The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning.
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Heraclitus, Milesian Monism, and the Felting of Wool. Robert Hahn. Was Heraclitus a material monist? Aristotle says he was at Metaphysics a and classifies him along the lines he drew at b where Thales is identified as the founder of this kind of philosophy. What does one believe, according to Aristotle, if one is a material monist? Most of the earliest philosophers conceived only material principles as underlying all things.
And moreover, was he mistaken about the Milesian monism of Thales and Anaximenes? Did Aristotle get the origins of philosophy wrong? Thus, there are fragments that are hard to square with material monism.
MM requires that the original stuff — fire — cannot be generated but always exists and all differences in appearances can be only alterations of fire that subsists throughout, and is ungenerated.
Since Aristotle classifies Heraclitus along the lines of MM that he establishes with the Milesian Monism of Thales and Anaximenes, let us to turn to re-examine him again after we place the whole discussion in a new light. According to Aristotle, the monism of Thales and Anaximenes consists in only one basic underlying unity of things; all apparent diversity is accounted for as alterations of the basic stuff — hydor or aer— there is no change.
At one moment, hydor looks fiery at the stove, at another it is the air we breathe, it is the liquid that flows in our cups, and it is the hard stone out of which the temples were made, and all the other variations of appearances we experience. Let us imagine Thales has just expressed this metaphysical vision to his compatriots; it is impossible to believe that a member of his retinue did not ask: How does this happen?
How is it that hydor now looks one way, and now another? And let me raise at the same time a distinction between explaining the structure of alterations, and the mechanism for these alterations. We have two reports that Anaximenes explained the mechanism of alteration by appeal to rarefaction and condensation, one from Simplicius and the other from Hippolytus.
Anaximenes held that when aer becomes finer, it transforms into fire; being condensed, it transforms into wind, cloud, water, earth, stones. Clouds and water result when aer felts more and more. This lost narrative supplied the structure, but not the mechanism of alteration.
The limited space here makes it impossible to unfold this relevant account, and regretfully, I must save the details for another occasion.
But now I shall turn to explore the mechanism of this alteration — condensation and rarefaction, for in it we have an unexplored clue for reviewing Heraclitus and his originality. But this new study raised important issues that help us to get clearer about Aristotle, Material Monism [MM], and consequently Heraclitus. And from this new interpretative starting point, Graham offers a new, fascinating reading of Presocratic philosophy whole cloth. And if so, what light can this cast on Heraclitus?
Graham regards the evidence for Thales as too uncertain to make his case though he addresses the Milesians in general. Thus, hot and dry fire surrounds the cold and moist earth, like bark around a tree, and somehow gets separated off into concentric wheels of fire that we come to call the sun, moon, and stars.
And so, Anaximander does not subscribe to MM, nor is he a monist at all. There is no underlying reality, and thus change is real; there are processes that are more than alteration. How might we do this? Anaximenes offers to illuminate what he means by this process of condensation and rarefaction by appeal to material felting, the making of felt. Suppose we could recreate the process so that we would be watching just what Anaximenes and his compatriots, plausibly, would have witnessed?
This would be an argument by ethnographic analogy, a technique I have discussed elsewhere. We have surviving pieces of felt made in the seventh century BCE from greater Ionia. If we watch the felter at work, can we gain insight into what Anaximenes regarded as sufficiently illuminating to clarify his understanding of cosmic transformation by means of it?
B FELTING18 The early history of felt is a much understudied field of research, and only a few sources, physical remains, imagery, and written evidence, are available. The presentation here follows an ethnographic approach, and the argument is that the ancient techniques for felting are still broadly practiced today; thus when the ancient evidence is in accord with the modern evidence, the modern practices are taken to reveal, reproduce, and confirm the ancient ones.
In order to understand how felt was produced in ancient times, we require an understanding of the properties of wool and then the technical aspects of felting. The basic ingredient in felt is wool or similar fibers. As opposed to bast fibers, that is vegetal fibers, the surface of wool fibers is scaly, below, and it is the scales that give wool, and any comparable hair, its ability to felt. When wool fibers are exposed to moisture and pressure the fibers intermingle and the scales catch hold of each other locking the fibers into a dense mass.
Tiny air pockets between the fibers cause felt to be insulating. If one considers the simplest and most basic way that felt is made, it becomes immediately clear how the process of making was first discovered.
The simplest way of making felt is to pour hot water over some wool and beat or knead it. Indeed, a European legend ascribes the invention of felt to Saint Clement, who blistered his feet fleeing from his persecutors. To protect his feet he placed wool in his shoes and so invented felt. The beginnings of felt, however, certainly go back much further than Saint Clement. The first actual piece of felt to have been found in an archaeological excavation comes from Beycesultan in western Anatolia and dates to Early Bronze Age II, the middle of the third millennium B.
Gordion was the capital of the Phrygians, who buried their dead in great tumuli. In some of the tumuli the excavators found a wealth of different types of textile, including felt. In one tumulus a number of blankets made from various fibers and in various techniques had been laid on top of each other.
Some were loosely woven and some felted. These finds do not reveal any details of the method of production, although Bellinger has suggested that the felt was formed directly on the loosely woven blanket. This is also a tomb tumulus, and here felted textiles are more numerous than the woven. Arik and his father work in the town of Tire a few hours away from Miletus, and closer to Ephesus. With the help of his father who years earlier produced felt only in the traditional way — without recourse to modern day machinery -- they recreated the original process.
Before I visited Tire, I had seen photos taken in Iran showing the process. Without saying anything at first to these Turkish felters, I was amazed to see that the process was virtually identical in every respect. The process of felting begins with the shearing of sheep or goats. This step is followed by processes in which the wool is cleaned of twigs and dirt, and washed, before it is used for felting.
The ancient processes for cleaning wool begins with the tossing the wool into the air with a stick or a bow string, to separate it from the dirt, or achieving the same result by hand, pulling apart the wool from the dirt.
In the contemporary process, a machine is often employed to complete the process. It is also usual for the wool from each fleece to be divided into categories according to quality. In the written sources from the late 3rd millennium southern Mesopotamia, the poorer qualities of wool were used for stuffing and felting, and the higher qualities are used for woven textiles. The fibers are then untangled and perhaps combed.
In latter periods Roman and later the wool could be carded, which is a way of making the wool soft and fluffy. This effect can also be achieved by hitting the wool with sticks or the string of a large bow, below. It is, however, unknown how far this method stretches back in time. When the wool has been prepared, it is placed on a mat made from the reeds gathered from the banks of the Meander River, below.
The mat must be significantly larger than the intended product. Next, wool of different colors can be placed on top of or below the base-color to create a pattern. This follows the technique of the ancient examples that have survived from Pazyryk. The next step in the process is to heap wool of the sheep upon the decorated pattern of colored wool; in this case, from white-wool sheep.
It is striking how much the piled wool creates the image of a cloud. And when multiple feltings are being produced, the imagery seems quite like the sky on a cloudy day. When the pile of wool is in place, water is sprinkled on the wool. It is possible that other liquids were also used, perhaps whey and possibly other liquids but none would be necessary to make the process successful. Again, reflecting on Anaximenes words, the image of rain and cloud is unmistakable.
Next, the reed mat is rolled up tightly and the stage of compression begins. And finally, and somewhat surprisingly, after only a few minutes, the finished product is produced. The rolling process took only ten minutes or so.
There is one very important intermediary event that is crucial to emphasize, and it offers to shed light on a problem of understanding Heraclitus at the end of this essay. When I watched the process of felting one time, an inexperienced, new member of the team did not compress the materials long enough, and the result was that neither was back of the materials felted, nor were some of the strands of wool on the front side.
What happened next was that more wool needed to be piled up, cloud-like on the other side, and after the materials were rolled up again, subjected to compressing, and unrolled again, the back was now fully felted as was the front.
At what point could we say the wool had felted? Certainly after this final stage, but drawing the line at earlier stages is as fascinating as it is difficult to do. Just when were the stands of wool felted? When was did the wool and water transform into felt? And now comes the pivotal question: When we finish watching this process, and see the resulting felt, what did Anaximenes and his compatriots, who were surely his audience, plausibly believe they saw?
The first time I watched the process I came away unsure of my own conclusion. On the other hand, had each piece in the process be regarded as merely an alteration of the original stuff, then, of course, the felt product would not be new at all but another alteration — a new assembly of other pieces that were all alterations themselves. A few weeks later, I brought my students back to Tire to watch the felter, and all at once it became clear to me. In this illuminated light, it seems difficult to escape the conclusion that Graham, not Aristotle, has it wrong.
It is always moving for everything that changes would not change unless it was moving. When it becomes finer, aer becomes fire, being condensed it transforms into wind.
Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. Nonwoven materials for the garment sewing industry are produced from natural and synthetic fibers such as: cotton, wool , polyester fiber and their composites. Contact this company. Manufacture of adhesive synthetic and woollen felts, packaged in sachets, on sheets and on industrial rolls.
4 Needle Felting Secrets to save you time, money and headaches.
This marker has a durable aluminum barrel and a felt tip. It is not know who or how invented the felt but there is evidence that this craft is very old. Waters Industrial provides metal finishing equipment and supplies from top quality brands in the metal finishing industry. Applications: Schools The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on the ability to transport raw materials and finished goods over long distances. More felt is I think a kit for a heavy 10 would be closer to what's needed. Woven Felt Industrial Wool Felt is moisture-repellent and flexible for automotive door and window seals and central door and window seals.
10mm Wool Felt
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air. Here we provide a master list of manufactured products that contain asbestos. Our list of asbestos-containing materials is sorted by alphabetically by product or use.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Its Made - 624 Felt
Stay In Touch. Looking for felt balls 10mm? We have everything you need. This high integrity felt will not fray, unlike wool blends. The felt underlay for carpets is ideal for living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms and stairs. This is not fully felted, this batt is in the prefelt stage. Buy Quality wool felt pieces and Source wool felt pieces from Reliable Global wool felt pieces suppliers.
What is industrial felt used for
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Manufacturer, supplier, distributer and importer of qualitative range of carbon fiber, fabric, quartz fiber, fabric, bsalt fiber, Manufacturer and Exporters of Computerized Embroidery Machines. Manufacturer of Shoes. Exporter of Textile Machinery and Toothbrush. Importer of Injection Moulding Machines. Works, Dies, Moulds, Spark Erosion Trader of all kinds of domestic and industrial sewing machines and spares. Manufacturer and Exporter of Non-Woven Fabrics.
Over the years I have learned a few things while needle felting that have helped me immensely. I have been needle felting since with the support of a local group of fiber enthusiasts. You can learn more about my felting journey here. They have helped me think of ways to speed up the felting process along with many things we have learned together as a group. So here we go, my top 4 Needle Felting Secrets :. Up until I used upholstery foam as my needle felting work surface of choice. In I realized how easy it was to felt on felt and in I worked with my local woolen mill to come up with a solid wool felting cushion made with local wool. Trust me, it is the absolute best choice for your work surface and will save you tons of money in the long run because it will last so much longer than foam. I have tried so many ways to make holding the felting needle for hours and hours more comfortable.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Heraclitus, Milesian Monism, and the Felting of Wool. Robert Hahn. Was Heraclitus a material monist? Aristotle says he was at Metaphysics a and classifies him along the lines he drew at b where Thales is identified as the founder of this kind of philosophy.
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The seawater resistant fibre was originally used for making twines and ropes. Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose and was invented in It is mainly used as a synthetic fibre in textiles under the names of celanese and acetate.
Лишь когда планета оказалась еще ближе, Элвин смог ясно увидеть то, о чем говорил его товарищ. Вдоль границ материков он разглядел размытые полосы и линии, которые располагались на достаточном расстоянии от черты, казавшейся краем моря. Это зрелище посеяло в Элвине внезапное сомнение, ибо смысл линий был известен ему слишком хорошо. Однажды он уже видел их в пустыне вокруг Диаспара; теперь он понял, что путешествие было - Эта планета так же суха, как и Земля, - сказал он тоскливо.
Олвин прикинул, насколько далеко может простираться память монитора. Сумеют ли они вернуться к самому основанию города и проникнуть сквозь занавес отделяющий непреложно известную историю от мифов и легенд Начала?. Они погрузились в прошлое уже на пятьсот миллионов лет.