During the nine decades since its establishment in , the Communist Party USA produced or inspired a vast array of newspapers and magazines in the English language. This list was launched in , based upon material said to have been "principally taken from the California Senate's report" of  and the testimony of Walter S. Various alterations were made over time, including the deletion of ephemeral personnel names as well as additions and subtractions where merited. This list does not include the vast array of Communist Party newspapers, periodicals, and magazines published in languages other than English.
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This book is the result of twelve years' experience in teaching university students to write special feature articles for newspapers and popular magazines.
By applying the methods outlined in the following pages, young men and women have been able to prepare articles that have been accepted by many newspaper and magazine editors. The success that these students have achieved leads the author to believe that others who desire to write special articles may be aided by the suggestions given in this book.
Although innumerable books on short-story writing have been published, no attempt has hitherto been made to discuss in detail the writing of special feature articles. In the absence of any generally accepted method of approach to the subject, it has been necessary to work out a systematic classification of the various types of articles and of the different kinds of titles, beginnings, and similar details, as well as to supply names by which to identify them.
A careful analysis of current practice in the writing of special feature stories and popular magazine articles is the basis of the methods presented. In this analysis an effort has been made to show the application of the principles of composition to the writing of articles. Examples taken from representative newspapers and magazines are freely used to illustrate the methods discussed. To encourage students to analyze typical articles, the second part of the book is devoted to a collection of newspaper and magazine articles of various types, with an outline for the analysis of them.
Particular emphasis is placed on methods of popularizing such knowledge as is not available to the general reader. This has been done in the belief that it is important for the average person to know of the progress that is being made in every field of human endeavor, in order that he may, if possible, apply the results to his own affairs.
The problem, therefore, is to show aspiring writers how to present discoveries, inventions, new methods, and every significant advance in knowledge, in an accurate and attractive form.
To train students to write articles for newspapers and popular magazines may, perhaps, be regarded by some college instructors in composition as an undertaking scarcely worth their while.
They would doubtless prefer to encourage their students to write what is commonly called "literature. Moreover, since the overwhelming majority of Americans read only newspapers and magazines, it is by no means an unimportant task for our universities to train writers to supply the steady demand for well-written articles. The late Walter Hines Page, founder of the World's Work and former editor of the Atlantic Monthly , presented the whole situation effectively in an article on "The Writer and the University," when he wrote:.
The journeymen writers write almost all that almost all Americans read. This is a fact that we love to fool ourselves about. We talk about "literature" and we talk about "hack writers," implying that the reading that we do is of literature.
The truth all the while is, we read little else than the writing of the hacks—living hacks, that is, men and women who write for pay. We may hug the notion that our life and thought are not really affected by current literature, that we read the living writers only for utilitarian reasons, and that our real intellectual life is fed by the great dead writers.
But hugging this delusion does not change the fact that the intellectual life even of most educated persons, and certainly of the mass of the population, is fed chiefly by the writers of our own time Every editor of a magazine, every editor of an earnest and worthy newspaper, every publisher of books, has dozens or hundreds of important tasks for which he cannot find capable men; tasks that require scholarship, knowledge of science, or of politics, or of industry, or of literature, along with experience in writing accurately in the language of the people.
Special feature stories and popular magazine articles constitute a type of writing particularly adapted to the ability of the novice, who has developed some facility in writing, but who may not have sufficient maturity or talent to undertake successful short-story writing or other distinctly literary work. Most special articles cannot be regarded as literature. Nevertheless, they afford the young writer an opportunity to develop whatever ability he possesses. Such writing teaches him four things that are invaluable to any one who aspires to do literary work.
It trains him to observe what is going on about him, to select what will interest the average reader, to organize material effectively, and to present it attractively. If this book helps the inexperienced writer, whether he is in or out of college, to acquire these four essential qualifications for success, it will have accomplished its purpose.
The author is also under obligation to the many newspapers and magazines from which excerpts, titles, and other material have been quoted. Origin of Special Articles. The rise of popular magazines and of magazine sections of daily newspapers during the last thirty years has resulted in a type of writing known as the "special feature article. Editors of newspapers and magazines a generation ago began to realize that there was no lack of interest on the part of the general public in scientific discoveries and inventions, in significant political and social movements, in important persons and events.
Magazine articles on these themes, however, had usually been written by specialists who, as a rule, did not attempt to appeal to the "man in the street," but were satisfied to reach a limited circle of well-educated readers.
To create a larger magazine-reading public, editors undertook to develop a popular form and style that would furnish information as attractively as possible. The perennial appeal of fiction gave them a suggestion for the popularization of facts. The methods of the short story, of the drama, and even of the melodrama, applied to the presentation of general information, provided a means for catching the attention of the casual reader.
Daily newspapers had already discovered the advantage of giving the day's news in a form that could be read rapidly with the maximum degree of interest by the average man and woman. Certain so-called sensational papers had gone a step further in these attempts to give added attractiveness to news and had emphasized its melodramatic aspects.
Other papers had seen the value of the "human interest" phases of the day's happenings. It was not surprising, therefore, that Sunday editors of newspapers should undertake to apply to special articles the same methods that had proved successful in the treatment of news. The product of these efforts at popularization was the special feature article, with its story-like form, its touches of description, its "human interest," its dramatic situations, its character portrayal—all effectively used to furnish information and entertainment for that rapid reader, the "average American.
Definition of a Special Article. A special feature article may be defined as a detailed presentation of facts in an interesting form adapted to rapid reading, for the purpose of entertaining or informing the average person.
It usually deals with 1 recent news that is of sufficient importance to warrant elaboration; 2 timely or seasonal topics not directly connected with news; or 3 subjects of general interest that have no immediate connection with current events.
Although frequently concerned with news, the special feature article is more than a mere news story. It aims to supplement the bare facts of the news report by giving more detailed information regarding the persons, places, and circumstances that appear in the news columns.
News must be published as fast as it develops, with only enough explanatory material to make it intelligible. The special article, written with the perspective afforded by an interval of a few days or weeks, fills in the bare outlines of the hurried news sketch with the life and color that make the picture complete. The special feature article must not be confused with the type of news story called the "feature," or "human interest," story.
The latter undertakes to present minor incidents of the day's news in an entertaining form. Like the important news story, it is published immediately after the incident occurs.
Its purpose is to appeal to newspaper readers by bringing out the humorous and pathetic phases of events that have little real news value. It exemplifies, therefore, merely one distinctive form of news report. The special feature article differs from the older type of magazine article, not so much in subject as in form and style. The most marked difference lies in the fact that it supplements the recognized methods of literary and scientific exposition with the more striking devices of narrative, descriptive, and dramatic writing.
Scope of Feature Articles. The range of subjects for special articles is as wide as human knowledge and experience. Any theme is suitable that can be made interesting to a considerable number of persons. A given topic may make either a local or a general appeal. If interest in it is likely to be limited to persons in the immediate vicinity of the place with which the subject is connected, the article is best adapted to publication in a local newspaper.
If the theme is one that appeals to a larger public, the article is adapted to a periodical of general circulation. Often local material has interest for persons in many other communities, and hence is suitable either for newspapers or for magazines. Some subjects have a peculiar appeal to persons engaged in a particular occupation or devoted to a particular avocation or amusement. Special articles on these subjects of limited appeal are adapted to agricultural, trade, or other class publications, particularly to such of these periodicals as present their material in a popular rather than a technical manner.
The Newspaper Field. Because of their number and their local character, daily newspapers afford a ready medium for the publication of special articles, or "special feature stories," as they are generally called in newspaper offices. Some newspapers publish these articles from day to day on the editorial page or in other parts of the paper.
Many more papers have magazine sections on Saturday or Sunday made up largely of such "stories. The articles published in newspapers come from three sources: 1 syndicates that furnish a number of newspapers in different cities with special articles, illustrations, and other matter, for simultaneous publication; 2 members of the newspaper's staff; that is, reporters, correspondents, editors, or special writers employed for the purpose; 3 so-called "free-lance" writers, professional or amateur, who submit their "stories" to the editor of the magazine section.
Reporters, correspondents, and other regular members of the staff may be assigned to write special feature stories, or may prepare such stories on their own initiative for submission to the editor of the magazine section.
In many offices regular members of the staff are paid for special feature stories in addition to their salaries, especially when the subjects are not assigned to them and when the stories are prepared in the writer's own leisure time. Other papers expect their regular staff members to furnish the paper with whatever articles they may write, as a part of the work covered by their salary.
If a paper has one or more special feature writers on its staff, it may pay them a fixed salary or may employ them "on space"; that is, pay them at a fixed "space rate" for the number of columns that an article fills when printed. Newspaper correspondents, who are usually paid at space rates for news stories, may add to their monthly "string," or amount of space, by submitting special feature articles in addition to news.
They may also submit articles to other papers that do not compete with their own paper. Ordinarily a newspaper expects a correspondent to give it the opportunity of printing any special feature stories that he may write.
Free-lance writers, who are not regularly employed by newspapers or magazines as staff members, submit articles for the editor's consideration and are paid at space rates.
Sometimes a free lance will outline an article in a letter or in personal conference with an editor in order to get his approval before writing it, but, unless the editor knows the writer's work, he is not likely to promise to accept the completed article.
To the writer there is an obvious advantage in knowing that the subject as he outlines it is or is not an acceptable one. If an editor likes the work of a free lance, he may suggest subjects for articles, or may even ask him to prepare an article on a given subject. Freelance writers, by selling their work at space rates, can often make more money than they would receive as regular members of a newspaper staff.
For the amateur the newspaper offers an excellent field. First, in every city of any size there is at least one daily newspaper, and almost all these papers publish special feature stories. Second, feature articles on local topics, the material for which is right at the amateur's hand, are sought by most newspapers.
Third, newspaper editors are generally less critical of form and style than are magazine editors. With some practice an inexperienced writer may acquire sufficient skill to prepare an acceptable special feature story for publication in a local paper, and even if he is paid little or nothing for it, he will gain experience from seeing his work in print.
The space rate paid for feature articles is usually proportionate to the size of the city in which the newspaper is published. In general the column rate for special feature stories is the same as that paid for news stories. What Newspapers Want. Since timeliness is the keynote of the newspaper, current topics, either growing out of the news of the week or anticipating coming events, furnish the subjects for most special feature stories.
The news columns from day to day provide room for only concise announcements of such news as a scientific discovery, an invention, the death of an interesting person, a report on social or industrial conditions, proposed legislation, the razing of a landmark, or the dedication of a new building. Such news often arouses the reader's curiosity to know more of the persons, places, and circumstances mentioned.
In an effort to satisfy this curiosity, editors of magazine sections print special feature stories based on news. By anticipating approaching events, an editor is able to supply articles that are timely for a particular issue of his paper.
Two classes of subjects that he usually looks forward to in this way are: first, those concerned with local, state, and national anniversaries; and second, those growing out of seasonal occasions, such as holidays, vacations, the opening of schools and colleges, moving days, commencements, the opening of hunting and fishing seasons. The general policy of a newspaper with regard to special feature stories is the same as its policy concerning news.
Both are determined by the character of its circulation. A paper that is read largely by business and professional men provides news and special articles that satisfy such readers.
This book is the result of twelve years' experience in teaching university students to write special feature articles for newspapers and popular magazines. By applying the methods outlined in the following pages, young men and women have been able to prepare articles that have been accepted by many newspaper and magazine editors. The success that these students have achieved leads the author to believe that others who desire to write special articles may be aided by the suggestions given in this book. Although innumerable books on short-story writing have been published, no attempt has hitherto been made to discuss in detail the writing of special feature articles. In the absence of any generally accepted method of approach to the subject, it has been necessary to work out a systematic classification of the various types of articles and of the different kinds of titles, beginnings, and similar details, as well as to supply names by which to identify them.
Q: How do I submit a letter to the editor? You may also send your letter via U. Letters may be edited to fit the available space. Q: How do I submit a class note? Please note: We welcome wedding and birth announcements, but do not report engagements or pregnancies. If you want your class note to appear only in the print edition and not on the website, please specify that in your submission. Announcements that appear on the website can be viewed only by registered users with post.
Frequently Asked Questions
By Steve Smith :: December 18, Magazine and newspaper executives may beg to differ, but our love affair with print media has been surprisingly resilient in the digital era. Bernard and Glaser most famously drove the look and feel of New York magazine, but had a hand in redesigning many others, like Time , Fortune and The Nation. It is loaded with visual reminders that nothing speaks to the cultural moment like a poignant magazine cover or splash page—something to which there is no digital equivalent. We dare you to put it down. Here is a doorstopper worth reading. The commercial work not only helped finance one of the great portraitists of our time, it was a testing ground for many of the tools of composition, color, tone and mood that characterized the rest of his work.
Что они обсуждали. Элвин замечтался. Возможно, это была не реальная сцена из прошлого, а чисто придуманный эпизод. Тщательно выверенное расположение фигур, их слегка церемонные жесты делали ее чуть-чуть слишком изящной для обычной действительности. Он рассматривал лица в толпе, разыскивая кого-нибудь знакомого. Здесь не было никого из его друзей, но, может быть, он смотрел на товарищей, которых встретит лишь в будущих веках.
Как много возможных вариантов человеческого облика вообще могло существовать.
YOU CAN STILL ADD MORE!
Мы едва ли отдаем себе отчет в том, что эти законы существуют, но мы им повинуемся. Диаспар -- это замерзшая культура, которая не в состоянии выйти за свои весьма узкие рамки. В Хранилищах Памяти помимо матриц наших тел и личностей содержится еще так много всего другого.
Они хранят формулу самого города, удерживая каждый его атом точно на своем месте, несмотря на все изменения, которые может принести время.
Там путь людей завершается в какие-то несколько веков - здесь же Человек утверждает себя делами своими по всей Галактике, покидает ее в конце концов - и вновь начинает свой путь с Земли. Трудно отыскать другую столь же оптимистичную и рисующую столь величественные перстпективы книгу. И в то же время многие размышления на, казалось бы, такие отвлеченные темы вдруг - стоит лишь приглядеться - оказываются столь близкими и понятными - но отнюдь не тривиальными.
Задыхаясь, произнесла. Олвин уже знал, что продолжать с ней разговор на эту тему нет никакого смысла. Здесь проходил барьер, который отъединял его от всех остальных граждан Диаспара и который мог обречь его на жизнь, полную отчаяния. Ему-то, сколько он себя помнил, всегда хотелось выйти н а р у ж у -- и в реальной жизни, и в призрачном мире приключенческих саг.
А в то же время для любого и каждого в Диаспаре наружу означало совершенно непереносимый кошмар. Если в разговоре можно было обойти эту тему, ее никогда даже не затрагивали: наружу -- означало нечто нечистое и исполненное зла. И даже Джизирак, его наставник, не хотел объяснить ему в чем здесь. Алистра все еще молча смотрела на него -- с изумлением и нежностью -- Тебе плохо, Олвин,-- прозвучал ее голос.
English-language press of the Communist Party USA
Да ты и сам уже мог догадаться. - Я думаю, что догадался. Часть ответа я получил от Хедрона, когда он объяснял мне, как люди, проектировавшие Диаспар, приняли меры, чтобы защитить город от вырождения. - Значит, ты полагаешь, что ты - равно как и другие Уникумы до тебя - это часть социального механизма, предотвращающего полный застой. То есть если Шуты - это краткосрочный корректирующий фактор, то ты и тебе подобные - долгосрочный.
Хилвар изложил мысль лучше, чем сумел бы Элвин - но тот имел в виду также и нечто иное. - Мне представляется, что истина сложнее. Все это выглядит почти так, как если бы при строительстве города возникли разногласия - между теми, кто хотел полностью отгородить его от внешнего мира, и теми, кто склонен был поддерживать хоть какие-нибудь связи.
Победила первая группа, но вторая не признала поражения. Я думаю, что Ярлан Зей был одним из ее руководителей, но он не имел достаточной власти, чтобы действовать открыто.
HOW TO WRITE SPECIAL FEATURE ARTICLES
Огромные деревья стояли в озерах тъмы, сквозь листву дул пронизывающий ветер. Олвин с Хилваром устроились на ночлег подле гигантского красного дерева, настолько высокого, что ветви на его вершине еще были облиты сиянием солнца.
Когда наконец давно уже невидимое светило зашло, отсветы закатного неба еще некоторое время мерцали на танцующей поверхности воды. Оба исследователя -- а теперь они смотрели на себя именно так, да так оно и было на самом деле -- лежали в собирающейся темноте, глядя на реку и размышляя над всем тем, что им довелось увидеть в течение дня. Но вот Олвин снова ощутил, как его охватывает состояние восхитительной дремоты, впервые познанное предыдущей ночью, и радостно отдался сну.
Пусть сон и не был необходим в Диаспаре, где жизнь не требовала никаких физических усилий, но здесь он был просто желанен. В последний момент перед забытьем он еще успел подумать -- кто, интересно, последним проходил этим вот путем и как давно это произошло.
Дело было не только в том, что некоторые черты женского характера без малейших изменений выжили со времен Евы: просто никто не смог бы не поддаться очарованию этого места. Ничего подобного ему, насколько было известно Олвину, в Диаспаре не существовало.
Вы становились активным участником действия и обладали -- или это только. -- полной свободой воли. События и сцены, которые составляли основу приключений, могли быть придуманы давно забытыми мастерами иллюзий еще бог знает когда, но в эту основу было заложено достаточно гибкости, чтобы стали возможны самые неожиданные вариации.
Гигантские псевдоподии вяло колыхались у места разрыва, словно стараясь вновь уловить только что ускользнувшую добычу. Глядя в изумлении, смешанном с ужасом, Элвин различил пульсирующее алое отверстие, окаймленное бичеподобными щупальцами; они бились в унисон, сгоняя все, что попадалось в пределы их досягаемости, в эту разверстую утробу.
Потеряв намеченную жертву, существо медленно опустилось на землю - и лишь тогда Элвин понял, что равнина внизу была лишь тонкой пленкой пены на поверхности стоячего моря.
Ты, возможно, прав, - сказал Центральный Компьютер, - утверждая, что Великие никогда не существовали. Но это не означает, что они никогда не будут существовать. Последовало новое длительное безмолвие. Сознания обеих машин опять вступили в осторожный контакт, а Элвин раздумывал над смыслом услышанного.