем, вырванным из самого сердца звезд, и горы Лиза, должно быть, стонали; будто живые существа, на которые обрушивается ярость их хозяина. Шалмирейн никогда не был захвачен кем бы то ни .

Весьма вероятно, подумалось ему, что, не будь этого, они уже давным-давно стали бы совершенно немы. Эти люди постоянно были чем-то заняты, их время и внимание поглощали задачи и проблемы, для Олвина абсолютно непостижимые.

А когда он все-таки догадывался о том, что именно делает тот или иной житель Лиза, многое из этих трудов представлялось ему совсем ненужным. Значительная часть потребляемых здесь пищевых продуктов самым натуральным образом выращивалась, а не синтезировалась по технологии, выработанной еще столетия.

Когда Олвин заговорил об этом, ему терпеливо объяснили, что людям Лиза нравится наблюдать за ростом живого, нравится выполнять сложные генетические эксперименты и разрабатывать все более тонкие оттенки вкуса и аромата. Эрли славился фруктами, но, когда Олвин отведал некоторые из самых отборных плодов, они показались ему ничуть не лучше тех, которые он мог сотворить в Диаспаре, едва пальцем шевельнув. Сперва он задался вопросом: не забыли ли жители Лиза те силы и машины (если они когда-либо обладали ими), которые он принимал как нечто в высшей степени естественное и на которых зиждилась вся жизнь в Диаспаре.

Вскоре он, однако, обнаружил, что вопрос поставлен некорректно. В Лизе были и необходимые орудия, и умение их применять, но вот прибегали к ним лишь в том случае, когда это было уж совершенно необходимо.

Наиболее разительный пример в этом смысле являла собой местная транспортная система -- если ее можно было почтить таким названием.

Production is carried out in power stations (also called "power plants"). Electricity is most often generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind.‎Power station · ‎Primary energy · ‎List of energy resources.

How to generate electricity from living plants

Это неправда, - сказал он. - Уверен, что в Диаспаре не найдется другого человека, способного покинуть город даже при большом желании, даже если он будет знать, что существует возможность вообще куда-либо попасть. Если вы отпустите меня, для вас это не будет иметь значения. - Это не мое решение, - пояснила Серанис, - и ты недооцениваешь силу рассудка, если думаешь, что барьеры, удерживающие твой народ в городе, непробиваемы.

Впрочем, мы не хотим удерживать тебя здесь насильно, но если ты вернешься в Диаспар, мы должны будем стереть все воспоминания о Лисе из твоего сознания. - Она на миг заколебалась. - Ранее этого никогда не делалось: все твои предшественники остались.

Этот выбор был неприемлем для Элвина.

Turning Energy Plants Produce Into Usable Electricity

Он не смог бы объяснить побудительные мотивы этой маленькой неправды и, как только произнес эти слова, сразу же застыдился. Сирэйнис задумчиво посмотрела на. -- Боюсь, что все это не так просто,-- проговорила. -- Что вы имеете в виду. -- спросил Олвин. -- Разве машина, которая привезла меня сюда, не в состоянии отправить меня и обратно. -- Он никак не мог свыкнуться с мыслью, что его могут задержать в Лизе помимо его воли, хотя что-то подобное и промелькнуло у него в голове.

Впервые за все время Сирэйнис, похоже, почувствовала некоторую неловкость. -- Мы сейчас говорим о вас, -- сказала она, не обьясняя, кто это -- мы и каким образом могла происходить такая консультация.

-- Если вы возвратитесь в Диаспар, о нашем существовании узнает весь город.

Джизирак делал это уже не одну сотню раз и прежде и так и не добился какого-либо интересного результата. Но он был заворожен тем, как простые числа были разбросаны -- по-видимому, без какой-либо закономерности -- по спектру своих целых собратьев. И хотя законы распределения, к этому времени уже открытые, были ему известны, он все же надеялся обнаружить что-нибудь новенькое.

Верхняя часть машины была прозрачной, и сквозь стенки Элвин мог видеть ряды роскошно отделанных кресел. Не было и намека на вход.

Люди той эпохи смотрели на звезды, которые они исковеркали в своем отчаянном стремлении побороть опасность, и приняли решение. Они постановили оставить нашу Вселенную в распоряжении Вэйнамонда. Здесь чувствуется какая-то тайна.

Но не успев додумать эту мысль, разум Элвина отверг. Пусть Диаспар достаточен для всего остального человечества. Для него - .

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