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Product industry general telecommunication, broadcasting and television

Product industry general telecommunication, broadcasting and television

China is at the forefront of constructing a 5G communication network. So far, China Mobile has set up almost 4, 5G base stations in Beijing, and the outdoor continuous coverage of the 5G network within the Fifth Ring Road in Beijing and its suburban area is anticipated to be achieved by the end of There are other telecom operators in China as well; however, they basically specialise in certain industries and cover a very limited market share, such as Beijing Sinnet for cloud computing, and DR. PENG for broadband access. The primary legislation relevant to telecoms, internet and audio-visual media distribution include but are not limited to the following:. The MIIT and the telecommunications administration authorities of each province, autonomous region or centrally administered municipality primarily regulate telecoms.

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Information media and telecommunications industry

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Jump to navigation. Objectionable Programming. It provides a brief overview of the regulation of broadcast radio and television licensees, describing how the FCC authorizes broadcast stations, the various rules relating to broadcast programming and operations that stations must comply with, and the essential obligation of licensees that their stations serve their local communities.

To do this, each non-exempt station licensee must identify the needs and problems and then specifically treat these local matters in the news, public affairs, political and other programming that it airs. As discussed in more detail further in this Manual, each commercial station — and most noncommercial stations — must provide the public with information about how it has met its obligation in a quarterly report.

The report contains a listing of the programming the station aired that the licensee believes provided significant treatment of issues facing the community. Additionally, the purpose of this Manual is to provide you with the basic tools necessary to ensure that the stations licensed to serve you meet their obligations and provide high quality broadcast service.

The FCC wants you to become involved. If you have any concerns about a local station — including its general operation, programming or other matters — make your opinion known to the licensee and, if necessary, advise us of your concerns so we can look into the matter. An informed and actively engaged public plays a vital role in helping each station to operate appropriately in serving the needs of its local community. The purpose of this Manual is to provide you with the basic tools necessary to ensure that the stations that are licensed to serve you meet their obligations and provide high quality broadcast service.

We at the FCC want you to become involved, if you have any concerns about a local station — including its general operation, programming or other matters — by making your opinion known to the licensee and, if necessary, by advising us of those concerns so that we can take appropriate action. An informed and actively engaged public plays a vital role in helping each station to operate appropriately and serve the needs of its local community. We urge you to make use of the resources contained on this site, which may outline more recent developments in the law not discussed in the current version of this Manual.

The Communications Act. The Communications Act authorizes the Commission to "make such regulations not inconsistent with law as it may deem necessary to prevent interference between stations and to carry out the provisions of the Act. As is the case with most other federal agencies, the FCC generally cannot adopt or change rules without first describing or publishing the proposed rules and asking the public for comment.

We release a document called a Notice of Proposed Rule Making NPRM in which we explain the new rules — or rule changes being proposed — and establish a filing deadline for the public to comment. After we hear from the public and consider all comments received, we generally have several options.

We can:. In addition to adopting rules, we establish broadcast regulatory policies through the individual cases that we decide, such as those involving license renewals, station sales, and complaints about violations of Commission rules. Serving under the Commissioners are a number of Offices and operating Bureaus. One of those is the Media Bureau, which has day-to-day responsibility for developing, recommending, and administering the rules governing the media, including radio and television stations.

The FCC allocates a portion of the broadcast spectrum to new broadcast stations based upon both the relative needs of various communities for additional broadcast outlets, and specified engineering standards designed to prevent interference among stations and other communications users.

Whenever we review an application — whether to build a new station, modify or renew the license of an existing station or sell a station — we must determine if granting the application would serve the public interest. As mentioned earlier, we expect station licensees to be aware of the important problems and issues facing their local communities and to foster public understanding by presenting programming that relates to those local issues.

Broadcasters — not the FCC or any other government agency — are responsible for selecting the material they air. The First Amendment and the Communications Act expressly prohibit the Commission from censoring broadcast matter.

Our role in overseeing program content is very limited. We license only individual broadcast stations. In general, we also do not regulate information provided over the Internet, nor do we intervene in private disputes involving broadcast stations or their licensees. Instead, we usually defer to the parties, courts, or other agencies to resolve these disputes.

Commercial and Noncommercial Educational Stations. Most AM radio stations are licensed as commercial facilities. Class A television, low power television and television translator stations are neither designated commercial or NCE. Commercial stations usually support themselves through the sale of advertising. In contrast, NCE stations generally meet their operating expenses with contributions received from listeners and viewers, and also may receive government funding.

In addition, NCE stations may receive contributions from for-profit entities and are permitted to acknowledge these contributions or underwriting donations with announcements naming and generally describing the contributing party or donor.

However, NCE stations cannot broadcast commercials or other promotional announcements on behalf of for-profit entities. The limitations on NCE stations are discussed further in this Manual. Before a party can build a new TV or radio station, it first must apply to the FCC for a construction permit. The applicant must demonstrate that it is qualified to construct and operate the station as specified in its application and that its proposed facility will not cause objectionable interference to any other station.

Once its application has been granted, the applicant is issued a construction permit that authorizes it to build the station within a specified period of time, usually three years. Applications for License Renewal.

Stations must renew their licenses before they expire. Renewal applications are due on a staggered basis depending upon the state in which the station is licensed. To assist us in this evaluative process, a station licensee must file a renewal application FCC Form S , to tell us whether:.

Digital Television. All full-power television stations have operated in digital mode since All Class A television stations began operating digitally in Low power television and television translator stations must complete their transition to digital by July 31, Digital Radio. As with DTV, digital radio substantially improves the quality of the radio signal and allows a station to offer multicasting over several programming streams, as well as certain enhanced services. Unlike the mandatory digital transition deadline for television stations, radio stations can continue to operate in analog and have discretion whether also to transmit in digital and, if so, when to begin operating digitally.

To receive the digital signals of stations that choose to operate in digital, consumers will have to purchase new receivers. Because digital radio technology allows a radio station to transmit simultaneously in both analog and digital, listeners can use their current radios to receive the analog signals of radio stations that transmit both analog and digital signals.

Receivers are being marketed that incorporate both modes of reception, with the ability to automatically switch to the analog signal if the digital signal cannot be detected or is lost by the receiver. Renewal Applications. Before its expiration, each station licensee must broadcast a series of announcements stating when its license expires, the filing date for the renewal application, the date by which formal petitions against the renewal must be filed, and how to obtain a copy of the application.

Petitions to deny the application must be filed by the first day of the last full calendar month before the expiring license term. For example, if the license expires on December 1, we must receive any petition at our Washington, D.

Broadcast licenses generally expire on a staggered basis, by state, with most radio licenses expiring between October 1, , and August 1, , and most television licenses expiring between October 1, , and August 1, , one year after the radio licenses in the same state.

Before you file a petition to deny an application, you should check our rules and policies to make sure that your petition complies with our procedural requirements. Alternatively, you can also file an informal objection, which has fewer procedural requirements, often takes the form of a simple letter, and will be considered if received at any time before we either grant or deny the application. Other Types of Applications.

When filing these types of applications, the applicant is required to publish a series of notices, generally in a local newspaper, containing information similar to that noted above regarding renewal applications. Once the application is received, the FCC will issue a Public Notice and begin a day period during which petitions to deny the application can be filed.

As with renewal applications, you can also file an informal objection to these types of applications, or any other application, at any time before we either grant or deny the application.

The First Amendment, as well as Section of the Communications Act, prohibits the Commission from censoring broadcast material and from interfering with freedom of expression in broadcasting. Therefore, the FCC cannot prevent the broadcast of any particular point of view.

There are some restrictions on the material that a licensee can broadcast. These restrictions are discussed below. Licensee Discretion. Because the Commission cannot dictate to licensees what programming they air, each individual radio and TV station licensee generally has discretion to select what its station broadcasts and to otherwise determine how it can best serve its community of license.

Licensees are responsible for selecting their entertainment programming, as well as programs concerning local issues, news, public affairs, religion, sports events, and other subjects. They also decide how their programs will be structured and whether to edit or reschedule material for broadcasting. In light of the First Amendment and Section of the Communications Act, we do not substitute our judgment for that of the licensee, nor do we advise stations on artistic standards, format, grammar, or the quality of their programming.

The First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech similarly protects programming that stereotypes or may otherwise offend people with regard to their religion, race, national background, gender, or other characteristics.

It also protects broadcasts that criticize or ridicule established customs and institutions, including the government and its officials. The Commission recognizes that, under our Constitution, people must be free to say things that the majority may abhor, not only what most people may find tolerable or congenial. Programming Access. In light of their discretion to formulate their programming, station licensees are not required to broadcast everything that is offered or otherwise suggested to them.

As noted above, in light of the fundamental importance of the free flow of information to our democracy, the First Amendment and the Communications Act bar the FCC from telling station licensees how to select material for news programs or prohibiting the broadcast of an opinion on any subject. Nevertheless, there are two issues related to broadcast journalism that are subject to Commission regulation: hoaxes and news distortion.

The broadcast by a station of false information concerning a crime or catastrophe violates the FCC's rules if:. The broadcast must cause direct and actual damage to property or to the health or safety of the general public, or diversion of law enforcement or other public health and safety authorities from their duties, and the public harm must begin immediately.

If a station airs a disclaimer before the broadcast that clearly characterizes the program as fiction and the disclaimer is presented in a reasonable manner under the circumstances, the program is presumed not to pose foreseeable public harm. News Distortion.

The Commission often receives complaints concerning broadcast journalism, such as allegations that stations have aired inaccurate or one-sided news reports or comments, covered stories inadequately, or overly dramatized the events that they cover. For the reasons noted previously, the Commission generally will not intervene in these cases because it would be inconsistent with the First Amendment to replace the journalistic judgment of licensees with our own.

However, as public trustees, broadcast licensees may not intentionally distort the news. Of particular concern would be evidence of the direction to employees from station management to falsify the news.

However, absent such a compelling showing, the Commission will not intervene. Political Broadcasting: Candidates for Public Office. Obscene, Indecent, or Profane Programming. Obscene Material.

Obscene material is not protected by the First Amendment and cannot be broadcast at any time. To be obscene, the material must have all of the following three characteristics:. Indecent Material.

The technology, media, and telecom TMT sector, sometimes also referred to as technology, media, and communications TMC , is an industry sector used by investment bankers , investors, traders and other market participants. Because this industry segment covers a broad range, it is often useful to break down TMT into subsectors such as semiconductors, hardware, software, mobile, Internet, networking, etc.

The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the Internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are telephone both wired and wireless operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers. Not long ago, the telecommunications sector consisted of a club of big national and regional operators. Since the early s, the industry has been swept up in rapid deregulation and innovation. In many countries around the world, government monopolies are now privatized and they face a plethora of new competitors.


Gain an understanding of the legal, operational and business issues relevant to the information media and telecommunications industry. You should check our general business information for additional regulations and obligations relevant to your business. For further advice and assistance, contact your accountant, solicitor or business adviser. You may also wish to consult with an industry association or group for more information and advice on your industry. You must be aware of the laws that apply to the information media and telecommunications industry. The Department of Communications and the Arts also provides a comprehensive list of policy and legislation that affect the information media and telecommunications industry.

The Public and Broadcasting

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. How important is telecommunications as an industry, and how important is telecommunications research to the overall health of that industry? Underlying these questions are several others. How important is telecommunications to the U.

Account Options Login. Statistical Abstract of the United States.

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. It is transmitted through a transmission medium , such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable , or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons , smoke signals , semaphore telegraphs , signal flags and optical heliographs. A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi , who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in , and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. It comes from Old French comunicacion 14c. Homing pigeons have occasionally been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, and was later used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.

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Jump to navigation. Objectionable Programming. It provides a brief overview of the regulation of broadcast radio and television licensees, describing how the FCC authorizes broadcast stations, the various rules relating to broadcast programming and operations that stations must comply with, and the essential obligation of licensees that their stations serve their local communities.

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Возможно, там шумели океаны и леса, быть может, существовали иные города, еще не покинутые Человеком в его долгом-долгом отступлении к своему последнему пристанищу. Минуты текли -- и каждая была целой эпохой в крохотной вселенной мониторов. Олвину подумалось, что скоро они достигнут самого раннего из доступных уровней памяти и бег в прошлое прекратится. И хотя все происходящее представлялось ему просто-таки захватывающе интересным, он тем не менее никак не мог понять, каким образом это поможет ему вырваться из.

Резким, беззвучным скачком город сократился до незначительной части своей нынешней величины. Парк исчез. В мгновение ока словно бы испарилась ограничивающая город стена, составленная из титанических башен. Этот новый город был открыт всем ветрам, и его радиальные дороги простирались к границам объемного изображения, не встречая никакого препятствия.

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Technology, Media and Telecom Sector Definition

Пока ему совершенно не удавалось понять общественное устройство Лиса - то ли оно было слишком простым, то ли настолько сложным, что все хитросплетения ускользали от его взгляда. Удалось выяснить лишь то, что Лис делился на многочисленные поселки; Эрли могла служить типичным примером. Но, в сущности, типичных примеров не было вообще, поскольку Элвина убеждали, что каждый поселок стремится как можно больше отличаться от соседей. Все это было предельно запутанно.

Несмотря на небольшие размеры и малочисленность населения, не превышавшего тысячу человек, Эрли была полна сюрпризов.

What Is the Telecommunications Sector?

Но узнавать о необычных происшествиях в городе - мое развлечение, а с тех пор, как Башню Лоранна посещали в последний раз, прошло уже очень много времени. Элвина слегка удивило, каким образом Хедрон узнал о его прежних визитах. Но он тут же перестал думать об. Диаспар был полон глаз, ушей и других, более тонких органов чувств, информировавших город обо всем происходящем в нем. Кто угодно, проявив достаточную заинтересованность, мог без труда найти способ подключиться к этим каналам.

- Если даже в самом деле войти сюда - это необычный поступок, - сказал Элвин, продолжая словесную пикировку, - почему ты должен этим интересоваться.

- Потому что в Диаспаре, - ответил Хедрон, - необычное является моей прерогативой. Я давно выделил тебя; я знал, что мы однажды встретимся. Я тоже уникален: в своем роде.

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Вопросы, которые он задавал, были так терпеливы, он говорил с таким участием и в то же самое время с такой настойчивостью и убедительностью, что Олвин решил ни в коем случае не прерывать его, хотя его так и подмывало вступить в разговор.

Ему не хотелось признаваться себе, что Хилвар превосходит его по развитию, но не было ни малейших сомнений в том, что дар друга общаться с животными простирается даже на это фантастическое существо. И более того -- чудище, похоже, откликалось.

Ответ стал понятен лишь после того, как они вновь отправили робота на разведку и сами обследовали все. Никаких сомнений не оставалось, когда Элвин обнаружил на холмике близ корабля ряд пологих насыпей, каждая метра в три - Так, значит, они сели здесь, - размышлял Хилвар, - и проигнорировали предупреждение. Они были любопытны. так же, как и .

Сказал. -- Тогда меня вполне мог удовлетворить Лиз, и он меня и удовлетворил, но теперь все на Земле кажется таким маленьким.

Олвин его почти не слышал. Он был глубоко погружен в собственные мысли, стараясь припомнить все, что ему приходилось слышать о Шалмирейне. Впрочем, вспоминать было почти нечего. По прошествии столь невообразимо долгого времени никто уже не смог бы отсеять правду от вымысла.

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