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Federal government websites always use a. Location: Sunflower and Plant Biology Research. Technical Abstract: Cassava Manihot esculenta, Crantz is considered a starchy root crop that provides staple food for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Research efforts are directed towards genetic breeding and cultivation of cassava to improve cassava storage root starch production, nutritional values, and industrial utilization.

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Sandia National Laboratories Publications

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Pumped-storage hydropower

Abstract: This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems RESSs for electric vehicles. Travis M. Anderson, Rachel I. Martin, Chad Staiger, Babu R. Additionally, these materials offer useful information for other municipalities to consider as they develop solicitations for resilient, energy storage projects.

Abstract: Project financing is emerging as the linchpin for the future health, direction, and momentum of the energy storage industry. Market leaders have so far relied on self-funding or captive lending arrangements to fund projects. New lenders are proceeding hesitantly as they lack a full understanding of the technology, business, and credit risks involved in this rapidly changing market.

The U. Department of Energy is poised to play a critical role in expanding access to capital by reducing the barriers to entry for new lenders, and providing trusted analytical benchmarks to better judge and price the risk in systematic ways. Abstract: Codes, standards and regulations CSR governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety and welfare.

While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until they are adopted.

Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify an installation's safety may be challenged in applying current CSRs to an energy storage system ESS.

Abstract: The Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems PNNL was first issued in November as a first step toward providing a foundational basis for developing an initial standard for the uniform measurement and expression of energy storage system ESS performance.

Based on experiences with the application and use of that document, and to include additional ESS applications and associated duty cycles, test procedures and performance metrics, a first revision of the November Protocol was issued in June PNNL Rev.

As an update of the revision 1 to the Protocol, this document the April revision 2 to the Protocol is intended to supersede the June revision 1 to the Protocol and provide a more user-friendly yet more robust and comprehensive basis for measuring and expressing ESS performance.

This foreword provides general and specific details about what additions, revisions, and enhancements have been made to the June Protocol and the rationale for them in arriving at this April Protocol PNNL Rev. Ferreira, S. Abstract: This report supplements the document, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," issued in a revised version in April see [4] , which will include the renewables solar firming application for an energy storage system ESS.

This report provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle for an ESS operated in a renewables solar firming application for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the ESS performance protocol.

Abstract: This report supplements the document, "Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems," issued in a revised version in April see [4] , which will include the photovoltaic PV smoothing application for an energy storage system ESS. This report provides the background and documentation associated with the determination of a duty cycle for an ESS operated in a PV smoothing application for the purpose of measuring and expressing ESS performance in accordance with the ESS performance protocol.

Abstract: FERC order and FERC order provide pay-for-performance requirements and direct utilities and independent system operators to consider speed and accuracy when purchasing frequency regulation. This paper focuses on the PJM implementation. PJM is a regional transmission organization in the northeastern United States that serves 13 states and the District of Columbia. The performance credit includes a mileage ratio.

Using the PJM remuneration model, this paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participation in arbitrage and regulation in day-ahead markets using linear programming.

Finally, a heuristic trading algorithm that does not require perfect foresight was evaluated against the results of the optimization algorithm. Abstract: Flywheel energy storage systems are in use globally in increasing numbers. No codes pertaining specifically to flywheel energy storage exist. A number of industrial incidents have occurred. This protocol recommends a technical basis for safe flywheel design and operation for consideration by flywheel developers, users of flywheel systems and standards setting organizations.

The most current version of the ESHB is composed of four chapters, with well over one hundred figures and twenty tables in the main body, seven comprehensive appendices, and an extensive glossary.

The handbook engaged the talent of nine primary authors from four separate organizations, an advisory panel of ten subject matter experts, a construct of five different working groups, and another varied host of contributors. The purpose of the ESHB is to serve as a resource for making decisions on technical devices, equipment, facilities, systems, and installations based on respective use cases, services, costs and benefits for the emerging technologies and applications associated with electrical energy storage.

Stakeholders who require this type of information include, but are not limited to, large electricity utility and rural cooperative engineers, investors, venture capitalists, resource planners, and end-users. This Ready Reference Resource Guide 3RG is a clearinghouse catalogue that is concise, with practical information and advice on the major topics included in the full resource.

It is a challenging task to decide what should be included in this brief, magazine style layout. However, the benefits of this short digest are important: simplicity of communication, document usability, more exposure to targeted audiences, solution for handouts, and material that has a greater likelihood of being read and reviewed. Lastly, this guide also points to the major topics for the next iteration of the ESHB.

This evaluation was performed as part of the contracted 2. Abstract: In use since ancient times, the flywheel has smoothed the flow of energy in rotating machinery from small, hand held devices to the largest engines. Today, standalone flywheel systems are being developed to store electrical energy. These systems are deployed in applications as diverse as uninterruptible power supplies, gantry cranes, and large research facilities. This chapter presents the technical foundation of flywheel design, a comparison with other energy storage technologies, and a survey of applications where flywheel energy storage systems are currently in service.

To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether TEGDME is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

Abstract: Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost-effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers.

This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing.

The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing. Meacham, P. Abstract: The objectives of the project are consistent with the DOE energy programs goals in the following areas: development and evaluation of integrated electrical energy storage systems; analysis and comparison of technologies and applications; and encouraging program participation by industry, academia, research organizations and regulatory agencies.

The work reported in this paper is part of our effort to characterize the performance parameters of advanced batteries. The Encell nickel iron NiFe battery technology has recently entered the battery market. Encell's initial target markets are stationary applications such as micro-grid, solar, wind, and geothermal back-up energy storage.

The NiFe battery chemistry was introduced in and used in large vehicles and stationary applications. The NiFe battery's advantages are durability and long life. The historical NiFe technology's notable limitations include low specific energy, low power, low charge retention and poor low temperature performance along with being high cost and is still in limited mass production throughout the world today for specific applications. NiFe battery chemistry is known for its robustness, extreme shelf and cycle life.

The historical NiFe technology that was most robust to abuse also had limitations in being heavy, low power, low charge retention and poor low temperature performance along with being high cost.

Thus, over the years, other nickel battery technologies e. Encell has developed their NiFe battery to deliver significant advances from the original Edison s technology and addressed the historical shortcomings of the technology. Abstract: The purpose of this study is to characterize the technical performance of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project, and to identify lessons learned that can be used to improve similar projects in the future.

The smoothing system is effective in smoothing intermittent PV output. The shifting system exhibits good round-trip efficiencies, though the AC-to-AC annual average efficiency is lower than one might hope. Given the current utilization of the smoothing system, there is an opportunity to incorporate additional control algorithms in order to increase the value of the energy storage system.

Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. In this work, control cells along with three different carbon modified cells were evaluated under a range of conditions, from basic electrochemical performance through high rate, partial state of charge cycling.

The physical and chemical changes taking place within the plates were monitored and an effort to correlate performance to those changes was made. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide.

GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. Abstract: Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources.

Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment.

These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market economic barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country.

The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing.

Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

Abstract: The U. The focus of the protocol is to provide a uniform way of measuring, quantifying, and reporting the performance of ESSs in various applications; something that does not exist today and, as such, is hampering the consideration and use of this technology in the market. The availability of an application-specific protocol for use in measuring and expressing performance-related metrics of ESSs will allow technology developers, power-grid operators and other end-users to evaluate the performance of energy storage technologies on a uniform and comparable basis.

This will help differentiate technologies and products for specific application s and provide transparency in how performance is measured.

It also will assist utilities and other consumers of ESSs to make more informed decisions as they consider the potential application and use of ESSs, as well as form the basis for documentation that might be required to justify utility investment in such technologies.

Rose, D. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide.

This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device. Abstract: The Electricity Storage Handbook Handbook is a how-to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners, and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects. The Handbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists, providing the latest developments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluations of energy storage opportunities.

It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics.

Abstract: This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems RESSs for electric vehicles. Travis M.

The increased penetration of renewables into the European energy mix will see a surge in demand in Europe for power storage solutions, particularly pumped hydro storage. In order to accommodate this high level of intermittency, electricity systems will have to become more flexible, so they can balance generation and consumption. One way to introduce this flexibility into the grid is through pumped hydro storage PHS and some estimates suggest that more than 60 new pumped storage plants with a total capacity of about 27 GW will be built in Europe by Pumped storage hydroelectric plants are the most flexible and widespread means for the large-scale storage of electricity. By transferring water between two reservoirs at different elevations it is possible to supply electricity during peak demand and store excess electricity during periods of low demand.

Marc Oliver Bettzüge talking to SETIS

Адепты Мастера верили в них, и один даже пытался объяснить нам, что такое эти Великие. По большей части это было что-то совершенно невразумительное. Эти самые Великие никогда не существовали и никогда не будут существовать!. Поражение представлялось полным, и Олвин испытал горькое и какое-то еще и беспомощное разочарование. Между ним и Истиной встал человек, который, помимо того, что был сумасшедшим, еще и умер миллиард лет .

Хилвар сжалился над ним только тогда, когда они одолели две трети подъема, и они немного отдохнули, подставив натруженные тела ласковому солнышку.

Пульсирующий гром слышен был теперь куда яснее, и Олвин спросил о нем, но Хилвар уклонился от ответа. По его словам, это испортит приятную неожиданность, коли Олвин уже сейчас узнает -- что там, в конце этого Теперь они двигались уже против солнца, и, по счастью, заключительный участок пути оказался довольно гладким и отлогим. Деревья, которыми так густо поросла нижняя часть холма, теперь поредели, словно бы они тоже изнемогли в битве с земным тяготением, и на последних нескольких сотнях метров земля здесь покрывала только жестковатая, короткая трава, шагать по которой было приятно.

Когда показалась вершина, Хилвар словно взорвался энергией и устремился вверх по склону чуть ли не бегом. Олвин решил не принимать вызова, да, в сущности, ничего другого ему и не оставалось.

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И как же ты этого достиг.

Он глядел на это скопление знаков, силясь представить, что было здесь в древности, когда воздушный транспорт уже прекратил свое существование, но города Земли все еще сохраняли связь друг с другом. Он думал о бессчетных миллионах лет, в течение которых движение постепенно уменьшалось, и огни на огромной карте угасали один за другим - пока не осталось ничего, кроме этой единственной линии.

Как долго сияла она среди своих потухших соседей, тщетно ожидая момента, чтобы направить чьи-нибудь шаги, пока наконец Ярлан Зей не закрыл движущиеся пути и не отгородил Диаспар от мира. Это было миллиард лет. Лис тогда утерял связь с Диаспаром. Казалось невероятным, чтобы он выжил; ведь карта, в конце концов, могла уже ничего не значить.

Наконец Хедрон прервал его раздумья. Казалось, что он не в себе; трудно было узнать ту самонадеянную личность, какой он всегда выглядел там, наверху.

Но это настроение постепенно прошло, и мрачные тени оставили его ум. Он обратил внимание на окружающее и заинтересовался, можно ли узнать что-нибудь новое для себя в этом невероятно древнем аппарате, предназначенном для путешествий.

Элвин не был особенно удивлен или поражен тем обстоятельством, что давно погребенная транспортная система работала столь надежно спустя целые бездны времени. Действительно, она не хранилась в схемах вечности собственных мониторов города, но чтобы защитить ее от износа и разрушений, где-нибудь в другом месте должны были находиться подобные же Тут он впервые заметил индикаторный щит, составлявший часть передней стенки.

Любопытна разница между тремя посещенными нами планетами. С первой они все забрали; вторую бросили, не беспокоясь о ней; но здесь у них было много дел.

Он открыл глаза и увидел Элвина, Хилвара и Джерейна, в тревоге стоявших. Но он не обратил на них внимания; его сознание было полностью захвачено окружающим чудом - панорамой лесов и рек и голубым сводом открытого неба.

Он был в Лисе; и он не боялся. Пока этот миг, не имевший, казалось, временной протяженности, не запечатлелся в его сознании, никто не беспокоил Джезерака. Наконец, когда Джезерак убедил себя, что это и в самом деле уже не сон, он повернулся к своим спутникам. - Благодарю тебя, Джерейн, - сказал. - Я никогда не верил, что тебе это удастся.

Психолог, очень довольный собой, осторожно регулировал что-то в висевшей рядом с ним в воздухе небольшой машине. - Временами ты заставлял нас беспокоиться, - признался .

Oct 1, - For further information or to provide feedback: [email protected] Plant cost of various compressed air energy storage configurations.

Воздух был какой-то спертый, но им вполне можно было дышать. Несмотря на множество солнц на небе, жара не чувствовалась, Заметное тепло источал только белый диск Центрального Солнца, но и оно, это тепло, казалось, теряло свою силу, просачиваясь сквозь туманную дымку вокруг звезды.

Другие же солнца давали свою долю цвета, но никак не тепло. Им понадобилось всего несколько минут, чтобы убедиться, что этот обелиск ни о чем им не поведает. Упрямый материал, из которого он был сделан, ясно демонстрировал отметины, оставленные временем. Кромки его округлились, а металл, на котором он покоился, был исшаркан миллионами ног целых поколений пилигримов и просто любопытствующих.

Полагаю, что он знает о прошлом, но не в состоянии интерпретировать. В его сознании просто свалено в кучу все, что когда-либо происходило. На секунду он остановился в задумчивости, затем лицо его просветлело. - Сделать можно только одно: так или иначе мы должны доставить Ванамонда на Землю, чтобы наши философы могли изучить - Будет ли это безопасно.

- спросил Элвин. - Да, - ответил Хилвар, отметив в уме всю нехарактерность этой реплики для его друга. - Ванамонд настроен дружелюбно. Более того, он кажется, в сущности, почти нежным. И совершенно внезапно Элвина поразила мысль, все это время бродившая по периферии его сознания. Он вспомнил Крифа и всех прочих маленьких зверушек, которые постоянно убегали, вызывая беспокойство и тревогу у друзей Хилвара.

Более того, значительная часть из тех, с кем ему случалось поговорить, смотрели на него с жалостью -- как на человека, ведущего беспросветно скучную и никчемную жизнь, хотя все они были достаточно вежливы, чтобы и вида не показать, что они думают именно. К Эристону и Итании -- опекунам Олвина -- Хилвар быстро потерял всякий интерес, увидев, что это добрые люди, но поразительные посредственности. Его очень смущало, когда он слышал как Олвин называет их отцом и матерью: в Лизе эти слова все еще сохраняли свое древнее биологическое значение.

Если мы только сможем где-то войти в контакт, то получим всю нужную нам информацию. Знаешь, логично, наверное, будет направиться к самой большой планете Центрального Солнца.

-- Если только она не слишком уж велика.

И все же какую-то секунду еще казалось, что ничего не произошло. Но почти тотчас же Олвин осознал, что исчезло и Солнце, а звезды медленно ползут назад вдоль корпуса корабля. Он обернулся на мгновение и -- ничего не. Все небо в задней полусфере просто исчезло, сметенное тьмой.

До меня только что дошло: может быть, я и есть Ярлан Зей. Он мог внести свою личность в Банки Памяти в надежде сломать шаблоны Диаспара, пока город окончательно не закостенел. Когда-нибудь мне следует выяснить, что стало с прежними Уникумами: это поможет заполнить пробелы в общей - И, кроме того, Ярлан Зей - или, возможно, кто-то другой -проинструктировал Центральный Компьютер, чтобы тот специально помогал Уникумам, когда бы те ни появились, - размышлял Хилвар, следуя ходу рассуждений друга.

- Да, именно .

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