In polymer chemistry and materials science , resin is a solid or highly viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. This article focuses on naturally occurring resins. Plants secrete resins for their protective benefits in response to injury. The resin protects the plant from insects and pathogens. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes. Specific components are alpha-pinene , beta-pinene , delta-3 carene , and sabinene , the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene , and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes , longifolene , caryophyllene , and delta-cadinene.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
2-Pyrol™ 2-pyrrolidoneVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Silicone Rubber Adhesive - Best Glue for Silicone - 1-2-Fixed with Tech-Bond
We have compiled a glossary of terminology about adhesives and coatings as a service to our customers and industry colleagues. Abrasion resistance - the ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing, scraping or wear.
Acid number - the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids of 1 gram of an oil resin, varnish or other substance — generally reported on the nonvolatile content. Additive - a substance added in small quantities to another substance, usually to improve specific properties. Adhere - to cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion. Adherend - a body which is held to another body by an adhesive. See also substrate. Adhesion - the stage in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking addition, or both.
See also adhesion, mechanical and adhesion, specific. Adhesion promoter - a material built into a binder or to form primary bonds to either the substrate or the previously applied coating, with the specific aim of improving dry or wet adhesion, or both. Adhesion, mechanical - adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.
See also adhesion, specific. Adhesion, specific - adhesion between surfaces which are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.
See also adhesion, mechanical. Adhesive - a substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Note: adhesive is a general term and includes among others cement, glue, mucilage, and paste. All of these terms are loosely used interchangeably.
Various descriptive adjectives are applied to the term adhesive to indicate certain characteristics as follows: 1 physical form, that is, liquid adhesive, tape adhesive, etc.
Adhesive contact - an adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive. Adhesive, anaerobic - an adhesive that cures spontaneously in the absence of oxygen, the curing being inhibited by the presence of oxygen and catalyzed by metallic ions. Adhesive, assembly - an adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together, such as in the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.
It is applied to adhesives used in fabricating finished structures or goods, or subassemblies thereof, as differentiated from adhesive used in the production of sheet materials for sale as such, for example, plywood or laminates. See also adhesive, hot setting; adhesive, intermediate temperature setting; and adhesive, room temperature setting.
Adhesive, dispersion or emulsion - a two phase system with one phase the adhesive material in a liquid suspension. Adhesive, encapsulated - an adhesive in which the particles or droplets of one of the relative components are enclosed in a protective film microcapsules to prevent cure until the film is destroyed by suitable means. The main advantage is uniformity of glueline thickness. Adhesive, foamed - an adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed through its mass.
Adhesive, gap filling - an adhesive subject to low shrinkage in setting, can be employed as a sealant. Adhesive, heat activated - a dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly. Adhesive, heat sealing - a thermoplastic film adhesive which is melted between the adherend surfaces by heat application to one or both of the adjacent adherend surfaces. Adhesive, hot melt - an adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.
Adhesive, latex - an emulsion of rubber or thermoplastic rubber to water. Adhesive, multiple later - a film adhesive usually supported with a different adhesive composition on each side; designed to bond dissimilar materials such as the core to face bond of a sandwich composite. Adhesive, one component - an adhesive material incorporating a latent hardener or catalyst activated by heat.
Usually refers to thermosetting materials, but also describes anaerobic, hot melt adhesive, or those depend on solvent loss for adherence. Thermosetting one component adhesives require heat to cure. Adhesive, pressure sensitive - a viscoelastic material which in solvent free form remains permanently tacky.
Such materials will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure. Adhesive, solvent - an adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle. Note: This term excludes water based adhesive. Adhesive, solvent activated - a dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.
Adhesive, structural - an adhesive of proven reliability in engineering structural applications in which the bond can be stressed to a high proportion of its maximum failing load for long periods without failure. Adhesive, two component - an adhesive supplied in two parts which are mixed before application. Such adhesives usually cure at room temperature. Aging, accelerated - a set of laboratory conditions designed to produce in a short time the results of normal aging. Usual factors include temperature, light, oxygen, water and other environments as needed.
Amorphous phase - noncrystalline; most plastics are amorphous at processing temperature. Many retain this strength under normal temperatures. Architectural coating - an organic coating intended for onsite application to interior or exterior surfaces of residential, commercial, institutional or industrial buildings, in contrast to industrial coatings.
Autoclave - a closed container that provides controlled heat and pressure conditions. B-stage - an intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the materials soften when heated and swell when in contact with certain liquids, but may not entirely fuse or dissolve.
The resin in an uncured thermosetting adhesive is usually in this stage. Sometimes referred to as Resitol. Backing - the flexible supporting materials for an adhesive.
Pressure sensitive adhesives are commonly backed with paper, plastic films, fabric, or metal foil while heat curing thermosetting adhesives are often supported on glass cloth backing. Binder - a component of an adhesive composition that is primarily responsible for the adhesive forces that hold two bodies together.
See also extender and filler. Bite - the penetration or dissolution of adherend surfaces by an adhesive. Bleeding - the diffusion of coloring matter through a coating from the substrate; also, the discoloration arising from such diffusions.
In the case of printing ink, the spreading or running of a pigment color by the action of a solvent such as water or alcohol. Blister - a cone-shaped defect caused by the formation of a gas or liquid under a coating film which results in a localized loss of adhesion and lifting of the coating film from the substrate.
Blocked curing agent - a curing agent or hardener rendered unreactive, which can be reactivated as desired by physical or chemical means. Blocking - the sticking of a coated surface to an adjacent surface when the two surfaces have been in contact for an extended period of time.
Blotching - see mottling. Bond - the union of materials by adhesives. Bond verb - to unite materials by means of an adhesive. See also adhere. Bond strength - the unit load applied in tension, compression, flexure, peel, impact, cleavage, or shear, required to break an adhesive assembly with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond. Note: The term adherence is frequently used in place of bond strength.
Bond, structural - see structural bond. C-stage - the final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is relatively insoluble and infusible.
Certain thermosetting resins in a fully cured adhesive layer are in this stage. Sometimes referred to as Resite.
Catalyst - a substance that markedly speeds up the cure of an adhesive when added in minor quantity as compared to the amounts of the primary reactants. See also hardener and inhibitor. Caulking compound - a soft, plastic material consisting of pigment and vehicle, used for sealing joints in buildings and other structures where normal structural movement may occur. Coating - a liquid, liquefiable or mastic composition that is converted by evaporation, cross-linking or cooling to a solid or semi-solid protective, decorating or functional adherent layer after application … or the solid or semi-solid layer resulting from application of the composition.
Cohesion - the state in which the particles of a single substance are held together by primary or secondary valence forces. As used in the adhesive field, the state in which the particles of the adhesive or the adherend are held together. Cold pressing - a bonding operation in which an assembly is subjected to pressure without the application of heat. Condensation - a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine with the separation of water or some other simple substance.
If a polymer is formed, the process is called poly condensation. See also polymerization. Contact bonding - the deposition of cohesive materials on both adherend surfaces and their assembly under pressure. Core - the honeycomb structure used in sandwich panel construction. Coverage - the spreading power of an adhesive over the surface area of the adherend.
Creep - the dimensional change with time of a material under load, following the initial instantaneous elastic or rapid deformation. Creep at room temperature is sometimes called cold flow. Crosslinking - the union of adjacent molecules of uncured adhesive often existing as long polymer chains by catalytic or curing agents.
Crystallinity - a state of molecular structure in some polymers denoting uniformity and compactness of the molecular chains. Cure - to change the physical properties of an adhesive by chemical reaction, which may be condensation, polymerization, or vulcanization; usually accomplished by the action of heat and catalyst, alone or in combination with or without pressure.
Curing agent - see hardener. Curing temperature - see temperature, curing. Curing time - see time, curing. Degrease - to remove oil and grease from adherend surfaces. Delamination - the separation of layers in a laminate because of failure of the adhesive, either in the adhesive itself or at the interface between the adhesive and the adherend.
Dielectric curing - the use of a high frequency electric field through a joint to cure a synthetic thermosetting adhesive. A curing process for wood and other nonconductive joint materials. Diluent - an ingredient usually added to an adhesive to reduce the concentration of bonding materials.
When a tree is injured, the fluid that oozes out of the wound is referred to as an exudate. The injury may be deliberate "tapping" or it may be natural or accidental e. In most cases exudates are harvested from the stem or branches of the tree or shrub, but occasionally they are harvested from the roots. Exudation varies greatly amongst genera, and between species within a genus, and the function of the exudate in the plant is not fully understood. One probable role of resinous exudates is to serve as a defence mechanism: when the tree is wounded or attacked by insects or pathogens, it responds by "bleeding" and resin flows to the wound, sealing it off from further attack.
Types Of Rubber
We have compiled a glossary of terminology about adhesives and coatings as a service to our customers and industry colleagues. Abrasion resistance - the ability of a coating to resist being worn away and to maintain its original appearance and structure when subjected to rubbing, scraping or wear. Acid number - the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids of 1 gram of an oil resin, varnish or other substance — generally reported on the nonvolatile content. Additive - a substance added in small quantities to another substance, usually to improve specific properties.
A guide to solvent-based adhesives
The business of the chemical industry is to change the chemical structure of natural materials in order to derive products of value to other industries or in daily life. Chemicals are produced from these raw materials-principally minerals, metals and hydrocarbons-in a series of processing steps. Further treatment, such as mixing and blending, is often required to convert them into end-products e. Chemicals fall into two main classes: organic and inorganic. Organic chemicals have a basic structure of carbon atoms, combined with hydrogen and other elements. Inorganic chemicals are derived chiefly from mineral sources.
Environmental Protection Agency. The statements, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and data in this report are not necessarily those of the Agency, nor does mention of commercial products imply endorsement by the U. The principal investigator was Robert J. Valuable suggestions and review advice were provided by Rodney L. Cummins and Clarence A. The largest volumes of these products are automotive tires, but they include canvas and rubber footwear, wire and cable covers, hose and belting, foam and sponge, and the great variety of molded consumer and industrial products grouped together as mechanical rubber goods. The common characteristic of the industry is that its products are based on elastomers rubber to the exclusion of similar products based on plastics. The industry does not include the manufacture of synthetic elastomers nor the reclaiming of rubber as these are supplying industries and not part of the fabricating industry.
Glossary of Terms
Handbook of Adhesion Technology pp Cite as. There is a pervading presence of adhesive joints in nature. Adhesive secretions are used by organisms for attachment, construction, obstruction, defense, and predation.
Chemicals from wood Outlook for the future Irving S. There are two future uses, for wood in chemicals. One is by extending and expanding present practices. The other is to convert cell wall components into chemical feedstocks. These cell wall polymers, which constitute the major portion of wood, have the potential for meeting all of our chemical needs in place of petrochemicals. Projections of future demand for some commodities can be based on population growth or past trends. In projecting the future demand for chemicals from wood, however, simple extrapolation from present data is not reliable. At present, the industrial societies depend almost entirely an petrochemicals derived from fossil liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons as the raw materials for fibres, plastics, rubbers, adhesives, etc. As petroleum and natural gas become more expensive and more scarce, it is obvious that other carbon sources, such as coal or wood, may begin to serve as alternative raw materials. However, even though the conversion of wood into chemicals is conceptually and technologically feasible, it does not necessarily follow that wood will be used for this purpose.
Glossary of Terms
Specialty and Industrial Coatings. Inks and Printing. Intermediates and Solvents. Skin and Sun Care. Paper and Coatings. Architectural Paints.
PROSEA, Introduction to Exudates
United States Patent "ice US. This invention relates to an improved adhesive for bonding reinforcing cords to rubber and to a rubber article having a cord bonded therein by means of the adhesive and to the process of treating a reinforcing cord with the adhesive of this invention. In the manufacture of such reinforced rubber articles as pneumatic tires, power-drive belts, conveyor belts, highpressure hose and the like, the useful life of these articles depends to a great extent upon the bond secured between the reinforcing element or cord and the rubber. The chemistry and physical properties of the cord and the rubber being reinforced determines to a large extent the degree of adhesion and the life of the bond developed at the interface of these different materials. Where rubber is being reinforced with a cord, a sharp difference exists in the modulus of the materials used.
Элвин никогда не встречался с кем-либо, напоминавшим Хедрона. Шут был настоящей личностью - человеком действия, на голову превосходящим уровень общего единообразия, типичный для Диаспара.
И хотя надежда разобраться, в чем именно заключались его обязанности и как он их выполнял, рассеялась, это было не столь важно. Главное заключалось в том, почувствовал Элвин, что появился кто-то, с кем он может поговорить (когда тот сделает перерыв в монологе), и кто способен дать ответы на самые насущные, давно назревшие вопросы.
Длинная огненная линия врезалась в сердце Вселенной, мчась от звезды к звезде. В один миг погибли тысячи солнц, отдавая свою энергию громадному призраку, который пронесся вдоль оси Галактики и теперь удалялся в бездну.
Наши предки пересекали их, отправившись на заре истории возводить Империю. Они пересекли межзвездные бездны в последний раз, когда Пришельцы загнали их обратно на Землю. Легенда гласит - но это лишь легенда - что мы заключили договор с Пришельцами.
На глазах у Элвина часть его сложного полупрозрачного тела отвалилась и рассыпалась на множество меньших кусков, которые стремительно рассеялись. Существо разваливалось перед их взором.