Mechanical engineering is a broad field, offering jobs for mechanical engineers in almost every industry. This breadth of opportunity makes careers in mechanical engineering appealing to new engineering graduates and young professional engineers. To help you determine in which industries you might want to pursue an entry level mechanical engineering job, we have advice from engineering career development experts, salary information and details on these top-hiring industries. The automotive and aerospace industries are popular with mechanical engineering graduates, said James Jones, associate head of the Purdue University School of Mechanical Engineering. This multitude of choice often leaves young engineers uncertain of the best entry-level jobs to pursue, especially given what little information may be offered in job postings. The sheer variety of industries that employ mechanical engineers, however, means that the entry-level job descriptions will look very different from one another depending on the company, industry and discipline in addition to the job title.
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What is an Entry-Level Mechanical Engineering Job?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: SMS group - Forging and pressing - Automated forging line for precision parts
SACMA founded in , began to design and manufacture cold forging machines just before the world war. The increasing development and substantial growth have brought the name of SACMA to be well known by the world manufacturers of fasteners and special parts. Every day more than SACMA machines are operative through out the world, in hundreds of factories, transforming thousands of tons into high quality fasteners and special parts, used in many different industrial applications.
For the industry that mass produces consumable items, like fasteners, the advantage of cold forging is an inevitable consequence for reasons of high strength, tight tolerances, reduction of waste material, competitiveness and productivity.
Within the strategy of supplying machines of the highest technology levels, SACMA continues to improve and develop new model progressive cold formers and combined bolt makers, supplying them to the ever growing market of net-shape parts. End users have a high appreciation of SACMA machines, and consider them to be well designed, well manufactured, powerful, generous in making special parts, flexible for making long or short parts, fast, reliable and generating low cost production.
In order to assist all its Customers around the world, SACMA , has developed worldwide efficient service centres able to supply any spare part in a very short time to keep customers always running and making parts. The main frame is a fundamental element for performance of any machine, particularly of a cold forming machine, because it imparts rigidity, precision and reliability in time. For this basic component the experience gathered over the years, the research with the most sophisticated simulation methods and the experimental analysis of deformation have been prime elements of design.
Among the different methods of manufacture SACMA has chosen the monoblock casting made of perlitic spheroidal cast iron, normalized and stabilized by ageing in excess of 12 months, to guarantee the maximum rigidity and the highest level of stability under heavy loads.
Furthermore, the selection of the best suppliers of castings together with a constant monitoring of conformity to the SACMA technical specifications are the best guarantee of constant quality. The accurate machining, the strictness in process controls, the high degree of suppression of vibrations, a typical characteristic of this material, make our machines perfectly capable to produce parts with constant standards of precision, for many years. The high degree of precision in machining is a must for manufacturing machines that must operate with high productivity and efficiency.
In order to reach this objective, there must be no compromise of quality of any mechanical component present in machines that undergo high stresses such as cold formers. SACMA has chosen to manufacture, in house, all components and has installed the most modern production machines available today on the market, to promote the total quality of all its products.
A systematic and rigorous inspection procedure of all manufactured parts before inventory stocking is the best guarantee of interchange ability and availability of spares. The correct choice of high tensile materials, the proper heat treatment specifications, the accuracy of surface finish operations of grinding and lapping make a SACMA machine the most reliable, the most productive and lowest cost machine in manufacturing.
The concept of performing tool change in the shortest possible time represents an undisputed necessity for modern industrial manufacturing of cold forged parts, made in smaller lots, making forming more competitive against traditional machining methods. In developing the tool change system, SACMA made no compromises of rigidity and power of the machines; a typical characteristic of its machines.
The CR quick tool change system, standard for machines series 3, 4, 5 and 6, allows for easy removal of the die block, hydraulic clamped, and just as easy removal of the punch block bolster and the complete transfer unit.
As option, one can choose from many different accessories designed for a real quick change of the tool holders. An operator set up bench, a service trolley or a complete external tool alignment and set up bench are available. The Presetting Bench allows one to perform, outside of the machine, an accurate alignment of the punches to the dies, the correct axial position of the punches, and the perfect setting of transfer fingers.
This procedure can best be performed in the tool room area, so that correct preset tools are delivered to the machine for the next job. In consideration of present industrial production of small lots, the number of tool changes increases considerably: manufacturers are all the more forced to process larger amounts of part numbers, in any given time, and tool change procedures must take place in the shortest intervals possible.
The M automatic motorization system available on SACMA progressive and combined machines, is an important method for reduction of machine set up time and fine tuning of adjustments.
The preset data present in the data base of parts to be manufactured will determine the automatic adjustments of feed, position of stock stop, and die kick out. The new SP model 6 die cold former can be fitted with the individual automation of adjustments of finger timing cams.
Data base in excess of The system also has an Ethernet port for transfer of data and a modem which can be activated for teleservice.
In order to produce constant quality, monitoring systems are today a must on all multi station cold forging machines. Monitoring of cut off lengths and of forging and roll forming loads, over and above the safe guarding of the tools and of mechanical organs of machines, is also an effective indirect control that parts are produced to print.
All SACMA machines can be fitted with state of the art control and onitoring systems, developed in conjunction with a leading manufacturer in this field: SC10 : short feed control system, available for all machines but fitted as standard on all CRM progressive and combined machines; SC : forging load monitoring system, calibrated to give a true reading in KN of the loads acting in the main frame of the machines, at every blow.
Available on all progressive and combined machines; SC : roll forming load monitor, with sensors located directly behind the fixed roll die and complete with a discharge gate to eliminate bad parts. Available on all combined machines. Any one machine can also be specially prepared to receive load monitoring systems of other brands. Hydraulic clamping of adjustments and tools is of great help when setting the machine and guarantees repeatability of the adjustments.
Clamping and unclamping is easily performed by the touch of a switch, avoiding any manual work with wrenches inside the machine enclosure.
All SACMA machines are fitted standard with hydraulic clamping of die side adjustments of threaded sleeves, kick out levers and trim cam in the last station. All CR quick tool change machines are supplied with hydraulic clamping of the complete die box.
On the Series 6 machines the complete transfer finger unit and the timing cam shaft are secured in place by hydraulic clamping. The new SP , large 6 die cold former, has hydraulic unclamping of the individual finger timing cams which can be adjusted automatically. The main heading slide is the element that delivers the energy of deformation and as such it must have great stability and robustness.
Furthermore the heading slide must run perfectly true to the dies at every stroke, with high precision. All SACMA machines heading slides are made of NiCrMo alloy steel casting, heat treated and having a special geometric shape with double slide ways to offer maximum stability in delivering the forging energy to the tools.
An efficient lubrication system makes sure that slide ways are always well lubricated even under the worst and unbalanced forging conditions. An exclusive taper slide way guarantees a perfect alignment of the tools at every stroke, permitting therefore production of all parts that require extreme tolerances.
The real heart of high speed horizontal cold formers is represented by the transfer mechanism which has to be able to bring parts from one station to the other: only with a precise and infallible grip can one obtain best results of efficiency and productivity. The transfer mechanism of SACMA Progressive and Combined headers is by far considered the world benchmark, so much, that it has been subject of numerous unsuccessful imitation attempts by others.
The precise movement of the transfer fingers, determined by a smooth oscillating mechanism generated by perfect Desmo drive double cams imparts to the whole system a perfect control of position also at the maximum production speeds. A good and efficient transfer system must be able to transfer from one station to the next any type of part, independent of geometry and length.
For this reason a special transfer assist system has been developed to operate in perfect timing with die kick-out, to transfer with ease all those difficult parts. The well known and great capability of the SACMA transfer to handle difficult and short parts, now becomes all the more versatile with the introduction of a patented SACMA transfer support assist package, that can transfer conical or shoulder parts which would tend to fall on die kick-out. The system consists of support fingers, perfectly timed with the motion of the transfer and of the kick-out rods, brought about by a direct link with the rods and a Desmo Drive system of double cams which controls the lateral movement.
This system is now available on all machine Series 3, Series 4, Series 5 and Series 6. Intervention of the operator in the working area must be performed in absolute safety and comfort.
This necessity is particularly felt when working with large machines, in order to facilitate tool change and maintenance procedures. The patented system of ergonomic platforms and tool cradles supplied by SACMA on the Series 6 machines is a very good example of assistance, without compromise, to the requirements of the end user. The system consists of two hydraulic operated platforms that position themselves automatically over the work area:.
Whenever making final adjustments of the transfer it is very useful to have the possibility to verify the correct timing of transfer fingers, to avoid dangerous collisions of the punches with the fingers, even if tools have been designed and manufactured perfectly.
With the intention of assisting best the tool setters in the delicate moment of tool and timing adjustments, SACMA has developed an electronic andwheel to move the whole machine at slow motion in order to check for correct timing of the transfer fingers with respect to the heading slide, avoiding dangerous collisions.
Combined machines can also be fitted with an inverter drive to the pointing spindle motor to optimise cutting speed to the shape of the point and type of material.
The proper and best answer to high productivity requirements, rationalization of production methods, floor plan lay-out and material flow in a fastener manufacturing environment is represented by machines that have forging, pointing and thread rolling stations, all in one. These machines will determine maximum efficiency and quality in the manufacturing process of standard fasteners and special automotive fasteners, because they supply the finished product.
The pointing and the thread rolling units are designed and manufactured to be user friendly and easy to set up, to produce many different shapes of points. The application of a warm forming system to horizontal forging machines extends the possibility of making netshape parts of more complex shapes and to work with special materials which could not be forged cold.
In order to meet these new requirements in the industry, SACMA has developed special machines, incorporating induction heating units in the feeding areas. High frequency induction heating is obtained by means of special coils that can be fitted outside or inside the main frame of the machine, between the feed rolls and the cut-off quill.
There is a specific cooling of the coils and of the frame and the temperature of the wire is read by specific optical pyrometers. The WF application can then be completed with temperature control of the die box and of the coolant liquid.
The constant evolution of the forging world forces tool design engineers to develop tooling technology to greater levels, in order to produce always more special and difficult parts. Today, in the planning stages of new investments, it is all the more important to be able to rely on the support of a trustworthy partner who has experience in tool design and forming progression, to develop a suitable forging method to manufacture the parts in question.
The long term experience and know-how that SACMA has of analysis of forging problems and in the research of suitable technical solutions, which are then shared with the customer, makes us a valid partner to be of assistance during the critical stages of development, to bring the project to a successful solution in the shortest possible time. A team of project engineers, assisted by modern design and calculation software, works together with the customer to reach the best manufacturing solutions for the industrial development of the product.
With the co-operation of other leading companies in our industry, SACMA is also able to suggest efficient turn key solutions of the projects. Modern fastener manufacturing companies must be able to respond promptly to the production enquiries they receive from all potential customers.
It is therefore necessary to have available a technology that can reduce time for evaluation of the capability and development of the forging process of new parts, to facilitate the choice of the most suitable machine for production. A large and rich library of materials, specific data and examples, useful for tool design, are included in the software.
Winning Technologies. QUICK TOOL CHANGE The concept of performing tool change in the shortest possible time represents an undisputed necessity for modern industrial manufacturing of cold forged parts, made in smaller lots, making forming more competitive against traditional machining methods.
TRANSFER SYSTEM The real heart of high speed horizontal cold formers is represented by the transfer mechanism which has to be able to bring parts from one station to the other: only with a precise and infallible grip can one obtain best results of efficiency and productivity. The system consists of two hydraulic operated platforms that position themselves automatically over the work area: the lower platform used for tool change, receives special tool cradles for fitting or removing dies and punches; the upper safety platform is used for intervention of the operator when changing or setting transfer fingers and timing cams.
Available on the Series 6 machines. COMBINED MACHINES The proper and best answer to high productivity requirements, rationalization of production methods, floor plan lay-out and material flow in a fastener manufacturing environment is represented by machines that have forging, pointing and thread rolling stations, all in one. WARM FORMING The application of a warm forming system to horizontal forging machines extends the possibility of making netshape parts of more complex shapes and to work with special materials which could not be forged cold.
TOOL DESIGN The constant evolution of the forging world forces tool design engineers to develop tooling technology to greater levels, in order to produce always more special and difficult parts.
SACMA founded in , began to design and manufacture cold forging machines just before the world war. The increasing development and substantial growth have brought the name of SACMA to be well known by the world manufacturers of fasteners and special parts. Every day more than SACMA machines are operative through out the world, in hundreds of factories, transforming thousands of tons into high quality fasteners and special parts, used in many different industrial applications. For the industry that mass produces consumable items, like fasteners, the advantage of cold forging is an inevitable consequence for reasons of high strength, tight tolerances, reduction of waste material, competitiveness and productivity.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer often a power hammer or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging a type of cold working , warm forging, or hot forging a type of hot working. For the latter two, the metal is heated , usually in a forge.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process often called a progressive assembly in which parts usually interchangeable parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly. Assembly lines are common methods of assembling complex items such as automobiles and other transportation equipment, household appliances and electronic goods. Assembly lines are designed for the sequential organization of workers , tools or machines, and parts. The motion of workers is minimized to the extent possible. All parts or assemblies are handled either by conveyors or motorized vehicles such as fork lifts , or gravity , with no manual trucking.
Неизвестно, кем был Учитель на самом деле, но уж во всяком случае - не аскетом. Лишь позднее до Элвина дошло, что весь этот комфорт не мог быть пустой экстравагантностью: ведь этот мирок являлся единственным домом Учителя в долгих странствиях среди звезд. Внешние органы управления отсутствовали; лишь большой овальный экран, полностью занимавший дальнюю стенку, указывал, что эта комната не совсем обычна.
Перед экраном в виде полукруга были расставлены три низкие кушетки; остальную часть кабины занимали два столика и несколько мягких кресел, причем некоторые из них явно предназначались не для людей. Усевшись перед экраном поудобнее, Элвин поискал взглядом робота.
К его удивлению, тот исчез; затем Элвин увидел, что робот уютно пристроился в нише под вогнутым потолком. Он доставил Учителя на Землю и, как верный слуга, последовал за ним в Лис. Теперь он снова готов был принять на себя прежние обязанности, словно и не было прошедших тысячелетий. Элвин для пробы дал ему команду - и огромный экран ожил. Перед ним была Башня Лоранна, странно искаженная, словно лежащая на боку.
What jobs can you do with a mechanical engineering degree?
Мы все еще любим поспать по крайней мере раз в сутки, хотя бы несколько часов. За это время тело освежается, и то же происходит с рассудком. Неужели в Диаспаре никто никогда не - В очень редких случаях, - сказал Элвин.
Все время из Лиса. Никто другой не приходит.
А как мне к нему пройти. -- спросила Алистра. Она узнает, что такое мониторы, когда доберется до. -- Я не могу вам этого сказать, пока у вас не будет разрешения Совета. Меньше всего она могла ожидать вот такого, совершенно обескураживающего, оборота событий.
В Диаспаре было совсем немного мест, которые не мог бы посетить всяк кому вздумается. Алистра была совершенно уверена, что у самого-то Олвина не имелось никакого разрешения от Совета, а это могло только означать, что ему помогает кто-то, кто стоит выше Совета. Совет руководил Диаспаром.
На этом, однако, сходство заканчивалось. У робота не было -- они ему, очевидно, просто не требовались -- нежных перьев какой-то бахромы, которая в однообразном ритме била по воде, не было великого множества ног, похожих на обрубки, не было и вентиляционных отверстий, которые с натугой сипели в разреженном воздухе. Большая часть этого существа оставалась в воде. Только головные десять футов или около того проникли в среду, которая, похоже, была для этого животного враждебной.
Существо имело в длину футов пятьдесят, и даже человек, совершенно незнакомый с биологией, мог бы догадаться, что что-то с ним было не. Для облика существа был характерен налет импровизационного -- и не слишком поэтому удачного -- конструирования, как если бы части его тела лепили без особых раздумий и приставляли одну к другой по мере того, как в этом возникала необходимость.
Ты же выглянула из того окна позади нас, - значит, можешь выглянуть и из этого. Алистра уставилась на него, словно он был неким монстром. В сущности, по ее меркам он был. - Я не могу этого сделать, - сказала она.
- Даже при одной мысли об этом мне становится холоднее, чем от ветра. Не ходи дальше, Элвин. - В этом нет никакой логики.
Город лежал на груди пустыни подобно сияющему самоцвету. Когда-то ему были ведомы перемены, но теперь время обтекало .
Тем не менее Джезерак достаточно вежливо приветствовал гостя, стараясь не выказывать некоторой обеспокоенности. В Диаспаре, при первой встрече - или даже при сотой - прежде чем перейти к делу, полагалось час или около того провести в обмене любезностями. Хедрон несколько расстроил Джезерака, проскочив эти формальности минут за пятнадцать, а затем заявил прямо, без обиняков: - Я хотел бы поговорить с тобой об Элвине.
И хотя его внешний облик подавлял своей сложностью, он был лишь намеком на скрытые чудеса технологии, без которых все эти грандиозные здания были бы безжизненными могильниками. Элвин обозревал пределы своего мира.
Советники Диаспара замерли в ожидании, и их собственная тревога с минуты на минуту росла по мере того, как продолжался этот безмолвный разговор. Но вот глава делегации очнулся от транса и с извиняющимся видом повернулся к председателю. -- Мы только что получили из Лиза очень странные и тревожные новости,-- -- Олвин возвратился на Землю.