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WinemakingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Starting a Backyard Vineyard
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine , starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol , and the bottling of the finished liquid.
The history of wine -making stretches over millennia. The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may also be called a vintner. The growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes.
Although most wine is made from grapes , it may also be made from other plants, see fruit wine. Other similar light alcoholic drinks as opposed to beer or spirits include mead , made by fermenting honey and water, and kumis , made of fermented mare's milk.
There are five basic stages to the wine making process which begins with harvesting or picking. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must pulp of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color. White wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed and play no further role.
Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes; this is done by extracting their juice with minimal contact with the grapes' skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur naturally as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine. The press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemaker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion. This is a bacterial process which converts "crisp, green apple" malic acid to "soft, creamy" lactic acid softening the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of weeks or months; this practice imparts oak aromas and some tannin to the wine. The wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling.
The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid, tannin or sugar. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production; quality is dictated by the attributes of the starting material and not necessarily the steps taken during vinification.
Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne , an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles. Sweet wines or off-dry wines are made by arresting fermentation before all sugar has been converted into ethanol and allowing some residual sugar to remain. This can be done by chilling the wine and adding sulphur and other allowable additives to inhibit yeast activity or sterile filtering the wine to remove all yeast and bacteria.
In the case of sweet wines, initial sugar concentrations are increased by harvesting late late harvest wine , freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar ice wine , allowing or encouraging botrytis cinerea fungus to dehydrate the grapes or allowing the grapes to raisin either on the vine or on racks or straw mats. Often in these high sugar wines, the fermentation stops naturally as the high concentration of sugar and rising concentration of ethanol retard the yeast activity.
Similarly in fortified wines, such as port wine , high proof neutral grape spirit brandy is added to arrest the ferment and adjust the alcohol content when the desired sugar level has been reached. The process produces wastewater , pomace , and lees that require collection, treatment, and disposal or beneficial use.
Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines , are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and then adds acids, amino acids, sugars, and organic compounds. The quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Grape quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, and pruning method.
The combination of these effects is often referred to as the grape's terroir. Grapes are usually harvested from the vineyard from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, and mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere.
In some cool areas in the southern hemisphere, for example Tasmania, harvesting extends into May. The most common species of wine grape is Vitis vinifera , which includes nearly all varieties of European origin. Harvest is the picking of the grapes and in many ways the first step in wine production.
Grapes are either harvested mechanically or by hand. Other considerations include phenological ripeness, berry flavor, tannin development seed color and taste. Overall disposition of the grapevine and weather forecasts are taken into account. Mechanical harvesters are large tractors that straddle grapevine trellises and, using firm plastic or rubber rods, strike the fruiting zone of the grapevine to dislodge the grapes from the rachis.
Mechanical harvesters have the advantage of being able to cover a large area of vineyard land in a relatively short period of time, and with a minimum investment of manpower per harvested ton. A disadvantage of mechanical harvesting is the indiscriminate inclusion of foreign non-grape material in the product, especially leaf stems and leaves, but also, depending on the trellis system and grapevine canopy management, may include moldy grapes, canes, metal debris, rocks and even small animals and bird nests.
Some winemakers remove leaves and loose debris from the grapevine before mechanical harvesting to avoid such material being included in the harvested fruit. In the United States mechanical harvesting is seldom used for premium winemaking because of the indiscriminate picking and increased oxidation of the grape juice.
In other countries such as Australia and New Zealand , mechanical harvesting of premium winegrapes is more common because of general labor shortages. Manual harvesting is the hand-picking of grape clusters from the grapevines. In the United States, some grapes are picked into one- or two-ton bins for transport back to the winery.
Manual harvesting has the advantage of using knowledgeable labor to not only pick the ripe clusters but also to leave behind the clusters that are not ripe or contain bunch rot or other defects. This can be an effective first line of defense to prevent inferior quality fruit from contaminating a lot or tank of wine. Destemming is the process of separating stems from the grapes. Depending on the winemaking procedure, this process may be undertaken before crushing with the purpose of lowering the development of tannins and vegetal flavors in the resulting wine.
Single berry harvesting, as is done with some German Trockenbeerenauslese , avoids this step altogether with the grapes being individually selected.
Crushing is the process when gently squeezing the berries and breaking the skins to start to liberate the contents of the berries. Destemming is the process of removing the grapes from the rachis the stem which holds the grapes. In traditional and smaller-scale wine making, the harvested grapes are sometimes crushed by trampling them barefoot or by the use of inexpensive small scale crushers.
These can also destem at the same time. The decision about destemming is different for red and white wine making. Generally when making white wine the fruit is only crushed, the stems are then placed in the press with the berries. The presence of stems in the mix facilitates pressing by allowing juice to flow past flattened skins. These accumulate at the edge of the press. For red winemaking, stems of the grapes are usually removed before fermentation since the stems have a relatively high tannin content; in addition to tannin they can also give the wine a vegetal aroma due to extraction of 3-isobutylmethoxypyrazine which has an aroma reminiscent of green bell peppers.
On occasion, the winemaker may decide to leave them in if the grapes themselves contain less tannin than desired. This is more acceptable if the stems have 'ripened' and started to turn brown. If increased skin extraction is desired, a winemaker might choose to crush the grapes after destemming. Removal of stems first means no stem tannin can be extracted. In these cases the grapes pass between two rollers which squeeze the grapes enough to separate the skin and pulp, but not so much as to cause excessive shearing or tearing of the skin tissues.
In some cases, notably with "delicate" red varietals such as Pinot noir or Syrah, all or part of the grapes might be left uncrushed called "whole berry" to encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial carbonic maceration. Most red wines derive their color from grape skins the exception being varieties or hybrids of non-vinifera vines which contain juice pigmented with the dark Malvidin 3,5-diglucoside anthocyanin and therefore contact between the juice and skins is essential for color extraction.
Red wines are produced by destemming and crushing the grapes into a tank and leaving the skins in contact with the juice throughout the fermentation maceration. It is possible to produce white colorless wines from red grapes by the fastidious pressing of uncrushed fruit. This minimizes contact between grape juice and skins as in the making of Blanc de noirs sparkling wine, which is derived from Pinot noir, a red vinifera grape. Most white wines are processed without destemming or crushing and are transferred from picking bins directly to the press.
This is to avoid any extraction of tannin from either the skins or grapeseeds, as well as maintaining proper juice flow through a matrix of grape clusters rather than loose berries. In some circumstances winemakers choose to crush white grapes for a short period of skin contact, usually for three to 24 hours. This serves to extract flavor and tannin from the skins the tannin being extracted to encourage protein precipitation without excessive Bentonite addition as well as potassium ions, which participate in bitartrate precipitation cream of tartar.
It also results in an increase in the pH of the juice which may be desirable for overly acidic grapes. This was a practice more common in the s than today, though still practiced by some Sauvignon blanc and Chardonnay producers in California. The must is then pressed, and fermentation continues as if the winemaker was making a white wine.
Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. The primary, or alcoholic fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is often added to the must. One of the main problems with the use of wild ferments is the failure for the fermentation to go to completion, that is some sugar remains unfermented.
This can make the wine sweet when a dry wine is desired. Frequently wild ferments lead to the production of unpleasant acetic acid vinegar production as a by product. During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation.
The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured density, the must weight , with the help of a specialized type of hydrometer called a saccharometer. If the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage, sugar can be added chaptalization. In commercial winemaking, chaptalization is subject to local regulations.
During or after the alcoholic fermentation, a secondary, or malolactic fermentation can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria lactobacter convert malic acid into the milder lactic acid.
This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria. Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes or pomace in order to separate juice or wine from grapes and grape skins. Pressing is not always a necessary act in winemaking; if grapes are crushed there is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated called free-run juice that can be used for vinification.
Typically this free-run juice is of a higher quality than the press juice. These compounds are responsible for the herb-like taste perceived in wine with pressed grapes.
Alcohol reduction of wine has gained significance worldwide. There are several technologies available to reduce the alcohol content in a targeted way. This chapter explains the principles of alcohol reduction by physical methods. Different membrane processes such as osmotic distillation and the two-step dealcoholization process of reverse osmosis combined with osmotic distillation are compared with distillation processes such as vacuum rectification and spinning cone column. An alternative approach the membrane coupling of ultra- and nanofiltration is described as well.
Troubleshooting Wine Kits and Instructions, Prevention and Measurements
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Alcohol Reduction by Physical Methods
Food production and processing in developing countries generate high levels of waste and byproducts, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. However, these biomaterials have ample potential for generating food additives which in turn will minimize malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries where it is produced. Many of these biomaterials are a source of valuable compounds such as proteins, lipids, starch, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers. Additionally, antinutritional factors present in some byproducts can be minimized through biotechnological processes for use as a food additive or in the formulation of balanced foods. In this context, the use of these biomaterials is a challenge and provides great opportunity to improve food security.
Importance of Cleaning and Sanitation in the Winery*
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Keller Juices: Grape Juices, Concentrates & Other Grape Products
The website provides participants the ability to share information and more importantly provides a mechanism to widely disseminate research results and information to all stakeholders. Regular contributions are made by participants to industry group newsletters. Topics of publications have included "Starting a Wine Business," production guides from several states, cultivar evaluations, pest control guides, production budgets for grapes and wine, and several publications focusing on Muscadines in the previous topic areas and including one on value-added products. As an example, in addition to being available in many libraries and online, "The Muscadine Experience" has been distributed at grower meetings in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missouri and Arkansas. Research publications included in our Proceedings and Annual Reports number about 30 each year. SERA 14 researchers and Extension specialists participated in the finalization of national research priorities by the National Grape and Wine Initiative. A three-year cooperative project of Missouri and Arkansas concerned with vineyard best management practices continues. Monthly tailgate meetings are held at these lighthouse vineyards throughout the season. These meetings emphasize the management practices occurring at that time, especially pest management practices.
Statement of Issues and Justification
The days of being held to ransom by the destructive ways of mealybugs are gone. Insist on Movento from Bayer. Cover: Gumboot Epicurean guests sip wine and slurp soup at the historic Riverby Estate, where the Matthews family have farmed for more than years. Photo Jim Tannock. Marlborough could have the best wine cycle trails in the world. Bunch counts in Marlborough vineyards are showing good fruitfulness in all varieties, says Villa Maria viticulturist Stuart Dudley, who is seeing two shoots per bud on many Sauvignon Blanc vines. DSM enjoys the longest history in producing winemaking enzymes and commits to its reliability through its Quality for lifeTM program. This commitment assures you that any DSM ingredients you are buying is safe in terms of quality, reliability, reproducibility and traceability but also is manufactured in a safe and sustainable way. Any product specification, Material Safety Data Sheet, allergen and non GM, manufacturer certificates is available upon request.
The present work aimed at the recovery and characterization of dietary fiber and polyphenolic compounds extracted from red grape pomace, a by-product generated after grape fruit processing. High contents of total DF were found in the dietary fiber extracts And it showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity 4.
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This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to million tons of grapes Vitis vinifera L.
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