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Plant PigmentVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: CAR FACTORY: VOLKSWAGEN Golf Production Line 2017 - HOW IT'S MADE
NCBI Bookshelf. The modern manufacture of paints, which are generally made in batches, involves three major steps: i mixing and grinding of raw materials; ii tinting shading and thinning; and iii filling operations US Environmental Protection Agency, , as illustrated in Figure 1. Process for manufacturing solvent-based paints a. To produce a batch of paints, manufacturers first load an appropriate amount of pigment, resin and various liquid chemicals into a roller mill, which is a large, hollow, rotating steel cylinder.
Mills for grinding primer or dark pigments are partly filled with steel balls that measure about 1—2 cm in diameter. Mills for grinding light colours usually contain flattened ceramic spheres pebbles that measure about 3—4 cm in diameter. Depending on the type of mill used, the grinding process lasts about 24 h or until the pigment has been ground to a sufficiently fine paste.
Until the s, drying vegetable oils, primarily linseed oil, were used as binders in paints and as liquids for grinding. Since these oils were relatively poor pigment wetters, considerable energy was required for the grinding dispersion steps. Earlier dispersion techniques which involved pebble, steel ball or roller mills were replaced during the s by high-speed equipment which was first used to dissolve large chips of pigment dispersed in solid binders. As pigment production and wetting characteristics improved, pigments were dispersed satisfactorily in high-speed dissolvers Schurr, Small amounts of shading pastes, which are highly concentrated blends of ground pigments, and a vehicle are added as required to match the standard.
After the batch has been shaded to specifications, it is thinned to the desired viscosity by the addition of solvent, filtered and poured into containers for shipment Schurr, The complexity of paint technology is indicated by the numerous types and number of raw materials required. A plant that produces a broad line of trade, maintenance and industrial paints requires over different raw materials and purchased intermediates, including oils, pigments, extenders, resins, solvents, plasticizers, surfactants, metallic driers and other materials Federation of Societies for Paint Technology, The modern manufacture of unpigmented lacquers is generally a cold-cutting or simple mixing operation.
For example, cellulose nitrate solutions are made by adding the nitrated cellulose from alcohol-wet cotton to the solvent mixture and agitating for 1—2 h in a paddle or turbine blade mixer. Alkyd resins, which are supplied in solution, can be added directly to the cotton-based solution.
Hard resins may be dissolved separately, usually in toluene, and added as solutions, or the lumps may be dissolved directly in the cotton-based solution by stirring. In pigmented lacquer manufacture, the pigments are first dispersed in ball mills with plasticizers, such as dibutyl phthalate, after which natural or synthetic resins are added. Cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate is then added and all the components are mixed in a vertical mixer or churn before the finished product is run off into containers Browne, Modern manufacture of varnish is carried out in jacketed and enclosed kettles or set pots, and the required high temperature is achieved by different methods, including the use of heat-transfer media Browne, Trade sale paints are sold through a variety of distribution channels to builders, contractors, industrial and commercial users and government units, as well as to the general public.
Industrial product finishes or chemical coatings are produced to user specification and sold to other manufacturers for factory applications on such items as automobiles, aircraft, appliances, furniture and metal containers.
They also include the category of industrial maintenance coatings, which are specially formulated and are used to maintain industrial plants and equipment e. World production in of surface coatings by selected countries or regions is given in Table 6. North America was the largest producer and manufactured 4. World production in thousands of tonnes of surface coatings by selected country or region in In , US paint production was million gallons [approximately thousand tonnes] Reisch, Paint production in thousands of tonnes in selected countries in Estimated consumption of various resins, pigments and solvents in the USA in , and is shown in Tables 8 , 9 and The main pigment was titanium dioxide and the major solvents aliphatic hydrocarbons, toluene and xylenes see monographs, p.
Estimated consumption in thousands of tonnes of resins in paints and coatings in the USA. Estimated consumption in thousands of tonnes of pigments in paints and coatings in the USA. Estimated consumption in thousands of tonnes of solvents in paints and coatings in the USA. In the UK, there have been similar reductions from about paint manufacturers in the s to only about — in Layman, The various uses of paint products are described by type of resin in Table Paints are applied by direct contact or by deposition by atomization processes.
The direct-contact category includes the familiar brushing and roller techniques, dipping, flow coating and electrodeposition. Deposition by atomization processes includes conventional spray, hot spray and electrostatic spray. Machine roller coating is used in the industrial application of paint to paper, plywood and metal sheets, as well as continuous coating of metal coils. Dip coating is used in large industrial operations Browne, ; Lowell, Probably the greatest advance made during the early s in the field of paint technology was the introduction of the spray gun.
Its advent helped in the introduction of cellulose nitrate lacquers and their application to automobile assembly line production. Electrodeposition of paint, introduced during the s, is an important milestone in industrial painting and has proven especially advantageous for painting automobile bodies and other parts because of its superior corrosion resistance.
In this technique, the coating is an aqueous dispersion of low solid content. The binder particles carry ionized functional groups which may be positive or negative, thus having either anodic or cathodic deposition. The anodic type typically uses amino- or alkali-solubilized polycarboxylic resins and the cathodic type, salts of amine-treated resins, such as epoxy resins Brewer, ; Lowell, Use of paints in the major markets in the USA in is presented in Table Distribution of use of resins and the other main components of paints in the USA in is shown in Table Consumption of paints and coatings by major market in the USA, Distribution of use of components of paints in the USA in No data on the numbers of paint production workers or painters worldwide were available to the Working Group.
Extrapolating from the proportion of world production of surface coatings contributed by the USA see Table 6 , it can be estimated that the total number of paint production workers in the world is approximately On the basis of these figures, it can be similarly estimated that the number of painters worldwide must be at least several million. A wide range of potential occupational health hazards is present in relation to the manufacture and use of paints, varnishes and lacquers.
Coatings are complex mixtures containing a variety of groups of substances, such as organic solvents, organic and inorganic pigments, extenders, resins and additives such as catalysts, surfactants, driers, plasticizers and biocides.
Each of these categories covers a range of tens or hundreds of individual chemical compounds Connolly et al. It has been reported that over individual paint components are used worldwide. Occupational exposure results predominantly from the inhalation of gases and vapours, mainly organic, from solvents, binders and additives, of mainly inorganic pigment dusts and of complex inorganic and organic mixtures such as dusts from dried coatings and mists generated during the spraying of paint.
The other major route of occupational exposure is through cutaneous contact with the various paint compounds, many of which can be absorbed through the skin. Ingestion related to personal work habits constitutes another potential route of entry. Workers in the painting trades may also be exposed to a number of chemical agents originating from other operations that they or fellow workers are involved in, such as cleaning and preparing by chemical or mechanical means the object to be painted or cleaning themselves and the painting equipment.
The main substances to which workers may be exposed are listed in Table The main occupational agents for which quantitative exposure data are available are presented in the following sections, covering the major paint trades.
Main substances and classes of substances to which workers may be exposed in the painting trades. Exposure to solvent mixtures is often described in the following sections using a summary measure, the cumulative exposure index CEI , i. If this index exceeds unity, the combined exposure to different components of a solvent mixture is considered to exceed the recommended exposure limit.
The values of the CEI are not always comparable because the exposure limits may vary with country and time. In some painting operations, personal protective equipment is worn. However, it is common industrial hygiene practice to determine potential exposure by monitoring the breathing zone outside such protective gear.
The results reported are thus not necessarily actual personal exposures. The manufacture of paints and related products such as varnishes, lacquers, enamels and paint removers involves the handling and processing of a complex array of raw materials, e. Furthermore, raw materials are often subjected to chemical changes such as during polymerization and cooking, thus creating a variety of new hazards.
The potential for occupational exposure depends largely on the basic types of products being manufactured, the degree of automation of the manufacturing process, the availability of exposure control measures and the nature of the specific job held. Various job classification systems have been developed for the paint manufacturing industry.
Workers have thus been regrouped according to the basic product made - water-based paints, solvent-based paints, lacquer and vehicle - and to functions - pre-batch assembler, mixer, tinter, filler, tank and tub cleaner, reactor operator, varnish cooker, filter press operator Morgan et al.
Additional functions are raw materials handler, laboratory personnel and others such as packagers, maintenance personnel, shippers and warehouse workers National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Heavy exposures, both by inhalation and skin contact, occur specifically in operations that can involve manual handling procedures such as weighing dry ingredients pigments, extenders, resins, additives , loading them into mixing equipment, adding solvents to mills, and cleaning equipment mixers, mills, reactors, kettles, tanks, filters.
Additional exposure to solvents occurs in thinning, tinting and shading procedures, filling operations and filtering of varnishes. The cooking of varnishes may produce emissions of various aldehydes such as acrolein, of phenol, ketones, glycerine and fatty acids as well as dusts or vapours of maleic, phthalic and fumaric anhydrides during the loading of kettles.
The production of powder coatings can be associated with significant exposure to dust from resin powders, pigments, curing agents and other additives. In the manufacture of radiation-curable coatings, exposures may occur to monomers such as ethyl acrylate, other acrylates and photoinitiators.
Caustic solutions may be used in the cleaning of dispersion equipment National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, In general, important opportunities for exposure result from the presence of spills and the continuous spattering from machines Adams, Because of their volatility, solvents are ubiquitous air contaminants in paint manufacturing industries. Exposure levels measured for various categories of workers in nine Swedish companies and reported as the sums of standardized concentrations are summarized in Table High concentrations of solvents were found in all operations, the worst situation being manual cleaning of equipment with solvents.
Local exhaust ventilation was common, and respirators were not often used. Of the 14 types of solvents monitored, the most common were xylene, toluene, butanol and esters Ulfvarson, Exposure levels personal breathing-zone samples to combined organic solvents during various paint manufacturing operations.
Exposure to organic solvents was measured in the breathing zone of 17 Swedish male paint industry workers presumed to have the highest exposure of 47 workers employed in seven factories in Sweden, by collecting air with battery-driven syringes and analysing with two portable gas chromatographs. Overall solvent exposure of workers known to be exposed to toluene was measured in seven paint manufacturing companies in New Zealand. Mean total levels of solvents ranged from 19 ppm in one company five workers sampled to ppm in another one three workers sampled , with individual values ranging from 7 to ppm.
In another study in Sweden, 47 employees of seven paint manufacturing industries, known to be exposed to solvents and including nine manual cleaners of paint mixing equipment, were surveyed for exposure to 12 solvents. The results are summarized in Table The main exposures with regard to both frequency and weight were to xylene and toluene. Exposure levels 8-h time-weighted average to organic solvents of 47 paint manufacturing workers.
In a study on the effects of long-term exposure to solvents in the paint industry in Sweden, overall solvent exposure in a large paint manufacturing company was estimated for various work tasks over three historical periods.
The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments.
Developing new colors for the food industry is challenging, as colorants need to be compatible with a food flavors, safety, and nutritional value, and which ultimately have a minimal impact on the price of the product. In addition, food colorants should preferably be natural rather than synthetic compounds. Micro-organisms already produce industrially useful natural colorants such as carotenoids and anthocyanins. Microbial food colorants can be produced at scale at relatively low costs. This review highlights the significance of color in the food industry, why there is a need to shift to natural food colors compared to synthetic ones and how using microbial pigments as food colorants, instead of colors from other natural sources, is a preferable option. We also summarize the microbial derived food colorants currently used and discuss their classification based on their chemical structure.
The History of Natural Art Pigments. Pigments from Plants Indigo The term "indigo" derives from the Greek for "from India", where the plant was originally cultivated Finlay, Indigofera tinctoria , or "True Indigo" is a shrub growing up to 2 meters in height. The blue dye comes from the leaves of the plant, which is traditionally processed by fermentation.
VIBFAST Group was incorporated in by Amit Banthia at the young age of 23 with a view to grow in the field of textiles and chemicals, which were two major businesses that were to take corporate India to the next century. Vibfast started to trade in dyestuffs for textiles and leather, with the rapid market expansion in local and overseas territories. Phthalocyanine Pigments. Organic Pigments. Toner Pigments. Inorganic Pigments. Food Colours. Pigment Pastes. Self Dispersing Pigments. High Performance Pigments.
Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications
Pigment , any of a group of compounds that are intensely coloured and are used to colour other materials. Pigments are insoluble and are applied not as solutions but as finely ground solid particles mixed with a liquid. In general, the same pigments are employed in oil- and water-based paints, printing inks, and plastics.
A plant pigment is any type of colored substance produced by a plant. In general, any chemical compound which absorbs visible radiation between about nm violet and nm ruby-red is considered a pigment. There are many different plant pigments, and they are found in different classes of organic compounds. Plant pigments give color to leaves, flowers, and fruits and are also important in controlling photosynthesis, growth, and development. An absorption spectrum is a measure of the wavelengths of radiation that a pigment absorbs. The selective absorption of different wavelengths determines the color of a pigment. For example, the chlorophylls of higher plants absorb red and blue wavelengths, but not green wavelengths, and this gives leaves their characteristic green color. The molecular structure of a pigment determines its absorption spectrum. When a pigment absorbs radiation, it is excited to a higher energy state. A pigment molecule absorbs some wavelengths and not others simply because its molecular structure restricts the energy states which it can enter.
The Cosmetics Pigment Manufacturing Industry: Where it’s Been and Where it’s Going
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence , phosphorescence , and other forms of luminescence , in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint , ink , plastic , fabric , cosmetics , food , and other materials.
Over the years, the rise in the usage of cosmetics and personal care products has led to the growth of the color cosmetics pigments industry. The major challenges for pigment manufacturers in India came in the form of regulatory issues due to the stringent regulatory standards controlling the industry globally. Cosmetic pigments are available in natural and synthetic forms. The cosmetics pigments segments can be classified in to organic colourants and inorganic cosmetic pigments. Lakes, True colours and Toners are part of the organic color cosmetics colourants.
The ultra-fine grinding of pigments places high demands on the machine technology to be employed. The finest, absolutely grit-free granulation, low-residue processing with minimal contamination, as well as fast, thorough cleaning when switching products are the minimum requirements. Request information.
Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone.
Было очевидно, что их собеседник -- внеземного происхождения, но прошло еще некоторое время, прежде чем даже Хилвар с его куда более обширными познаниями в биологии понял, с каким типом организма они имеют. В течение всей-беседы существо называло Себя мы и, в сущности, это была целая колония независимых существ, организованных и контролируемых какими-то неизвестными силами. Животные отдаленно такого же типа -- медузы, например -- когда-то процветали в земных океанах.