A monolithic integrated circuit also known as IC , microchip , silicon chip , computer chip or chip is a miniaturized electronic circuit consisting mainly of semiconductor devices , as well as passive components that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. This article is about monolithic integrated circuits. Integrated Circuits can be found in almost every electronic device today. Anything, from a common wristwatch to a personal computer has Integrated Circuits in it.
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- Integrated Circuit [IC]
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- Integrated circuit
- Integrated circuit
- How Integrated Circuits Work, Physically?
- How are Integrated Circuits Made? Construction of Integrated Circuits
- What is the Difference Between Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuit?
- Integrated Circuit
Integrated Circuit [IC]
An integrated circuit, commonly referred to as an IC, is a microscopic array of electronic circuits and components that has been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip, of semiconducting material such as silicon.
It is called an integrated circuit because the components, circuits, and base material are all made together, or integrated, out of a single piece of silicon, as opposed to a discrete circuit in which the components are made separately from different materials and assembled later. ICs range in complexity from simple logic modules and amplifiers to complete microcomputers containing millions of elements. The impact of integrated circuits on our lives has been enormous.
ICs have become the principal components of almost all electronic devices. These miniature circuits have demonstrated low cost, high reliability, low power requirements, and high processing speeds compared to the vacuum tubes and transistors which preceded them.
Integrated circuit microcomputers are now used as controllers in equipment such as machine tools, vehicle operating systems, and other applications where hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical controls were previously used. Because IC microcomputers are smaller and more versatile than previous control mechanisms, they allow the equipment to respond to a wider range of input and produce a wider range of output.
They can also be reprogrammed without having to redesign the control circuitry. Integrated circuit microcomputers are so inexpensive they are even found in children's electronic toys.
The first integrated circuits were created in the late s in response to a demand from the military for miniaturized electronics to be used in missile control systems. At the time, transistors and printed circuit boards were the state-of-the-art electronic technology.
Although transistors made many new electronic applications possible, engineers were still unable to make a small enough package for the large number of components and circuits required in complex devices like sophisticated control systems and handheld programmable calculators.
Several companies were in competition to produce a breakthrough in miniaturized electronics, and their development efforts were so close that there is some question as to which company actually produced the first IC. In fact, when the integrated circuit was finally patented in , the patent was awarded jointly to two individuals working separately at two different companies.
After the invention of the IC in , the number of components and circuits that could be incorporated into a single chip doubled every year for several years. The first integrated circuits contained only up to a dozen components. This was followed by large scale integration techniques, or LSI, which produced ICs with thousands of components and made the first microcomputers possible. The first microcomputer chip, often called a microprocessor, was developed by Intel Corporation in It went into commercial production in as the Intel Intel introduced their chip in , followed by the Intel , , and In the late s and early s, the designations , , and were well known to computer users as reflecting increasing levels of computing power and speed.
Intel's Pentium chip is the latest in this series and reflects an even higher level. In an integrated circuit, electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors are formed directly onto the surface of a silicon crystal. The process of manufacturing an integrated circuit will make more sense if one first understands some of the basics of how these components are formed.
Even before the first IC was developed, it was known that common electronic components could be made from silicon. The question was how to make them, and the connecting circuits, from the same piece of silicon? The solution was to alter, or dope, the chemical composition of tiny areas on the silicon crystal surface by adding other chemicals, called dopants. Some dopants bond with the silicon to produce regions where the dopant atoms have one electron they can give up.
These are called N regions. Other dopants bond with the silicon to produce regions where the dopant atoms have room to take one electron. These are called P regions. When a P region touches an N region, the boundary between them is referred to as a PN junction. This boundary is only 0. Within a PN junction, the atoms of the two regions bond in such a manner as to create a third region, called a depletion region, in which the P dopant atoms capture all the N dopant extra electrons, thus depleting them.
One of the phenomena that results is that a positive voltage applied to the P region can cause an electrical current to flow through the junction into the N region, but a similar positive voltage applied to the N region will result in little or no current flowing through the junction back into the P region. This ability of a PN junction to either conduct or insulate depending on which side the voltage is applied can be used to form integrated circuit components that direct and control current flows in the same manner as diodes and transistors.
A diode, for example, is simply a single PN junction. By altering the amount and types of dopants and changing the shapes and relative placements of P and N regions, integrated circuit components that emulate the functions of resistors and capacitors can be also be formed. Some integrated circuits can be considered standard, off-the-shelf items.
Once designed, there is no further design work required. Examples of standard ICs would include voltage regulators, amplifiers, analog switches, and analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog converters. These ICs are usually sold to other companies who incorporate them into printed circuit boards for various electronic products. Other integrated circuits are unique and require extensive design work.
An example would be a new microprocessor for computers. This design work may require research and development of new materials and new manufacturing techniques to achieve the final design.
Pure silicon is the basis for most integrated circuits. It provides the base, or substrate for the entire chip and is chemically doped to provide the N and P regions that make up the integrated circuit components. The silicon must be so pure that only one out of every ten billion atoms can be an impurity.
This would be the equivalent of one grain of sugar in ten buckets of sand. Silicon dioxide is used as an insulator and as a dielectric material in IC capacitors. Typical N-type dopants include phosphorus and arsenic. Boron and gallium are typical P-type dopants. Aluminum is commonly used as a connector between the various IC components.
The thin wire leads from the integrated circuit chip to its mounting package may be aluminum or gold. The mounting package itself may be made from ceramic or plastic materials. Hundreds of integrated circuits are made at the same time on a single, thin slice of silicon and are then cut apart into individual IC chips.
The manufacturing process takes place in a tightly controlled environment known as a clean room where the air is filtered to remove foreign particles.
The few equipment operators in the room wear lint-free garments, gloves, and coverings for their heads and feet. Since some IC components are sensitive to certain frequencies of light, even the light sources are filtered.
Although manufacturing processes may vary depending on the integrated circuit being made, the following process is typical. Despite the controlled environment and use of precision tools, a high number of integrated circuit chips are rejected.
Although the percentage of reject chips has steadily dropped over the years, the task of making an interwoven lattice of microscopic circuits and components is still difficult, and a certain amount of rejects are inevitable. The dopants gallium and arsenic, among others, are toxic substances and their storage, use, and disposal must be tightly controlled. Because integrated circuit chips are so versatile, a significant recycling industry has sprung up. Many ICs and other electronic components are removed from otherwise obsolete equipment, tested, and resold for use in other devices.
It is difficult to tell with any certainty what the future holds for the integrated circuit. Changes in technology since the device's invention have been rapid, but evolutionary. Many changes have been made in the architecture, or circuit layout, on a chip, but the integrated circuit still remains a silicon-based design. The next major leap in the advancement of electronic devices, if such a leap is to come, may involve an entirely new circuit technology.
Better devices than the very best microprocessor have always been known to be possible. The human brain, for example, processes information much more efficiently than any computer, and some futurists have speculated that the next generation of processor circuits will be biological, rather than mineral.
At this point, such matters are the stuff of fiction. There are no immediate signs that the integrated circuit is in any danger of extinction. Braithwaite, Nicholas and Graham Weaver, Eds. Electronic Materials. Butterworths, Gibilisco, Stan. International Encyclopedia of Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed.
Spinks, Brian. Introduction to Integrated-Circuit Layout. Prentice-Hall, Faggin, Federico. Rosch, Winn L. Smith, Gina. Toggle navigation. Periodicals Faggin, Federico. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur.
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An integrated circuit, commonly referred to as an IC, is a microscopic array of electronic circuits and components that has been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip, of semiconducting material such as silicon. It is called an integrated circuit because the components, circuits, and base material are all made together, or integrated, out of a single piece of silicon, as opposed to a discrete circuit in which the components are made separately from different materials and assembled later. ICs range in complexity from simple logic modules and amplifiers to complete microcomputers containing millions of elements. The impact of integrated circuits on our lives has been enormous.
Looking for other ways to read this?
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit also referred to as an IC , a chip , or a microchip is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece or "chip" of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny MOS transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by technological advancements in metal—oxide—silicon MOS semiconductor device fabrication. These advances, roughly following Moore's law , make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early s.
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Last updated: January 9, It was about the same length and weight as three to four double-decker buses and contained 18, buzzing electronic switches known as vacuum tubes. Despite its gargantuan size, it was thousands of times less powerful than a modern laptop—a machine about times smaller. If the history of computing sounds like a magic trick—squeezing more and more power into less and less space—it is! What made it possible was the invention of the integrated circuit IC in It's a neat way of cramming hundreds, thousands, millions, or even billions of electronic components onto tiny chips of silicon no bigger than a fingernail. Let's take a closer look at ICs and how they work!
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A hallmark of the microelectronics industry is the sustained exponential growth in the performance and complexity of ICs over the past four decades. As complexity and speed have increased, the cost of logic functions, memory, and central processing units CPUs has dropped dramatically.
An Integrated circuit IC, microchip, or chip is an electronic circuit made up of small semiconductor devices and other electronic components that are manufactured on a semiconductor material. The integration of a large number of transistors into a single chip was a great achievement. It was only made possible after conducting a great number of experiments, and then it was discovered that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes. The discovery of integrated circuits was a huge breakthrough in the field of electronics due to the fact that ICs were a lot more reliable, capable, and cheaper than discrete circuits. Also the space occupied by the electronic components is minimized as all the components are printed as a unit and much less material is required. Power consumption is another advantage of ICs because the components are very small in size and are working as a unit. There are certain circuit design and logic techniques that are used to design an integrated circuit. There are two categories of IC design which are:. Digital designing ensures that the circuits are correct and the circuit density is at maximum. The overall efficiency of the circuit is very high.
How Integrated Circuits Work, Physically?
Integrated circuit IC , also called microelectronic circuit , microchip , or chip , an assembly of electronic components, fabricated as a single unit, in which miniaturized active devices e. The individual circuit components are generally microscopic in size. Integrated circuits have their origin in the invention of the transistor in by William B. Brattain found that, under the right circumstances, electrons would form a barrier at the surface of certain crystals , and they learned to control the flow of electricity through the crystal by manipulating this barrier. Controlling electron flow through a crystal allowed the team to create a device that could perform certain electrical operations, such as signal amplification, that were previously done by vacuum tubes. They named this device a transistor, from a combination of the words transfer and resistor. The study of methods of creating electronic devices using solid materials became known as solid-state electronics. Solid-state devices proved to be much sturdier, easier to work with, more reliable, much smaller, and less expensive than vacuum tubes. Using the same principles and materials, engineers soon learned to create other electrical components, such as resistors and capacitors. Now that electrical devices could be made so small, the largest part of a circuit was the awkward wiring between the devices.
How are Integrated Circuits Made? Construction of Integrated Circuits
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit also referred to as an IC , a chip , or a microchip is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece or "chip" of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny MOS transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers , mobile phones , and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by technological advancements in metal—oxide—silicon MOS semiconductor device fabrication. These advances, roughly following Moore's law , make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits : cost and performance.
What is the Difference Between Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuit?
Account Options Sign in. Conseguir libro impreso. Eldon C. Hall contends that the development of the Apollo computer supported and motivated the semiconductor industry during a time when integrated circuits were just emerging.
Integrated circuit design , or IC design , is a subset of electronics engineering , encompassing the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits , or ICs. ICs consist of miniaturized electronic components built into an electrical network on a monolithic semiconductor substrate by photolithography. IC design can be divided into the broad categories of digital and analog IC design. Digital design focuses on logical correctness, maximizing circuit density, and placing circuits so that clock and timing signals are routed efficiently.
Но этот страх был недостаточно силен, чтобы парализовать волю. Какой-то долей сознания Джизирак понимал, что все это сон, а сон не причинит ему ровно никакого вреда.
Он просто проплывет сквозь это наваждение, пробуя его на вкус, пока не проснется в городе, который ему хорошо знаком.
Да, неопровержимое -- и в то же время какое-то сомнительное. На этот раз оно явилось им в виде редкого ряда стройных колонн, каждая из которых располагалась в сотне футов от соседней, а высотой была футов в двести. Колонны эти уходили вдаль, перспектива гипнотически уменьшала их все больше и больше, пока, наконец, горизонт не поглощал их .