Biocatalytic potential of microorganisms have been employed for centuries to produce bread, wine, vinegar and other common products without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses in industries and medicine owing to their stability, catalytic activity, and ease of production and optimization than plant and animal enzymes. The use of enzymes in various industries e. Microbial enzymes are capable of degrading toxic chemical compounds of industrial and domestic wastes phenolic compounds, nitriles, amines etc.
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It is a fact that one of the basic conditions of ensuring the food safety at high levels is supplying low-risk raw materials. Producing the flour and flour products in accordance with food safety begins with obtaining safe wheat. It is stated in the notification that the flour should be produced in accordance with food safety.
Thus, as well as flour industrialist has the main responsibility for providing flour safety; the farmers producing the wheat, the persons carrying out the harvest and transportation operations and traders should also apply hygiene and sanitation rules in their operations.
As the absolute right of the consumers, food safety is a concept expressed as set of measures that should be taken at each stage from production to consumption for making the food products not constituting health problems for humans. In order to achieve the flour safety from the field to the table; the wheat should be grown by good agricultural practices GAP and milled by good manufacturing practices GMP and good hygiene practices GHD.
With this standard it is aimed to establish a system based on hygiene and sanitation in the food businesses for ensuring the food safety at the highest level via the methods like forming interactive communication, system management and pre-requisite programs; reducing crop losses and costs and using HACCP hazard analysis critical control point plans.
Food hygiene is providing the conditions necessary for keeping all threats and risks that can cause health problems under control and preventing the consumer from any disease through food products.
Sanitation is described as making the cleaning operations necessary for purifying the environment from disease-causing factors systematically. Applied food safety and quality systems should ensure the cleanliness, hygiene and quality expectations.
The flour industry has the low food safety perception because of the reasons like that water content of the flour is low; it is not a product ready for consumption directly and baking operation is applied to the flour products before the consumption. While the unsafe food creates health risks, they cause loss of money, time and reputation and legal problems, as well.
The main responsibility of ensuring food safety primarily belongs to the food business operator. It should be kept in mind that besides food safety, establishing food safety systems in a flour mill also provides economic benefits.
The amount of contaminants and pesticides in the flour and its microbiological condition should be in accordance with the provisions of Contaminants, Maximum Residue Limits of Pesticides, Microbiological Criteria and Food Hygiene Regulations of Turkish Food Codex published on the official gazette dated as In this study it is aimed to explain the factors that disrupt the food safety of the flour and the effects of these factors on public health; indicate the critical points that can be effective on ensuring the flour safety and introduce the measures that can be taken.
Physical Risks The physical risks mostly coming with the wheat consist of animal and vegetable organic substances like stalks, straw, food waste, gum, cigarette butts, weed seeds, rodent hairs, insect parts, feces, etc. All organic and inorganic substances should be separated from the wheat well before the storing and milling operations because of both the risks in their chemical components and the microbial loads they carry.
As the inorganic impurities cause disruption of the integrity of grain and the grains not matured enough include high grain water content, they both can become the source of mold infections. Biological Risks The most important biological risks endangering flour safety are microorganisms and pests.
Grains are really open to the microorganism and pest contamination due to production, harvesting and transport conditions. There is an important amount of bacteria, yeast and mold load on the grains because of these contaminations.
Molds create more important risks on flour safety compared to bacteria and yeasts as they can breed in low water activity and heat conditions due to their physiologies and form dangerous mycotoxins with high heat resistance. Starting in the regions with high water content firstly, the mold activity creates important threats on wheat and flour safety by continuing to grow in the kernels which lose their mechanical integrity and in the embryo parts of the kernels. The molds can contaminate mostly to the species of Aspergillus spp.
The mold types of these species can create important threats on flour safety as they produce dangerous toxic metabolites called mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, patulin, deoxynivalenol, trichothecene and fumonisin. These mycotoxins that do not decay during the baking process cause various damages on the vital systems of human and animals and also cancer.
As a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus mold that can grow fast on the grains like wheat, aflatoxin is defined as a first-degree carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC. Being in an alkaloid structure and produced by Claviceps purpurea ergot of rye, ergot mold mold, lysergic acid causes a serious and malignant disease called as ergotism Antony fever. In some instances the moldy grains deteriorated because of bad storage, can be put in the market by being processed after some operations like washing.
As a result of this, an extremely dangerous situation and exposure come out as these products contain carcinogenic mycotoxins such as aflatoxin and ochratoxin and grain based products are widely consumed by the entire community. People are not even aware of this situation. Mold growth can be seen at uncontrolled points of some parts where the washing and annealing units inside the flour mill and at some points where vapor is intensified inside the closed systems.
This vapor is formed by the separation of water from the product inside the equipment like roller, screen and purifier. These molds can cause health problems for the consumer because of both themselves and the mycotoxins they produce by mixing with the flour in time.
Molds can breed fast in the food products that are rich in carbohydrate and lipid like cracked wheat whose physical integrity is deteriorated and with a pH value of It is detected in a study on gas composition of the storage and the formation of ochratoxin that ochratoxin production in an environment with a water activity value of 0. As the environment heat and humidity conditions become more appropriate for yeast and bacteria activities after mold activities, these microorganisms cause more deterioration of the product and threat for the customer.
Salmonella spp. Using flour as the main element in the kitchen and mixing the flour and food that can also be consumed as raw intentionally or unintentionally can cause serious food poisonings occurred due to the flour containing pathogenic bacteria. Livings like insect, mite, rat and bird are called as pests. Known also as vertebrate pests, rats and birds threaten the flour safety seriously by contaminating the microorganism and parasites in their bodies and feces to the flour.
As a result of these pest activities, various serious diseases like typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and salmonellosis can develop. Because of their numbers and breeding speed insects and mites constitute the most important pest group that gives damages to the grains and threatens the flour safety. As a result of the activities of these pests; besides wheat loss in the storage, important health problems come out in the product, some problems on the technological processability and sensory properties of the product occur and flour safety is imperiled.
Pests such as Sitophilus granaries L. Being milled together with the wheat or formation of these insects themselves and their body rash larval sloughs, pupa coverings and body residues of deceased persons , feces and nets made by the larval of especially Lepidoptera insects in the flour can cause important quality losses in the flour and health problems of the consumer.
Besides causing bad smells in the flour, mite feces cause health problems like allergic skin and lung diseases asthma for the consumer. Wheat loses kernel integrity because of mechanical reasons by being split during harvest, transportation and transfer operations. Substrate and enzymes that are in separate parts of a substantial kernel can speed up the deterioration of the grains together with the loss of kernel integrity as a result of splitting.
Especially the lipids cause the grains go bitter and deteriorate fast by being effected from the lipolytic enzymes even under the safe storage heat.
The bitter wheat and flour show negative effects on consumer health because of the peroxides and free radicals they include. Besides, as the disintegrated kernels lose the protection of the husk, they form a good initial environment for the formation of insect and mold damage.
Thus it is quite important to supply and store the wheat without splitting in terms of flour safety. Chemical Risks Chemical factors that threaten the flour safety consist of pesticides used in the fields, pesticides used in the businesses for insects and rodents, fumigation, hygiene and sanitation products, personal hygiene materials, metals, heavy metals, dyes, radioactivity, etc.
Besides the mycotoxins formed by the molds, the chemicals in the insect feces and rash and the alkaloids of the weeds also risk the flour food safety. In the event of that the wheat is milled for flour before the weed seeds like ryegrass Lolium temulentum , corncockle Agrostemma githago and Syrian scabious Cephalaria syriaca are cleaned away completely; the toxic substances in these seeds may cause serious health problems for the consumer. The temulin alkaloid in the ryegrass seeds can create effects on the neural system of the livings that result with death.
Raw material procurement, storing, cleaned annealed wheat and flour packaging stages should be considered as critical points. Also, before the cleaning, milling and packaging processes both the flour safety and job security should be ensured by separating the metals from the products with a magnetic separator. The purified annealed wheat should be checked before it is given to the first splitting roller; if there is an insect-mold contamination or growth, it should be sent back to the cleaning stage.
The flour should be checked by re-screening at the packaging stage and any intake of foreign material inside the package should be prevented. Firstly the condition of raw material and process and then the risks formed or contaminated during the processing stages should be determined.
A set of methods can be used in order to prevent the deterioration ways of the flour safety explained above. Sanitation and Cultural Methods Firstly the construction style, choice of the machines and food safety conditions in the establishment should be taken into consideration. The business and the storages should be constructed as to be convenient for filling, evacuation, internal transport physically and cleaning and not to include dead points.
At least 1-meter clean and open area should be created in order to observe the transition of the pests between the building and its surrounding and the entire environment should be kept clean and well-groomed. The windows and doors that are kept open should be covered with lathes. The doors and windows at the lower floors should be made of metal in order to prevent the entry of rodents. The doors should be able to be fully closed with solid rubber and do not allow dust and pests and also do not have dead zones.
The windows should have laths that can be demountable. The inside of the business should always be kept clean; scattering around of the flour and wheat should be prevented and the openings, cracks and dead areas that allow pest entrance and hiding should be closed. A flour mill has a daily, monthly and yearly cleaning and pest control plan. The content and process of this plan should always be updated according to the internal and external evaluations.
Flour mills should also have a good dust collecting and discharge system. A flour mill whose inside and outside is clean, tidy and well-groomed should be evaluated as the basic condition of flour safety and quality. Formation of uncontrolled wet area inside the business should be prevented and dripping taps should be repaired in order to prevent the pests to reach water.
If the wheat is washed in the business, the water should have drinking water quality. The toilets should be arranged as one for each ten employees; the walls and floors of the toilets should be clearable and should have running water and personal care possibilities soap, paper towel, drying machine, disinfectant enough and also have a good cleaning scheme. The wheat to be taken into the business storage should be processed by a pre-cleaning system consisting of screening, aspiration and entolation.
The first stored FIFO- first in first out wheat should be used in the usage of stored wheat. As large and small materials are separated with screens, light materials with aspirators, stones with stone separators and weed seeds with trieur and the insect and insect eggs are destroyed by entolators, these systems should be provided at the cleaning line.
Also as the husking and brushing processes decrease the dirt, number of microorganisms and amount of chemical contaminants, the systems realizing these processes should be used together with aspiration.
The flour should be re-screened by the flour screen both before transportation in bulk and the final packaging. All devices, especially the ones used flour in bulk transportation should be prepared pursuant to the hygiene and sanitation rules and the water vapor is prevented to form droplets by condensing.
For the addition of additives for special flour, the limits stated in the Turkish Food Codex should be taken into consideration. The staff should be ready in the working areas with the proper business attire; the visitors can enter the production areas with apron and galosh.
Physical Methods Realization of the wheat and flour transportation inside the business as far as possible by the pneumatic systems working with air would provide separating the insects from the products at the cyclones because of the terminal speed difference and that these systems decrease the protected areas for insects.
The insect and their eggs can be destroyed and separated by using the entolation operations working with screening, aspiration and pulse technique integrally.
One of the most important methods for pest control is using trap. Covered or sticky traps can be used effectively for pest control by making the traps attractive with light or sex hormone effects. Naturally the wheat is in contamination with many microorganisms.
Washing with water having drinking water quality also decreases the dirt on wheat and the recess on its belly and microorganism load significantly. However low or high heat practices are the methods that should be applied very carefully as the flour and wheat have high heat isolation feature and the insects move a lot and fast. It is really important to evacuate all the materials in the business and open and clean all the crowded spaces where all the machine and equipment are.
The necessary measures should be taken before the implementation by considering the deformation to be formed in water pipes with cold applications and in plastic materials with hot applications. Constituting a great part of insects showing propagation in the flour mills, flour lice Tribolium spp dies in days at the temperature below zero.
With these heat conditions the eggs, larva and pupa of the insects can also be destroyed. Closing firmly the transitions between the floors and all doors and windows opening outside is quite important in the heat applications.
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Biotechnology draws on the pure biological sciences genetics, animal cell culture, molecular biology, microbiology, biochemistry, embryology, cell biology and in many instances is also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology chemical engineering, bioprocess engineering, information technology, biorobotics. This volume set contains several chapters, each of size words, with perspectives, applications and extensive illustrations. It carries state-of-the-art knowledge in the field and is aimed, by virtue of the several applications, at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students, Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers and NGOs. Horst W.
Wheat and grain
Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet. They are mostly consumed in starch-bearing plants or in foods to which commercial starch or its derivatives have been added. The first starch was probably obtained from wheat by the Egyptians for food and for binding fibres to make papyrus paper as early as B.
Victor A. Vinci , Sarad R. A diverse team of researchers, technologists, and engineers describe, in simple and practical language, the major current and evolving technologies for improving the biocatalytic capabilities of mammalian, microbial, and plant cells. The authors present state-of-the-art techniques, proven methods, and strategies for industrial screening, cultivation, and scale-up of these cells, and describe their biotech and industrial uses. Special emphasis is given to the solving critical issues encountered during the discovery of new drugs, process development, and the manufacture of new and existing compounds. Other topics include recombinant protein expression, bioinformatics, high throughput screening, analytical tools in biotechnology, DNA shuffling, and genomics discovery. Process Development Considerations.
Поднимись. Опустись. Ни одна из общепринятых управляющих мыслей не возымела эффекта. Машина оставалась в презрительном бездействии.
Какая-то часть безрассудства Олвина -- или, быть может, это была просто отвага. -- воспринятая им, стала постепенно менять его взгляды, раскрывая перед ним новые горизонты.
Двигаться сквозь эту траву было все равно что бесконечно преодолевать пенный гребень какой-то неумирающей волны -- бесчисленные листья в унисон склонялись к путешественникам. Сначала это немного тревожило Олвина, потому что он никак не мог отделаться от мысли, что трава наклоняется для того, чтобы поглядеть на них попристальнее, но потом он привык и даже стал находить это непрекращающееся движение успокаивающим.
Вскоре он понял, чего ради сделали они эту остановку. В небольшой толпе, которая, по-видимому, собралась прежде, чем они прибыли в селение, стояла застенчивая темнокожая девушка, которую Хилвар представил как Ньяру. Было нетрудно догадаться, что эти двое страшно рады увидеться, и Олвин испытал даже что-то вроде зависти, наблюдая чужое счастье от короткой встречи. Хилвар просто разрывался между необходимостью исполнять свою роль гида и желанием не видеть рядом никого, кроме Ньяры, и Олвин тотчас избавил его от мук, отправившись на прогулку в одиночестве.
В деревушке оказалось не так уж много интересного, но он добросовестно убивал время. К моменту, когда они снова отправились в путь, у него накопилась целая куча вопросов к Хилвару.
Они позабыли, что мир, отвергнувший смерть, должен также отвергнуть и жизнь. Возможность продлить до бесконечности свое существование может принести довольство индивидууму, но обречет род в целом на застой. Давным-давно мы пожертвовали нашим бессмертием, Диаспар же все еще следует ложным мечтам. Вот почему наши пути разошлись - и вот почему они никогда не должны пересечься. Слова эти отнюдь не были неожиданными, но ведь предугадать удар не значит ослабить.
И все же Элвин отказывался признать провал своих планов - хотя бы и не оформившихся окончательно - и слушал Серанис лишь частью своего сознания. Он понимал и брал на заметку все ее слова, но одновременно работающая часть его разума восстанавливала в памяти дорогу к Диаспару, стараясь предугадать все возможные препятствия.
В них отсутствовали широкие перспективы, просторные ландшафты, по которым тосковала его душа. И, главное, там никогда не было и намека на безмерность, в которой действительно развертывались деяния древнего человека - на светоносную бездну между звездами и планетами. Художники, готовившие саги, были поражены той же странной фобией, что царила среди прочих обитателей Диаспара.
Даже эти подставные приключения обязаны были происходить в уютных помещениях, в глубоких подземельях или в изящных маленьких долинах, скрытых горами от остального мира. Тому было только одно объяснение. Когда-то давным-давно, может быть, еще до основания Диаспара, произошло нечто, не только подорвавшее любопытство и честолюбие Человека, но и изгнавшее его со звезд обратно, домой, под прикрытие крошечного замкнутого мирка в последнем городе Земли.
Во всяком случае, председатель даже попытки не сделал выразить Хилвару порицание за вмешательство в ход обсуждения. Олвин слушал все эти дебаты, и ему было ясно, что здесь, в Зале Совета, определилось три мнения. Консерваторы, которые были в меньшинстве, все еще надеялись, что стрелки часов можно будет отвести назад и как-то восстановить старые порядки.
Противу всякого здравого смысла они цеплялись за надежду, что можно будет принудить Диаспар и Лиз снова забыть о существовании друг Прогрессисты тоже составляли незначительное меньшинство.
Спросил он у полипа, улучив момент, когда Хилвар исчерпал Ответ он предугадал почти. - Учитель не желал, чтобы робот общался с каким-либо иным голосом, кроме его собственного, а его голос ныне смолк.
Когда преобразователь материи принялся поглощать сырье, чтобы сотворить свое обыкновенное чудо, оба явственно ощутили, как в отверстие на вершине покрывающего их купола хлынул поток засасываемого воздуха. В общем-то, чисто синтетическая пища была Олвину куда больше по душе.
Взаимопереплетающееся сознание позволяло им знать все, что происходит в Лизе. Ему была интересна их реакция на его поведение в Шалмирейне, о котором, надо полагать, здесь уже знал Сирэйнис казалась чем-то обеспокоенной и еще более неуверенной, чем когда-либо, и Олвин тотчас вспомнил выбор, перед которым его поставили. В треволнениях нескольких последних дней он почти забыл о. Ему не хотелось тратить силы ни решение проблем, время которых еще не наступило.