The market size is projected to reach USD Also, increasing cases of depression and anxiety disorders among consumers are seen to be contributing to the growing demand for essential oils from the aromatherapy industry. This research study involved the usage of extensive secondary sources which include directories and databases such as Hoovers, Forbes, Bloomberg Businessweek, and Factiva to identify and collect information useful for this technical, market-oriented, and commercial study of the essential oils market. The following figure depicts the market research methodology applied in drafting this report. To know about the assumptions considered for the study, download the pdf brochure.
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An Overview of the Biological Effects of Some Mediterranean Essential Oils on Human HealthVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Start an Essential Oil Business - Leann Forst
Essential oils EOs , extracted from aromatic plants, are interesting natural products and represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopeia. The use of some EOs as alternative antimicrobial and pharmaceutical agents has attracted considerable interest recently. Most of the EOs and their single constituents have been reported to inhibit several phytopathogens, human pathogens, and insects as well as their effective uses in food and pharmaceutical industries.
The current review discussed the chemical composition and bioactivity of some important EOs extracted from some Mediterranean plants and their principal bioactive single constituents. Information has been furnished on the mechanisms, mode of actions, and factors affecting the bioactivity of some single constituents from different Mediterranean plant EOs.
The current review gives an insight into some common plant EOs belonging to Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, and Verbenaceae families commonly growing in Mediterranean region. Further information has been provided about the medical uses of some EOs for several human diseases covering the pharmacological effects anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic.
The antimicrobial effects have been also considered in the current review. Although plant EOs are considered promising natural alternatives for many chemical drugs, they still need more specific research for wide application especially in food and pharmaceutical industries. Essential oils EOs are one of the most important natural products derived from plants for their various biological properties and medicinal uses [ 1 , 2 ]. EOs have been utilized in different domestic aspects such as in perfumery, cosmetics, feed, food, and beverages.
Several researchers demonstrated the possibility of utilizing EOs in cooking, where they give a pleasant taste to food and are utilized mostly in processed food.
Recently, there has been great interest in the use of EOs for their curative effects in aromatherapy [ 3 ]. Plant EOs were largely utilized in pharmaceutical and other related medical uses as one of the most important and effective ingredients.
The current review intends to discuss some aspects of plant EOs and their main single constituents ranging from an overview of historical perspective, analytical techniques for chemical analysis classical and modern methods , bioactivity of single substances mode of action, factors affecting their bioactivity, and common families of aromatic Mediterranean plants , medical uses for human health and biological characterization including pharmacological aspects anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic effects , and antimicrobial effects antibacterial and antifungal activities.
This review gives also an insight into the chemical composition of some important EOs and their principal bioactive single constituents. Detailed information focuses on the mechanism of bioactivity action of the main bioactive single constituents of some important plant EOs such as sage, oregano, thyme, marjoram, and vervain related to different families such as Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, and Verbenaceae. EOs have been used by many cultures around the world for centuries for different purposes according to each culture.
It is unknown exactly whether the EOs were used as healing agents or for domestic use in the beginning. However, recently great consideration has been given to the effective use of EOs in clinical procedures [ 4 — 6 ]. They used to make a mixture of different sources of herbal preparations such as aniseed, cedar, onion, myrrh, and grapes in perfume or medicine [ 7 ].
In particular, the recorded history about China and India listed more than substances including cinnamon, ginger, myrrh, and sandalwood as being effective for healing. In the 18th and 19th centuries, chemists documented the active components of medicinal plants and identified many substances such as caffeine, quinine, morphine, and atropine, which were considered to play an important role in their biological effects [ 9 ]. Some EOs such as lavender, peppermint, and myrrh are still being used pharmaceutically and could be used effectively in the upcoming future as suitable alternatives for many synthetically produced medications [ 3 ].
As widely known, the chemical composition of plant EOs is principally represented by mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives, along with aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, and esters [ 7 ].
It is also of great interest to highlight that the chemical profile of any EO is closely related to the extraction procedure carried out and therefore the selection of suitable extraction method is very important. According to the characteristics of each plant material, some specific extraction techniques can be applied such as steam distillation, solvent extraction, soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, dynamic headspace, static headspace, solvent flavor evaporation, solid-phase microextraction, and direct thermal desorption [ 7 ].
Generally, the traditional classical techniques for analysis EOs were mainly focused on the quality aspects of oil, concerning mainly two properties, namely, identity and purity [ 10 ]. The following techniques are commonly applied to assess the physical properties of any EO: specific gravity, optical rotation, and determination of the refractive index [ 11 ].
Another test is for assessment of EO purity such as the presence of polar substances, like alcohols, glycols, and their esters and glycerin acetates. In addition to the solubility test of an EO in ethanol this reveals much on its quality [ 11 ].
The measurement of melting and congealing points as well as the boiling range of an EO is also of great importance for identifying its purity [ 11 ]. On the other hand, classical methodologies have been widely applied to assess the chemical properties of EOs [ 10 , 11 ], such as the determination of halogenated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The determination of esters derived from phthalic acid is also of great interest for the toxicity evaluation of an EO [ 10 ].
In most of the cases, the classical methods are generally focused on chemical groups and also the quantification method by titration such as the acidimetric determination of saponified terpene esters. A further test is the determination of terpene alcohols by acetylating with acetic anhydride [ 12 ]. Aldehydes and ketones could be estimated through different tests like bisulfite method which is recommended for aldehyde-rich oils such as lemongrass, bitter almond, and cassia, while the neutral sulfite test is more suitable for ketone-rich oils such as spearmint, caraway, and dill oils [ 12 ].
The chromatographic methods are considered as one of the most common and easily analytical techniques in EOs analysis. The principle of chromatography is based on the distribution of the constituents to be separated between two immiscible phases [ 13 ]. Thin Layer Chromatography TLC is a fast and inexpensive method for identifying substances and testing their purity [ 14 ].
The use of the above-mentioned traditional analytical techniques for the systematic study of EOs is generally applied for the assessment of pure compounds as well as some major compounds. Most of the modern analytical techniques of EOs depend on chromatographic procedures. The main objective in any chromatographic separation is always the complete resolution of the compounds in the minimum time; for that, the most appropriate analytical chromatographic column with a specific dimension and stationary phase has to be used under adequate chromatographic conditions.
In particular, the GC analysis can be summarized as the evaporation of the compound and the elution by the mobile gas phase, the carrier gas, through the column. The different substances are separated on the basis of their relative vapor pressures and affinities for the stationary bed. On the other hand, the liquid chromatographic analysis depends on the elution of the compound by a liquid mobile phase consisting of a solvent or a mixture of solvents and the different substances are separated according to their affinities for the stationary bed.
GC-MS is an analytical method that combines the features of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample [ 16 ]. Applications of GC-MS include drug detection, fire investigation, environmental analysis, explosives investigation, and identification of unknown samples. GC-MS is composed of two major building blocks: the gas chromatograph and the mass spectrometer.
The gas chromatograph utilizes a capillary column which depends on the column's dimensions and the phase properties. The difference of the chemical properties between different molecules in a mixture and their relative affinity for the stationary phase of the column will promote their separation.
Different molecules are retained by the column and then are eluted from the column at different retention times [ 16 ].
A list of some single constituents that exist in common aromatic Mediterranean plants have been reported in Table 1. The bioactivity of EOs is the sum of its constituents which act either in a synergistic or in an antagonistic way [ 7 , 17 ].
The following part of the current review covers the following points: i mode of action of single components; ii factors affecting the single components bioactivity. In fact, several studies have explained that the synergetic effect between two or more chemical constituents could have a distinctive role in the biological activity of EOs [ 19 ]. The synergism between the aromatic plant components often plays an essential role in the effectiveness and reduction of the developing resistance of any pathogenic microorganism.
This synergistic action is due to p-cymene which acts as a mediator for carvacrol transportation across cell wall components and the cytoplasmic membrane of pathogenic fungi.
Furthermore, the enzymatic reactions within the EOs and the lipophilic properties of the individual bioactive constituents might play a role in degrading the microbe plasma membrane and hence lead to the lyses of the hypha wall as discussed by Soylu et al. The composition of each EO can vary depending on certain conditions such as plant variety, plant part, growth area, climatic changes, harvesting time, storage conditions, and the chemotype of each component [ 8 ].
Therefore, the composition of EOs cannot be expected to be similar every year even if they are extracted from the same area. For improving the antimicrobial outfindings of many plant EOs, several factors either biological and experimental should be taken into consideration such as i appropriate and exact standardized microbiological test; ii available standard strains from different collections; iii assays including a variety of microorganisms either gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, phytopathogens and human pathogens and yeasts; iv exact botanical identification of the plant EOs origin; v biochemical characterization of the extracted EOs as well as their production, storage conditions, and age.
In addition, the distinctive water solubility and volatility of many EOs enable them to reveal a broadband spectrum of activity in various in vitro tests such as agar well diffusion, serial dilutions, and volatile tests [ 23 ]. Several plant EOs demonstrated different antimicrobial activities according to the tests carried out, examiners themselves, or any other factors. For example, lemon EO showed to some extent a clear inhibition effect against Escherichia coli Migula by using agar diffusion test as reported by Fisher and Phillips [ 24 ].
However, other researchers did not notice any inhibition activity from lemon oil against the same target organism using another nutrient media iso-sensitest agar [ 25 ]. The obtained results of MIC test showed diverse actions regarding the antibacterial activity of rosemary oil against S. On the other hand, Pellecuer et al.
However, Panizzi et al. Many common Mediterranean aromatic plants are belonging to Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, and Verbenaceae families. The selected discussed aromatic plants in the current review are considered as the most important Mediterranean officinal plants.
The EO extracted from lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Furthermore, lavender EO was well documented for the treatment of abrasions, burns, stress, headaches, skin problems, muscular pain, and boosting the immune system [ 32 , 33 ].
The lavender EO is chemically composed of camphor, terpinenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, beta-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole Table 2 [ 34 ]. Among the above-mentioned substances, linalool and linalyl acetate showed a sedative effect and marked narcotic actions, respectively. In addition, linalool and linalyl acetate have great absorbing properties for skin during massages. A dash indicates absent. Oregano Origanum vulgare L.
This species is used in traditional and modern medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry. Four main groups of oregano commonly used as culinary herbs can be distinguished, that is, Greek oregano Origanum vulgare L.
The main single constituents of O. The most common variety is Thymus vulgaris L. It belongs to the genus Thymus of the Lamiaceae family. The EO extracted from T. Thymus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera butterfly and moth insect species, including Chionodes distinctella and the Coleophora case-bearers C.
The main single constituents of T. The most important species are peppermint Mentha piperita L. Peppermint EO has been intensively studied for its anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, antimicrobial, and fungicidal effect as well as antiseptic and digestive properties.
It is observed that the single constituents of peppermint EO can relieve many bacterial, fungal, and viral infections when inhaled or applied in the form of vapor balm. On the other hand, Ali et al. Sage is considered to be the main genus among the Lamiaceae family, which consists of about species widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions all over the world but especially in the Mediterranean region, central Asia, central and South America, and southern Africa [ 19 ].
Globally, the best known species of the family used in both traditional and modern medicine are Salvia officinalis , S. Another important plant is oregano, considered to be the most valued species worldwide. About 60 plant species were listed within this common name. The main single constituents of sage EO have been listed in Table 2. Majorana hortensis Lamiaceae , commonly known as marjoram, is a perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors.
It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use. In some Middle Eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano; therefore, some names have been used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum such as sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram [ 39 ]. The main single constituents of marjoram EO have been listed in Table 2.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile easily evaporated at normal temperatures chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils , ethereal oils , aetherolea , or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived. Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation , often by using steam.
Essential Oils Market
Essential oils EOs , extracted from aromatic plants, are interesting natural products and represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopeia. The use of some EOs as alternative antimicrobial and pharmaceutical agents has attracted considerable interest recently. Most of the EOs and their single constituents have been reported to inhibit several phytopathogens, human pathogens, and insects as well as their effective uses in food and pharmaceutical industries. The current review discussed the chemical composition and bioactivity of some important EOs extracted from some Mediterranean plants and their principal bioactive single constituents.
The global essential oil market is expected to reach USD Growing consumer awareness regarding heath benefits associated with natural and organic personal care products is expected to remain a key driving factor for global essential oil market over the forecast period. Growth of organic product industry has prompted major manufacturers to shift their focus from synthetic to natural additives. Growing use of essential oil in the preparation of natural flavors and fragrances on account of their increasing demand across key end-use industries is also expected to fuel the market growth. These fragrances provide stimulation in aromatherapy, massages, and other relaxation techniques. In addition, numerous health benefits associated with essential oils are anticipated to drive the product demand in medical and pharmaceutical applications.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: We've Got an Oil for That- doTERRA Essential Oils for the Whole Family
The global essential oils market demand was It is projected to expand at a CAGR of 8. Several overall health benefits offered by these oils are anticipated to fuel their demand in pharmaceutical and medical applications. Unlike most of the conventional medicines and drugs, they have no major side effects. Growing inclination of consumers towards natural and organic products is also leading to increased usage of essential oils in cosmetics and food and beverages. Rising awareness regarding health benefits of naturally sourced oils along with increasing number of people showing inclination towards aromatherapy is estimated to provide an upthrust to the market. Aromatherapy is gaining prominence, especially among urban population, due to changing lifestyles and rising media influence.
Essential Oil Market Size To Reach $11.67 Billion By 2022: Grand View Research, Inc.
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Он сообразил, что должен выиграть время или как-нибудь убедить Серанис, что невыполнимости ее требований. - Хедрон знает, где я, - сказал. - Вы не можете стереть и его память. Серанис улыбнулась. Улыбка была приятной и при любых иных обстоятельствах вполне дружелюбной. Но Элвин впервые ощутил за ней подавляющую и неумолимую силу.
- Ты недооцениваешь нас, Элвин, - возразила. - Это будет очень легко. Я могу добраться до Диаспара быстрее, чем пересечь Лис.
Essential Oils: Market and Legislation
Большинство их имело простой, незатейливый облик, но некоторые были выполнены в сложном архитектурном стиле, включавшем колонны с желобками и резьбу по камню.
В этих старинных на вид зданиях использовалось безмерно древнее решение - стрельчатые арки. Неспешно проходя по деревушке, Элвин все еще старался совладать с новыми ощущениями. Все было необычно - даже воздух, насыщенный трепетом незнакомой жизни. И высокие, грациозные золотоволосые люди, прогуливавшиеся среди домиков, явно отличались от населения Диаспара. Они не обращали внимания на Элвина, и это было странно - ведь его по сравнению с ними он был одет совершенно по-другому.
Олвин ожидал этого и был даже несколько обрадован тем, что обнаружил хоть какой-то изъян во всемогуществе своего слуги. Было маловероятно, что роботу когда-то приходилось пилотировать корабль с Мастером в Эрли, и поэтому месторасположение деревни и не было зафиксировано в его памяти.
С нескольких попыток Олвин приземлил свой корабль на склоне того самого холма, с которого впервые увидел Лиз. Управлять кораблем оказалось совсем просто -- требовалось лишь в самых общих чертах сформулировать желание, а уж робот сам прорабатывал все детали. Олвин подумал, что, по-видимому, робот станет игнорировать опасные или невыполнимые приказы, хотя у него-то не было ни малейшего намерения отдавать их без особой к тому необходимости.
Олвин был абсолютно уверен, что никто не мог видеть его прибытия. Он считал это обстоятельство достаточно важным, поскольку не испытывал ни малейшего желания снова вступать в телепатическую схватку с Сирэйнис.
Планы его все еще были несколько туманны, но он не подвергался никакому риску, пока у него сохранялись дружественные отношения с обитателями Лиза.
А как только несколько человек вырвутся из своей миллиарднолетней раковины, последуют ли за ними остальные -- станет только вопросом времени.
Он задумался над тем, что же произойдет с Диаспаром и Лизомкогда барьеры рухнут полностью. Лучшие элементы культуры обоих должны быть сохранены и спаяны в новую и более здоровую культуру.
Элвин едва замечал любопытные или перепуганные взгляды сограждан, пока шествовал со своей свитой по знакомым улицам. Он выстраивал в уме доводы, в которых, возможно, возникнет нужда, и представлял свою историю в наиболее выигрышном свете.
Время от времени он убеждал себя, что нисколько не беспокоится и по-прежнему владеет ситуацией. В вестибюле они ждали всего несколько минут, но для Элвина этого было достаточно, чтобы призадуматься: если он не боится, то почему же столь странно подкашиваются его ноги.
Джизирак, казалось, не обращал на это никакого внимания, хотя, конечно, великолепно понимал, какие именно мысли бродят в этих головах. В том, чтобы быть наставником этого самого оригинального ума из всех появлявшихся в Диаспаре со времен Рассвета, была известная честь, и в этом-то никто Джизираку не мог Олвин не стал ни в чем убеждать членов Совета, пока не закончил рассказ о своих приключениях.
Плато же по сравнению с лесом казалось скучным и не обремененным никакими событиями, Оно было плоским, если не считать нескольких дюймов перепада по высоте между одним его краем и другим, и простиралось далеко, до самого горизонта. Было похоже, что оно заросло редкой, похожей на проволоку травой. Они опустились над ним до высоты в пятьдесят футов, но так и не разглядели никаких признаков животной жизни, что, по мнению Хилвара, было несколько странно.