Embodiments of the present invention provide a radio frequency identification RFID based electricity metering system enabled to meter energy consumption of individual devices. In particular, the present invention is directed to a system for an RFID-based electricity metering system enabled to meter energy consumption of individual devices. An electricity meter is an electronic device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, business, or an electrically powered device. As commercial use of electric energy spread in the late nineteenth century, the use of the electric energy meter became important in order to properly bill customers for the cost of energy. Electricity meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour.
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An electricity meter , electric meter , electrical meter , or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence , a business , or an electrically powered device.
Electric utilities use electric meters installed at customers' premises for billing purposes. They are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour kWh. They are usually read once each billing period. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, some meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand response load shedding during peak load periods.
As commercial use of electric energy spread in the s, it became increasingly important that an electric energy meter, similar to the then existing gas meters , was required to properly bill customers, instead of billing for a fixed number of lamps per month.
DC meters measured charge in ampere-hours. Since the voltage of the supply should remain substantially constant, the reading of the meter was proportional to actual energy consumed. Many experimental types of meter were developed.
Thomas Edison at first worked on a direct current DC electromechanical meter with a direct reading register, but instead developed an electrochemical metering system, which used an electrolytic cell to totalise current consumption. At periodic intervals the plates were removed and weighed, and the customer billed. The electrochemical meter was labor-intensive to read and not well received by customers.
An early type of electrochemical meter used in the United Kingdom was the 'Reason' meter. This consisted of a vertically mounted glass structure with a mercury reservoir at the top of the meter. As current was drawn from the supply, electrochemical action transferred the mercury to the bottom of the column.
Like all other DC meters, it recorded ampere-hours. Once the mercury pool was exhausted, the meter became an open circuit. It was therefore necessary for the consumer to pay for a further supply of electricity, whereupon, the supplier's agent would unlock the meter from its mounting and invert it restoring the mercury to the reservoir and the supply.
In Ferranti offered a mercury motor meter with a register similar to gas meters; this had the advantage that the consumer could easily read the meter and verify consumption. This meter overcame the disadvantages of the electrochemical type and could operate on either alternating or direct current. In Oliver Shallenberger of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation applied the induction principle previously used  only in AC ampere-hour meters to produce a watt-hour meter of the modern electromechanical form, using an induction disk whose rotational speed was made proportional to the power in the circuit.
Shallenberger fell ill and was unable to refine his initial large and heavy design, although he did also develop a polyphase version. The most common unit of measurement on the electricity meter is the kilowatt hour [ kWh ], which is equal to the amount of energy used by a load of one kilowatt over a period of one hour , or 3,, joules. Some electricity companies use the SI megajoule instead. Demand is normally measured in watts, but averaged over a period, most often a quarter- or half-hour.
Reactive power is measured in "thousands of volt-ampere reactive -hours", kvarh. By convention, a "lagging" or inductive load, such as a motor, will have positive reactive power. A "leading", or capacitive load, will have negative reactive power.
Volt-amperes measures all power passed through a distribution network, including reactive and actual. This is equal to the product of root-mean-square volts and amperes. Distortion of the electric current by loads is measured in several ways. Power factor is the ratio of resistive or real power to volt-amperes. A capacitive load has a leading power factor, and an inductive load has a lagging power factor.
A purely resistive load such as a filament lamp, heater or kettle exhibits a power factor of 1. Current harmonics are a measure of distortion of the wave form. For example, electronic loads such as computer power supplies draw their current at the voltage peak to fill their internal storage elements. This can lead to a significant voltage drop near the supply voltage peak which shows as a flattening of the voltage waveform.
This flattening causes odd harmonics which are not permissible if they exceed specific limits, as they are not only wasteful, but may interfere with the operation of other equipment. Harmonic emissions are mandated by law in EU and other countries to fall within specified limits. In addition to metering based on the amount of energy used, other types of metering are available.
Meters which measured the amount of charge coulombs used, known as ampere-hour meters , were used in the early days of electrification. These were dependent upon the supply voltage remaining constant for accurate measurement of energy usage, which was not a likely circumstance with most supplies. Some meters measured only the length of time for which charge flowed, with no measurement of the magnitude of voltage or current being made.
These are only suited for constant-load applications and are rarely used today. Electricity meters operate by continuously measuring the instantaneous voltage volts and current amperes to give energy used in joules , kilowatt-hours etc. Meters for smaller services such as small residential customers can be connected directly in-line between source and customer. For larger loads, more than about ampere of load, current transformers are used, so that the meter can be located other than in line with the service conductors.
The meters fall into two basic categories, electromechanical and electronic. The most common type of electricity meter is the electromechanical watt-hour meter. On a single-phase AC supply, the electromechanical induction meter operates through electromagnetic induction by counting the revolutions of a non-magnetic, but electrically conductive, metal disc which is made to rotate at a speed proportional to the power passing through the meter.
The number of revolutions is thus proportional to the energy usage. The voltage coil consumes a small and relatively constant amount of power, typically around 2 watts which is not registered on the meter. The current coil similarly consumes a small amount of power in proportion to the square of the current flowing through it, typically up to a couple of watts at full load, which is registered on the meter.
The disc is acted upon by two sets of induction coils , which form, in effect, a two phase linear induction motor. One coil is connected in such a way that it produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the voltage and the other produces a magnetic flux in proportion to the current.
The field of the voltage coil is delayed by 90 degrees, due to the coil's inductive nature, and calibrated using a lag coil. A permanent magnet acts as an eddy current brake , exerting an opposing force proportional to the speed of rotation of the disc. The equilibrium between these two opposing forces results in the disc rotating at a speed proportional to the power or rate of energy usage.
The disc drives a register mechanism which counts revolutions, much like the odometer in a car, in order to render a measurement of the total energy used. Different phase configurations use additional voltage and current coils. The disc is supported by a spindle which has a worm gear which drives the register. The register is a series of dials which record the amount of energy used.
The dials may be of the cyclometer type, an odometer-like display that is easy to read where for each dial a single digit is shown through a window in the face of the meter, or of the pointer type where a pointer indicates each digit. With the dial pointer type, adjacent pointers generally rotate in opposite directions due to the gearing mechanism.
The amount of energy represented by one revolution of the disc is denoted by the symbol Kh which is given in units of watt-hours per revolution. The value 7. Using the value of Kh one can determine their power consumption at any given time by timing the disc with a stopwatch.
This method can be used to determine the power consumption of household devices by switching them on one by one. Most domestic electricity meters must be read manually, whether by a representative of the power company or by the customer. Where the customer reads the meter, the reading may be supplied to the power company by telephone , post or over the internet.
The electricity company will normally require a visit by a company representative at least annually in order to verify customer-supplied readings and to make a basic safety check of the meter.
In an induction type meter, creep is a phenomenon that can adversely affect accuracy, that occurs when the meter disc rotates continuously with potential applied and the load terminals open circuited. A test for error due to creep is called a creep test.
Electronic meters display the energy used on an LCD or LED display, and some can also transmit readings to remote places. In addition to measuring energy used, electronic meters can also record other parameters of the load and supply such as instantaneous and maximum rate of usage demands, voltages, power factor and reactive power used etc.
They can also support time-of-day billing, for example, recording the amount of energy used during on-peak and off-peak hours. As in the block diagram [ where? The metering engine is given the voltage and current inputs and has a voltage reference, samplers and quantisers followed by an ADC section to yield the digitised equivalents of all the inputs.
These inputs are then processed using a digital signal processor to calculate the various metering parameters. The largest source of long-term errors in the meter is drift in the preamp, followed by the precision of the voltage reference. Both of these vary with temperature as well, and vary wildly because most meters are outdoors. Characterising and compensating for these is a major part of meter design.
The processing and communication section has the responsibility of calculating the various derived quantities from the digital values generated by the metering engine. This also has the responsibility of communication using various protocols and interface with other addon modules connected as slaves to it.
On a modern meter most if not all of this will be implemented inside the microprocessor, such as the real-time clock RTC , LCD controller, temperature sensor, memory and analogue to digital converters.
Remote meter reading is a practical example of telemetry. It saves the cost of a human meter reader and the resulting mistakes, but it also allows more measurements, and remote provisioning. Many smart meters now include a switch to interrupt or restore service. Historically, rotating meters could report their metered information remotely, using a pair of electrical contacts attached to a KYZ line.
When one contact closes the other contact opens to provide count accuracy security. The frequency of pulses indicates the power demand. The number of pulses indicates energy metered. The KYZ relay creates pulses.
When incorporated into an electrical meter, the relay changes state with each rotation or half rotation of the meter disc.
Each state change is called a "pulse. KYZ outputs were historically attached to "totaliser relays" feeding a "totaliser" so that many meters could be read all at once in one place. KYZ outputs are also the classic way of attaching electricity meters to programmable logic controllers , HVACs or other control systems. Some modern meters also supply a contact closure that warns when the meter detects a demand near a higher electricity tariff , to improve demand side management.
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Precise metering pays off
CAA1 Measurement device, particularly energy counter and method for recognition of manipulations. CNB Remote meter reading system heart-throb frame real-time detection method. WOA2 Consumption meter with one processor handling legal and non-legal code. EPA1 Communication device arranged for wireless communication with a consumption meter. EPA1 Consumption meter with one processor handling legal and non-legal code. CNA Fixed flow temperature difference charge system.
Water, water everywhere! – Part 2
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Smart meters are tools used to manage and record electricity and performance of electronic devices in the home. What makes the meters "smart" is their ability to provide detailed and accurate analytics on electrical usage in real-time or at predetermined intervals, all without a technician. The U. The strategic potential of collecting a broad spectrum of information about electricity consumption includes the value of quick, accurate measurements and the elimination of monthly estimates and meter-reading home visits. Despite being the most energy-efficient and profitable means to manage an electrical grid, there are concerns over the personal data that smart meters are collecting in real-time, including what may be unnecessary information about hourly electricity use. This collection of data could, potentially, be a violation of users' privacy. Here's a look at the benefits and challenges that smart meters present to electric utilities, customers, and the environment:. With new, resource-saving technology comes new challenges that will arise regarding expensive, energy-intensive data storage and the privacy issues that loom large over these domestic and commercial technologies.
Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)
Firstly, a note on data acquisition All elements of any metering network are essential in their own right, however data acquisition in my view is the most vital component. The only worse thing than no data is bad data. So what are our options for data acquisition in water metering?
We advise, install, finance, monitor, repair, exchange, track calibration terms and always keep you up to date about the latest technology — be it maintenance or rent. Techem radio technology is universally applicable. The appropriate components are available for all installation situations. As no wiring at all is required, there is no need for structural work. All consumption data is recorded by a mobile receiver outside the home and transmitted remotely to the Techem data centre. All the important information is displayed in the same way as the electronic heating cost allocator. The additional benefit of radio is that because consumption data is transmitted encrypted via radio, there is no need to access the home. The reading on the reference date can be checked on the device at any time and the software prevents extraneous heat being recorded. Techem heating cost allocators enable precise recording of consumption, transparent display and easy readouts.
Electricity is measured in units of power called Watts, named to honor James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. A Watt is the unit of electrical power equal to one ampere under the pressure of one volt. One Watt is a small amount of power. Some devices require only a few Watts to operate, and other devices require larger amounts. The power consumption of small devices is usually measured in Watts, and the power consumption of larger devices is measured in kilowatts kW , or 1, Watts. Electricity generation capacity is often measured in multiples of kilowatts, such as megawatts MW and gigawatts GW. A Watthour Wh is equal to the energy of one Watt steadily supplied to, or taken from, an electric circuit for one hour. The amount of electricity that a power plant generates or an electric utility customer uses is typically measured in kilowatthours kWh. One kWh is one kilowatt generated or consumed for one hour.
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An electricity meter , electric meter , electrical meter , or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence , a business , or an electrically powered device. Electric utilities use electric meters installed at customers' premises for billing purposes. They are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour kWh. They are usually read once each billing period. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, some meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand response load shedding during peak load periods. As commercial use of electric energy spread in the s, it became increasingly important that an electric energy meter, similar to the then existing gas meters , was required to properly bill customers, instead of billing for a fixed number of lamps per month. DC meters measured charge in ampere-hours. Since the voltage of the supply should remain substantially constant, the reading of the meter was proportional to actual energy consumed. Many experimental types of meter were developed.
US20120280828A1 - Rfid-based electricity metering system - Google Patents
Automatic meter reading AMR is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices gas, electric and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing. This technology mainly saves utility providers the expense of periodic trips to each physical location to read a meter. Another advantage is that billing can be based on near real-time consumption rather than on estimates based on past or predicted consumption.
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This post is part of our Industry Series, an ongoing campaign to provide a foundation of knowledge about our unique industry. To learn more about this campaign, please click here. Traditional meters only provide information for total consumption between meter reads. They provide no information as to when the energy was consumed at each metered site.
Он видел прошлое -- правда, не совсем отчетливо, как человек, стоящий на вершине горы, мог бы видеть скрывающуюся в дымке равнину. Он понял, что люди не всегда жили в городах и что с тех пор, как машины освободили их от тяжкого труда, начался спор между двумя цивилизациями различного типа. На протяжении столетий и столетий периода Начала существовали тысячи городов, однако большая часть человечества предпочитала жить сравнительно небольшими поселениями. Всеземной транспорт и мгновенные средства связи давали людям возможность осуществлять все необходимые контакты с остальным миром, и они не испытывали ни малейшей необходимости ютиться в тесноте городов, в толчее миллионов своих современников.