Electrolytic manganese dioxide EMD is the critical component of the cathode material in modern alkaline, lithium, and sodium batteries including electrochemical capacitors and hydrogen production. In terms of environmental and cost considerations, EMD is likely to remain the preferred energy material for the future generation, as it has been in recent decades. Diminishing fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have created the need to derive energy from sustainable sources. The energy storage device from alternative and inexpensive sources, such as low grade manganese ores, has a niche in the renewable energy and portable electronics market.
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- Smelting of High-Carbon Ferrochromium in a Three-Phase Electric Furnace
- WO2007037508A1 - Activated carbon and process of making the same - Google Patents
- Engg Products
- ELECTROMETAL TRADING COMPANY SRL
- Emerging nanotechnologies for manufacturing
- KR101663393B1 - Process for the manufacture of a capacitor film - Google Patents
Smelting of High-Carbon Ferrochromium in a Three-Phase Electric FurnaceVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Surprising Terminal Insulating Material
Polypropylene is the material of choice in the field of film capacitors because it does not have any type of polar group whose chains are oriented under electrical field stress.
As a result, polypropylene has inherently low loss rates and high volume resistivity. These properties, combined with relatively high dielectric constant and self-recovery properties in the capacitor and good mechanical properties such as high melting temperature and high stiffness make polypropylene very valuable in this technical field.
The dielectric breakdown voltage or breakdown voltage of polypropylene can be increased in the biaxially oriented case where polypropylene is obtained by stretching the heated film sheet in two opposite directions, longitudinal and transverse machine directions to induce more perfect crystalline formation and orientation. However, when a Ziegler-Natta catalyst is used during the production of polypropylene, typically a dielectric film made of the polypropylene will contain a polar residue originating from the Ziegler-Natta catalyst used, such as chlorine, aluminum, titanium, magnesium,.
These residues reduce the resistivity, i. Increase the conductivity of the polymer, rendering the polymer unsuitable for use in applications requiring very low conductivity, such as films for capacitors. Thus, in order to make the polypropylene commercially attractive in this technical field, it has to be cleaned, typically cleaned, in order to remove unwanted residues from the polymer material, which is time consuming and cost-intensive.
Typically, the purification of the polymer is carried out at an additional step after the remaining polymerization step. Thus, the polymer from the last polymerization step is applied to a washing step in which the catalyst residue is dissolved from the polymer material.
Typically used washing liquids contain polar groups, such as organic hydrocarbon solvents having hydroxyl groups, such as propanol. However, the polymers disclosed in this application must be cleaned to remove unwanted impurities and residues. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a process for producing capacitor films having electrical properties desired by those skilled in the art, without the need to use purified polypropylene, for example polypropylene washed to remove unwanted residues as described above Method.
The discovery of the present invention is to use polypropylene containing small particle sizes, preferably nanosized particles. In particular, it has been found that the desired electrical properties can be achieved, particularly if, for example, some of the nanoparticles are added to the prepared polymer instead of the small particles already dispersed during the polymerization step.
The dispersion of small particles, preferably nano-sized, allows for even distribution of particles already during polymerization, and thus the desired electrical properties are achieved. Thus, according to the present invention, surprisingly, it has been found that the desired electrical properties are achieved by using a catalytic system which is broken down into nano-sized particles very small at very early polymerization times during polypropylene polymerization.
Surprisingly, it has been found that polymers prepared using catalysts which can be broken down into these very small, nano-sized particles and which remain in the polymer are suitable for use in the manufacture of capacitor films due to their electrical properties of interest lost. In other words, the amount of residue is not a critical issue, as the catalyst residues described herein do not deteriorate the electrical properties of the polymer.
As a result, expensive and troublesome purification steps can be omitted. Thus, the amount of residue, typically measured by ash content, is not a limiting feature of the polymer and may be, according to the invention, for example, the level normally required for a polymer for a capacitor film, or it may be a conventional supported Ziegler- May be higher than is usually allowed when used to make polymers for use in capacitor films.
Accordingly, in a first embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of making a capacitor film comprising the steps of:. Wherein during the polymerization step a , the catalyst comprising the solid catalyst system SCS is broken into nanoscale catalyst segments F dispersed in the polypropylene PP , and the solid catalyst system SCS Includes:. The solid catalyst system SCS used in the process of the present invention also includes:. Preferably the solid catalyst system SCS used in the process of the present invention has the following:.
Preferably, the solid catalyst system SCS used in the present invention is obtained by a process comprising contacting c and d. C a solution of a metal selected from one of Groups 1 to 3 of the periodic table IUPAC and a complex C of an electron donor E , said complex C being a solution of said metal and said electron donor Obtained by reacting a precursor EP.
According to a second embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of making a capacitor film comprising the steps of:. Wherein the solid catalyst system SCS of step a is obtained by a process comprising contacting c and d. Preferably, the solid catalyst system SCS used in the process of the present invention has the following:. Preferably, the catalyst comprising the solid catalyst system SCS is dispersed in polypropylene PP as the nanoscale catalyst segment F.
The dispersion of the nanoscale catalyst segments F occurs due to the breakdown of the catalyst and the solid catalyst system SCS , respectively, at the very early stages of the polymerization process of step a. This premature crushing allows for even distribution of the fragments in the polymer. The polypropylene PP of the first and second embodiments is preferably a random propylene copolymer R-PP or a propylene homopolymer H-PP , the latter being particularly preferred.
The polypropylene PP in the third embodiment is preferably a random propylene copolymer R-PP or a propylene homopolymer H-PP , the latter being particularly preferred. Preferably the polypropylene PP comprises nanoscale catalyst segments F dispersed in said polypropylene PP. Preferably the nano-sized catalyst segments F originate from catalysts and solid catalyst systems SCS , respectively. The catalyst and the solid catalyst system SCS are each broken into nanoscale catalyst segments F dispersed in polypropylene PP at very early stages of polypropylene PP.
Preferably, the solid catalyst system SCS of the third embodiment is obtained by a process comprising contacting c and d. The present invention also relates to a capacitor film comprising a polypropylene PP having a defect of less than 0. In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a capacitor film as defined above wherein the polypropylene is the sole polymeric component of the capacitor film.
Surprisingly, the capacitor film according to the present invention has good electrical properties, even though the film even contains a significant amount of residues, the indication of which is a high ash content as is generally accepted for products with good electrical properties. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the ash contained in the polymer produced as described herein is typically different from that originating from supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts.
Thus, in accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a method of forming a capacitor film, which is suitable for use as a capacitor film or having electrical characteristics suitable for use in a capacitor film application , and that is to say without the need to remove catalyst residues outside any polymer, To the use of certain types of catalyst systems for preparing propylene polymers suitable for use as such without purification, e.
First, the polypropylene PP and the capacitor film used in the production of the capacitor film will be described in more detail. Hereinafter, the method and the capacitor film used in the production of polypropylene will be described in detail, respectively. An essential aspect of the present invention is that certain polypropylene PP is used in the production of capacitor films.
Polypropylene PP is characterized by a significantly lower comonomer content. Accordingly, the polypropylene PP is preferably a random propylene copolymer R-PP or a propylene homopolymer H-PP , the latter being particularly preferred. Preferably, the random propylene copolymer R-PP comprises, especially consists of, a monomer copolymerizable with propylene selected from the group consisting of ethylene, 1-butene and 1-hexene.
In a preferred embodiment, the random propylene copolymer R-PP comprises units that can be derived from ethylene and propylene alone. The comonomer content in the random propylene copolymer R-PP is preferably in the range of more than 0. The expression homopolymer used in the present invention is substantially polypropylene PP comprising In a preferred embodiment, only propylene units are detectable in the propylene homopolymer H-PP.
Preferably, the polypropylene PP has the same arrangement. The system is characterized by a significantly higher xylene cooled solids content. The broad molecular weight distribution MWD improves the processability of polypropylene. In a preferred embodiment, the molecular weight distribution MWD is preferably in the range of 3. It is also believed that the polypropylene PP is linear in structure and thus does not or rarely shows a branch. The polypropylene PP of the present invention is preferably characterized by the presence of a unique catalytic moiety.
More precisely, the polypropylene PP is characterized by a catalytic segment F which is preferably in the nanoscale range. These segments F originate from a catalyst comprising a solid catalyst system SCS , which is preferably used in the production of polypropylene PP. The process used in the production of polypropylene PP , including certain catalysts, including solid catalyst systems SCS , is defined in more detail below.
The expression "even distribution" or similar terms such as "evenly distributed" of the nanoscale catalyst segments F in polypropylene PP But may be present anywhere in the polypropylene PP. Surprisingly, it has been found that polypropylene PP containing nanoscale catalyst segments F originating from a catalyst comprising a solid catalyst system SCS has interesting electrical properties, i.
In other words, the nanoscale catalyst segments F described herein do not degrade the electrical properties of polypropylene PP , and thus the amount of segments is not an issue. In contrast, certain nanoscale catalyst segments F appear to be useful for lower electrical conductivity compared to conventional catalyst residues. The amount of catalyst segment F , is the ash content.
In general, the ash content of polypropylene in the field of capacitors should be considerably low to avoid deterioration in electrical properties. Thus, typically the polymer used in the capacitor film should have a ash content of less than 30 ppm, preferably less than 20 ppm ISO However, as described above, it has been found that the amount of ash is not a limiting feature in the polypropylene PP used in the present invention, that is, even if the ash content is higher than generally permitted, the electrical properties are not deteriorated, This indicates that the residue is not of a size and type that impairs the desired properties but is of very small size nano-size and is evenly dispersed in the polymer.
Surprisingly, therefore, good electrical properties are achieved, even if polypropylene PP has a high ash content. In yet another embodiment, the ash content is in the range of more than 30 to ppm, more preferably in the range of 40 to ppm, such as 50 to ppm.
It is known that the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor are variable in temperature, where a significant effect can be observed at elevated temperatures. However, in contrast to polypropylene according to the state of the art, the influence on the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor at elevated temperatures is less pronounced in the polypropylene according to the invention.
Therefore, the polypropylene PP of the present invention preferably satisfies the following conditions:. More preferably,. Even more preferably,. More preferably, ;. Even more preferably, ;. The same electrical performance is desirable for capacitor films comprising polypropylene PP. Thus, the capacitor film of the present invention comprising polypropylene PP is characterized by:.
In addition to or in the alternative to the paragraph, the capacitor film of the present invention comprising polypropylene PP satisfies the following:. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention relates to a capacitor film as defined above, wherein the polypropylene PP is the only polymer component of the capacitor film. In consideration of the above, the invention is in particular a propylene homopolymer relates to a polypropylene PP H-PP , wherein the propylene homopolymer H-PP is a 0.
Further, it is preferable that the propylene homopolymer H-PP of the above paragraph satisfies the following:. The propylene homopolymer H-PP defined in the above two paragraphs is also preferably:. The polypropylene PP defined above is applied to a film forming process to obtain a capacitor film. Preferably the polypropylene PP is the only polymer in the capacitor film.
Thus, the capacitor film may contain an additive, but preferably does not contain other polymers. Thus, up to However, such a remainder will be less than 5. The thickness of the capacitor film may be It is also known that the capacitor film is a biaxially oriented film, that is, any mixture combination including polypropylene PP or polypropylene PP defined above is applied to the stretching process to obtain a biaxially oriented polymer desirable.
As indicated above, the capacitor film preferably contains polypropylene PP as the only polymer, and this is preferably biaxially oriented polypropylene BOPP made of the polypropylene PP. Preferably, the capacitor film, that is, biaxially oriented polypropylene BOPP has a stretching ratio in the longitudinal direction of 3. It is believed that the ratio should be such that a conventional biaxially oriented polypropylene film can be stretched at least to the extent defined without breaking.
The length of the sample is increased during the stretching in the longitudinal direction, and the stretching ratio in the longitudinal direction is calculated from the ratio of the present length to the original sample length.
Thereafter, the sample is stretched in the transverse direction in which the width of the sample is increased.
Environmental Protection Agency, -and approved for publication. JMention of trade names or, commer- cial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation use. The Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory - Cincinnati lERL-Ci assists in developing and demonstrating new and im- proved methodologies that will meet these needs both efficiently and economically. This report presents a multimedia air, liquid, and solid wastes environmental assessment of the domestic mineral mining industry. The primary objective of the study is to identify the major pollution problems associated with the industry.
WO2007037508A1 - Activated carbon and process of making the same - Google Patents
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Polypropylene is the material of choice in the field of film capacitors because it does not have any type of polar group whose chains are oriented under electrical field stress. As a result, polypropylene has inherently low loss rates and high volume resistivity. These properties, combined with relatively high dielectric constant and self-recovery properties in the capacitor and good mechanical properties such as high melting temperature and high stiffness make polypropylene very valuable in this technical field. The dielectric breakdown voltage or breakdown voltage of polypropylene can be increased in the biaxially oriented case where polypropylene is obtained by stretching the heated film sheet in two opposite directions, longitudinal and transverse machine directions to induce more perfect crystalline formation and orientation. However, when a Ziegler-Natta catalyst is used during the production of polypropylene, typically a dielectric film made of the polypropylene will contain a polar residue originating from the Ziegler-Natta catalyst used, such as chlorine, aluminum, titanium, magnesium,.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Electrical Insulating material classification and properties
This application claims benefit pursua U. Espe invention relates to an activated carbon havi stocking property, and high adsorption quant such as hydrocarbon gas having low molecular if BET specific surface area is low. Also th relates to an activated carbon useful as m Background Art. Natural gas mainly contains methane Generally speaking, an activated carbon bein BET specific surface area and being larger i micro pore having pore diameter of lnm or le more adsorption of gas having small molecula as methane, ethane, or other hydrocarbon gas molecular weight, or hydrogen. In JP-A is described an acti obtained by activating with alkali metallic co activated carbon has volume of micro pore, wh diameter of approximately 0. An electric double layer capacitor chargable and dischargable, tough against ov overdischarge, long in life for cause of reaction, workable under wide range of tempe easy on the environment for cause of heavy met has other property which battery does not have. An electric d capacitor is researched in application to ele storing system or engine assist for hyb assembling with battery such as solar batte cell. An electric double layer capacitor activated carbon is employed as material for electrode, has large electric capacity per vol.
ELECTROMETAL TRADING COMPANY SRL
В лифте он опять не почувствовал никакого движения, но понимал, что, наверное, поднялся на многие сотни футов, Он поспешил вверх во коридору к залитому солнечным светом выходу, торопясь поскорее увидеть, что же лежит перед ним, и позабыв обо всех своих страхах. Он очутился на склоне низкого холма, и на какое-то мгновение ему даже почудилось, будто он снова находится в центральном Парке Диаспара.
Быть может, это и в самом деле был какой-то парк, но разум отказывался охватить его размеры. Города, который он ожидал увидеть, не .
Движение замедлялось - в этом не было сомнения. Должно быть, время прошло быстрее, чем он думал; несколько удивленный, Элвин взглянул на индикатор.
Ошеломленные величием этих колоссальных развалин, Олвин и Хилвар приближались к ним в полном молчании. Они ступили в тень разрушенной стены и углубились в своего рода каньон: горы камня здесь расселись. Озеро лежало перед ними, совсем рядом, и вот уже они стали у самой кромки воды, волны плескались у их ног. Крохотные волночки. Высотой не более нескольких дюймов, они бесконечной чередой разбивались об узкую полоску 6ерега.
Хилвар первым нарушил молчание, и в голосе его прозвучала нотка неуверенности, заставившая Олвина взглянуть на друга с некоторым удивлением. -- Что-то тут не. Ничего не могу понять, -- медленно проговорил Хилвар. -- Ветра-то нет, а что же тогда морщит воду. Ей бы надо оставаться совершенно спокойной. Прежде чем Олвин продумал ответ, Хилвар стремительно присел, склонил голову к плечу и погрузил в воду правое ухо.
Emerging nanotechnologies for manufacturing
Наконец, почти шепотом, он произнес: -- Чего же вы хотите от. -- Мы надеялись, что сможем предоставить вам выбор -- остаться здесь или вернуться в Диаспар. Но теперь это уже невозможно. Произошло слишком многое, чтобы мы могли теперь оставить решение в ваших руках. Даже за то короткое время, что вы пробыли здесь, у нас, ваше влияние на умонастроения людей оказалось в высшей степени дестабилизирующим.
Нет-нет, я вас вовсе не упрекаю.
KR101663393B1 - Process for the manufacture of a capacitor film - Google Patents
Есть ли у тебя что сказать сверх уже сказанного, - спросил он, - прежде, чем мы решим, что делать. - Только одна просьба. Я хотел бы отвести этого робота к Центральному Компьютеру. - Но. Ты же знаешь, что Компьютер полностью в курсе всего, происходящего в этом помещении.
- Я все же хотел бы пойти к нему, - вежливо, но упрямо ответил Элвин. - На это я прошу разрешения и у Совета, и у Компьютера.
И Ярлан Зей -- или кто бы это ни был -- также проинструктировал Центральный Компьютер оказывать Неповторимым помощь, когда бы они ни появлялись,-- задумчиво произнес Хилвар, следуя линии его логики.
Вот. Ирония же заключается в том, что я мог получить всю необходимую информацию прямо от Центрального Компьютера и мне не нужно было бы потрошить беднягу Хедрона. Мне-то Центральный сообщил бы гораздо больше, чем то, что он когда-либо рассказывал Шуту.
Спросил Олвин у Алистры, когда они миновали зеркальный зал. Алистра отрицательно покачала головой. -- Наверное, где-то у самой-самой окраины города,-- беззаботно ответила.
-- Похоже, что мы забрались очень далеко, а вот куда именно -- я и понятия не имею.
Но когда его спутник указал на открытую дверь, Джезерак лишь на миг задержался на пороге и ступил внутрь. - Вот видишь. - сказал Ярлан Зей с улыбкой.
Это тепло, это обилие запахов и цвета, да еще невидимое присутствие миллионов живых существ обрушились на него с почти ощутимой силой. Встреча с озером оказалась полной неожиданностью. Деревья справа внезапно кончились, и он очутился перед обширнейшим водным пространством, усыпанным крохотными островками. Никогда в жизни Олвин не видел такой воды.