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Oilfield Equipment and ServicesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Oil Drilling - Oil & Gas Animations
Crude oils and natural gases are mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms containing from 1 to 60 carbon atoms.
The properties of these hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules. The basic hydrocarbon molecule is 1 carbon atom linked with 4 hydrogen atoms methane. All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule. Hydrocarbons containing up to 4 carbon atoms are usually gases; those with 5 to 19 carbon atoms are usually liquids; and those with 20 or more are solids.
In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils and natural gases contain sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds together with trace quantities of metals and other elements. Crude oil and natural gas are believed to have been formed over millions of years by the decay of vegetation and marine organisms, compressed under the weight of sedimentation.
Because oil and gas are lighter than water, they rose up to fill the voids in these overlying formations. This upward movement stopped when the oil and gas reached dense, overlying, impervious strata or nonporous rock. The oil and gas filled the spaces in porous rock seams and natural underground reservoirs, such as saturated sands, with the lighter gas on top of the heavier oil. Shale oil, or kerogen, is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons and other organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.
It is extracted, by heating, from a rock called oil shale, yielding from 15 to 50 gallons of oil per ton of rock. Exploration and production is the common terminology applied to that portion of the petroleum industry which is responsible for exploring for and discovering new crude oil and gas fields, drilling wells and bringing the products to the surface.
Historically, crude oil, which had naturally seeped to the surface, was collected for use as medicine, protective coatings and fuel for lamps. Natural gas seepage was recorded as fires burning on the surface of the earth. It was not until that methods of drilling and obtaining large commercial quantities of crude oil were developed.
Crude oil and natural gas are found throughout the world, beneath both land and water, as follows:. Figure For example, the first commercial crude oil, Pennsylvania Crude, is named after its place of origin in the United States.
Other examples are Saudi Light and Venezuelan Heavy. Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different, individual hydrocarbon compounds; they differ in appearance and composition from one oil field to another, and sometimes are even different from wells relatively near one another.
Crude oils range in consistency from watery to tar-like solids, and in colour from clear to black. See table The lighter, straight chain paraffin molecules are found in gases and paraffin waxes. The branched chain paraffins are usually found in heavier fractions of crude oil and have higher octane numbers than normal paraffins.
Aromatics: Aromatics are unsaturated ring type hydrocarbon cyclic compounds. Naphthalenes are fused double ring aromatic compounds. The most complex aromatics, polynuclears three or more fused aromatic rings , are found in heavier fractions of crude oil. Naphthenes: Naphthenes are saturated ring type hydrocarbon groupings, with the formula C n H 2n , arranged in the form of closed rings cyclic , found in all fractions of crude oil except the very lightest.
Single ring naphthenes mono-cycloparaffins with 5 and 6 carbon atoms predominate, with two ring naphthenes dicycloparaffins found in the heavier ends of naphtha. Sulphur and sulphur compounds: Sulphur is present in natural gas and crude oil as hydrogen sulphide H 2 S , as compounds thiols, mercaptans, sulphides, polysulphides, etc. Each gas and crude oil has different amounts and types of sulphur compounds, but as a rule the proportion, stability and complexity of the compounds are greater in heavier crude oil fractions.
Sulphur compounds called mercaptans, which exhibit distinct odours detectable at very low concentrations, are found in gas, petroleum crude oils and distillates. The most common are methyl and ethyl mercaptans. The potential for exposure to toxic levels of H 2 S exists when working in drilling, production, transportation and processing crude oil and natural gas. The combustion of petroleum hydrocarbons containing sulphur produces undesirables such as sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide.
Oxygen compounds: Oxygen compounds, such as phenols, ketones and carboxylic acids, are found in crude oils in varying amounts. Nitrogen compounds: Nitrogen is found in lighter fractions of crude oil as basic compounds, and more often in heavier fractions of crude oil as non-basic compounds which may also include trace metals. Trace metals: Trace amounts, or small quantities of metals, including copper, nickel, iron, arsenic and vanadium, are often found in crude oils in small quantities.
Inorganic salts: Crude oils often contain inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride, suspended in the crude or dissolved in entrained water brine. Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide may result from the decomposition of bicarbonates present in, or added to crude, or from steam used in the distillation process.
Normally occurring radioactive materials: Normally occurring radioactive materials NORMs are often present in crude oil, in the drilling deposits and in the drilling mud, and can present a hazard from low levels of radioactivity. Relatively simple crude-oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic or mixed, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. Mixed-base crudes have varying amounts of each type of hydrocarbon.
More comprehensive crude assays are conducted to determine the value of the crude i. Crude oils are usually grouped according to yield structure, with high-octane gasoline being one of the more desirable products. Refinery crude oil feedstocks usually consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils.
Crude oils are also defined in terms of API specific gravity. For example, heavier crude oils have low API gravities and high specific gravities.
A low-API gravity crude oil may have either a high or low flashpoint, depending on its lightest ends more volatile constituents.
Because of the importance of temperature and pressure in the refining process, crude oils are further classified as to viscosity, pour points and boiling ranges. Other physical and chemical characteristics, such as colour and carbon residue content, are also considered. Crude oils with high carbon, low hydrogen and low API gravity are usually rich in aromatics; while those with low carbon, high hydrogen and high API gravity are usually rich in paraffins.
The composition of naturally occurring hydrocarbon gases is similar to crude oils in that they contain a mixture of different hydrocarbon molecules depending on their source. They can be extracted as natural gas almost free of liquids from gas fields; petroleum-associated gas which is extracted with oil from gas and oil fields; and gas from gas condensate fields, where some of the liquid components of oil convert into the gaseous state when pressure is high 10 to 70 mPa.
When the pressure is decreased to 4 to 8 mPa condensate containing heavier hydrocarbons separates from the gas by condensation. Gas is extracted from wells reaching up to 4 miles 6. See figure American Petroleum Institute. Natural gas also contains traces of nitrogen, water vapour, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and occasional inert gases such as argon or helium.
Depending how it is used as a fuel, natural gas is either compressed or liquefied. Natural gas from gas and gas condensate fields is processed in the field to meet specific transportation criteria before being compressed and fed into gas pipelines.
This preparation includes removal of water with driers dehydrators, separators and heaters , oil removal using coalescing filters, and the removal of solids by filtration. Hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are also removed from natural gas, so that they do not corrode pipelines and transportation and compression equipment.
Propane, butane and pentane, present in natural gas, are also removed before transmission so they will not condense and form liquids in the system. The composition of LNG is different from natural gas due to the removal of some impurities and components during the liquefaction process.
LNG is primarily used to augment natural gas supplies during peak demand periods and to supply gas in remote areas away from major pipelines. It is regasified by adding nitrogen and air to make it comparable to natural gas before being fed into gas supply lines. LNG is also used as a motor-vehicle fuel as an alternative to gasoline. Petroleum-associated and condensate gases are separated and liquefied to produce liquefied petroleum gas LPG by compression, adsorption, absorption and cooling at oil and gas process plants.
These gas plants also produce natural gasoline and other hydrocarbon fractions. Unlike natural gas, petroleum-associated gas and condensate gas, oil processing gases produced as by-products of refinery processing contain considerable amounts of hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons ethylene, propylene and so on. The composition of oil processing gases depends upon each specific process and the crude oils used.
For example, gases obtained as a result of thermal cracking usually contain significant amounts of olefins, while those obtained from catalytic cracking contain more isobutanes.
Pyrolysis gases contain ethylene and hydrogen. The composition of natural gases and typical oil processing gases is shown in table The natural gas hydrocarbon also is used as feedstock for petrochemical and chemical processes. Oil processing liquefied petroleum gases LPG have higher calorific values of The unsaturated hydrocarbons ethylene, propylene and so on derived from oil processing gases may be converted into high-octane gasoline or used as raw materials in the petrochemical and chemical-processing industries.
According to the US National Fire Protection Association, flammable combustible gases are those which burn in the concentrations of oxygen normally present in air. The burning of flammable gases is similar to that of flammable hydrocarbon liquid vapours, as a specific ignition temperature is needed to initiate the burning reaction and each will burn only within a certain defined range of gas-air mixtures.
Flammable liquids have a flashpoint the temperature always below the boiling point at which they emit sufficient vapours for combustion. There is no apparent flashpoint for flammable gases, as they are normally at temperatures above their boiling points, even when liquefied, and are therefore always at temperatures well in excess of their flashpoints. The major factor which determines the pressure inside the vessel is the temperature of the liquid stored.
When exposed to the atmosphere, the liquefied gas very rapidly vaporizes, travelling along the ground or water surface unless dispersed into the air by wind or mechanical air movement.
At normal atmospheric temperatures, about one-third of the liquid in the container will vaporize. Flammable gases are further classified as fuel gas and industrial gas. Fuel gases, including natural gas and liquefied petroleum gases propane and butane , are burned with air to produce heat in ovens, furnaces, water heaters and boilers. Flammable industrial gases, such as acetylene, are used in processing, welding, cutting and heat treating operations.
The search for oil and gas requires a knowledge of geography, geology and geophysics. Crude oil is usually found in certain types of geological structures, such as anticlines, fault traps and salt domes, which lie under various terrains and in a wide range of climates.
After selecting an area of interest, many different types of geophysical surveys are conducted and measurements performed in order to obtain a precise evaluation of the subsurface formations, including:. Photographs taken with special cameras in airplanes, provide three-dimensional views of the earth which are used to determine land formations with potential oil and gas deposits. Because large masses of dense rock increase the pull of gravity, gravimeters are used to provide information regarding underlying formations by measuring minute differences in gravity.
Seismic studies provide information on the general characteristics of the subsurface structure see figure Measurements are obtained from shock waves generated by setting off explosive charges in small-diameter holes, from the use of vibrating or percussion devices on both land and in water, and from underwater blasts of compressed air. The elapsed time between the beginning of the shock wave and the return of the echo is used to determine the depth of the reflecting substrata.
The recent use of super-computers to generate three-dimensional images greatly improves evaluation of seismic test results. Radiography is the use of radio waves to provide information similar to that obtained from seismic surveys.
One of the largest manufacturers of industrial valves in the Central and Eastern Europe. Supply of graphite of various brands, which is used as a pigment in concrete and other building mixtures, as well as steel powders, which are used as a weighting agent for materials and structures. One of the leading Ukrainian servicing companies engaged in operations on drilling and workover of oil and gas wells on Ukrainian fields. The modern company that provides construction, repair and maintenance services of oil and gas wells at the high level according to the international standards. The full service measurement while drilling manufacturer that operates worldwide. Eaton is the world leader in development and manufacture of solutions for quality assurance, distribution and power management, industrial control equipment and industrial automation.
Rig Tong Parts
It could also consist of an industry level setup. Any references and or mention of company names in this web site or the accompanying computer code are for identification purposes only and are not Trade Marks or Trade Names used by or affiliated with OilfieldSupply. Bronze is used to manufacture some of the parts on an oil rig. Water Pipe Parts and Accessories. These Petol Drill Pipe Tongs are designed for making up and breaking out drill pipe, casing, and hammer drills on light rigs and are OEM installed on many rigs.
List of components of oil drilling rigs
Crude oils and natural gases are mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms containing from 1 to 60 carbon atoms. The properties of these hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules. The basic hydrocarbon molecule is 1 carbon atom linked with 4 hydrogen atoms methane. All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule. Hydrocarbons containing up to 4 carbon atoms are usually gases; those with 5 to 19 carbon atoms are usually liquids; and those with 20 or more are solids. In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils and natural gases contain sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds together with trace quantities of metals and other elements.
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Crude oils and natural gases are mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms containing from 1 to 60 carbon atoms. The properties of these hydrocarbons depend on the number and arrangement of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules. The basic hydrocarbon molecule is 1 carbon atom linked with 4 hydrogen atoms methane. All other variations of petroleum hydrocarbons evolve from this molecule.
Но это все не имело уже никакого значения. Чудо исцеления свершилось, и врата в храм знания широко распахнулись перед ним, маня войти в. Но он тут же припомнил предостережение Центрального Компьютера и спросил тревожно: -- А как насчет моральных возражений, которые были у тебя по поводу отмены приказа Мастера. -- Я выяснил, почему он был отдан. Когда вы в деталях узнаете его жизнь -- а теперь вы сможете это сделать,-- то увидите, что ему приписывали массу чудес.
Его паства верила в него, и эта вера многое добавила к его силе. Но, разумеется, все эти чудеса имели простое объяснение -- если они вообще происходили. Мне представляется удивительным, что люди, во всех остальных отношениях вполне разумные, позволяли надувать себя подобным образом. -- Выходит, этот самый Мастер был шарлатаном. -- Нет, все не так .
Я вернулся по собственной воле, поскольку у меня есть для вас важные вести. Однако ввиду наших прежних разногласий я пока что остаюсь вне вашего поля зрения. Если я появлюсь лично, обещаете ли вы не пытаться вновь ограничить мои перемещения. Некоторое время никто не произнес ни слова. Интересно, какими мыслями они сейчас обмениваются, подумал Элвин.
Наконец, Серанис объявила за всех: - Мы не будем снова пытаться управлять тобой - хотя не думаю, что и в прошлый раз нам это особенно удалось. - Отлично, - ответил Элвин.
Иди сюда, взгляни на. Тот присоединился к нему, и вдвоем они стали рассматривать чудо, разверзшееся под ногами. Глубоко внизу, едва различимая, лежала гигантская карта - огромная сеть линий, сходящихся к точке под центральной шахтой. Какое-то время они молча разглядывали; затем Хедрон тихо сказал: - Ты понимаешь, что.
- Думаю, что да, - ответил Элвин. - Это карта всей транспортной системы, а эти маленькие кружочки, должно быть, означают другие города Земли. Я даже вижу возле них названия, но они слишком тусклы, чтобы их прочесть. - Вероятно, здесь было какое-то внутреннее освещение, - отчужденно произнес Хедрон. Взглядом он отыскивал места, где линии под ногами сливались со стенами помещения.
Воскликнул внезапно Олвин. -- Вот это-то я и собирался вам показать. Знаете, что это .
Вероятно, оно двигалось очень медленно: на то, чтобы обломать эти столбы, возможно, Воображение Элвина быстро дорисовало подробности, которых он никогда не смог бы узнать. Он не сомневался, что анализ Хилвара в основном правилен, и некий ботанический монстр, двигавшийся, возможно, незаметно для глаз, вел медленную, но беспощадную борьбу со сдерживавшими его Он все еще мог быть жив и бродить по этой планете, даже несмотря на прошедшие миллионы лет.
Человечество забыло свое прошлое -- за исключением нескольких хроник, которые могли оказаться не более чем легендами. Все, что было до Диаспара, называлось просто -- Века Рассвета.
В этой непостижимой временной пропасти буквально бок о бок сосуществовали первобытные люди, едва-едва научившиеся пользоваться огнем, и те, кто впервые высвободил атомную энергию; тот, кто первым выжег и выдолбил каноэ из цельного ствола дерева, и тот, кто первым же устремился к звездам.
На той, дальней стороне пустыни Времени все они проживали соседями, современниками.
Она слишком легко ведет к застою, а затем и к упадку. Конструкторы города предприняли тщательно рассчитанные шаги, чтобы избежать. Правда, опустевшие дома вокруг нас указывают, что они преуспели не полностью. Я, Шут Хедрон, есть часть этого плана.