Understanding failures modes of our equipment, processes and individual components in the equipment is a very important function. Every manufacturing or processing plant has rotating equipment that is performing plant functions. When this equipment stops working, our processes cease to perform their designed expectations. The negative impacts are operations downtime, reduced capacity, lower quality, and environmental, health and safety incidents. Reliability-Centered Maintenance RCM is becoming more popular in manufacturing and process plants in determining failure modes of equipment and processes. When we understand the failure modes, a complete and strategic maintenance program can be developed.
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- Industrial Manufacturing
- How to Choose an Oil Filtration System
- What is a Filter Regulator Lubricator – FRL?
- About the company
- Selecting aerosol lubrication for compressed air systems
- 10 Lubrication Best Practices for Improved Equipment Reliability
- Automatic lubrication systems
- Series Ly Plate Frame Oil Filtering Machine for Lubricating Oil
Industrial ManufacturingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Lubrication of bearings: Automatic lubrication of a wastewater treatment plant
The need for lubrication in mechanical systems is understood-and sometimes it can be taken for granted. The following information covers some of the basic issues in lubrication, such as making the choice between oil and grease for lubrication and the impact which oil-distribution methods, viscosity and heat can have on the process.
The wide range of bearing types and operating conditions precludes any simple, all-inclusive statement or guideline allowing the selection of the proper lubricant.
At the design level, the first consideration is whether oil or grease is best for the particular operation. When heat must be carried away from the bearing, oil must be used. It is almost always preferred for high-speed applications. Oils used for bearing lubrication should be high-quality mineral oils or synthetic oils with similar properties.
Selection of the proper type of oils depends on bearing speed, load, operating temperature and lubrication method. Some features and advantages of oil lubrication, in addition to the above, are:. Oil bath. The housing is designed to provide a sump through which the rolling elements of the bearing will pass.
Generally, the oil level should be no higher than the center point of the lowest rolling element. If speed is high, lower oil levels should be used to reduce churning. Gauges or controlled elevation drains are used to achieve and maintain the proper oil level. Circulating system. A typical circulating-oil system consists of an oil reservoir, pump, piping and filter.
A heat exchange may be required. This system has the advantages of:. Oil-mist lubrication. Oil-mist lubrication systems are used in high-speed, continuous-operation applications.
This system permits close control of the amount of lubricant reaching the bearings. The oil may be metered, atomized by compressed air and mixed with air, or it may be picked up from a reservoir using a Venturi effect. In either case, the air is filtered and supplied under sufficient pressure to ensure adequate lubrication of the bearings.
Control of this type of lubrication system is accomplished by monitoring the operating temperatures of the bearings being lubricated. The continuous passage of the pressurized air and oil through the labyrinth seals used in the system prevents the entrance of contaminants from the atmosphere to the system.
To ensure "wetting" of the bearings, and to prevent possible damage to the rolling elements and rings, it is imperative that the oil-mist system be turned on for several minutes before the equipment is started. The importance of wetting the bearing before starting cannot be overstated, and it also has particular significance for equipment that has been idled for extended periods of time. Lubricating oils are commercially available in many forms for automotive, industrial, aircraft and other uses.
Oils are classified as either petroleum types refined from crude oil or synthetic types produced by chemical synthesis. The selection of oil viscosity for any bearing application requires consideration of several factors: load, speed, bearing setting, type of oil and environmental factors. Since oil viscosity varies inversely with temperature, a viscosity value must always be stated with the temperature at which it was determined.
High-viscosity oil is used for low-speed or high-ambient-temperature applications. Low-viscosity oil is used for high-speed or low-ambient-temperature applications. There are several classifications of oils based on viscosity grades. Viscosity-classification comparisons In general, synthetic oils are less prone to oxidation and can operate at extreme hot or cold temperatures. Physical properties, such as pressure-viscosity coefficients, tend to vary between oil types.
Use caution when making oil selections. The polyalphaolefins PAO have a hydrocarbon chemistry that parallels petroleum oil both in chemical structures and pressure-viscosity coefficients. Therefore, PAO oil is mostly used in the oil-lubricated applications of bearings when severe temperature environments hot and cold are encountered or when extended lubricant life is required.
The silicone, ester and polyglycol oils have an oxygen-based chemistry that is structurally quite different from petroleum oils and PAO oils. This difference has a profound effect on its physical properties, where pressure-viscosity coefficients can be lower as compared with mineral and PAO oils.
This means that these types of synthetic oils may actually generate a smaller elastohydrodynamic film thickness than a mineral or PAO oil of equal viscosity at operating temperature.
Reductions in bearing fatigue life and increases in bearing wear could result from this reduction of lubricant film thickness. Industrial extreme-pressure EP gear oils should be composed of a highly refined petroleum oil-based stock plus appropriate inhibitors and additives.
They should not contain materials that are corrosive or abrasive to bearings. The inhibitors should provide long-term protection from oxidation and protect the bearing from corrosion in the presence of moisture. The oils should resist foaming in service and have good water-separation properties. An EP additive protects against scoring under boundary-lubrication conditions. Grease lubrication is generally applicable to low- to moderate-speed applications that have operating temperatures within the limits of the grease.
There is no universal anti-friction bearing grease. Each grease has limiting properties and characteristics. Greases consist of a base oil, a thickening agent and additives. Conventionally, bearing greases have consisted of petroleum base oils thickened to the desired consistency by some form of metallic soap.
More recently, synthetic base oils have been used with organic and inorganic thickeners. Using polyurea as a thickener for lubricating fluids is one of the most significant lubrication developments in more than 30 years. Polyurea grease performance is outstanding in a wide range of bearing applications and, in a relatively short time, it has gained acceptance as a factory-packed lubricant for ball bearings.
Starting torque in a grease-lubricated bearing at low temperatures can be critical. Some greases may function adequately as long as the bearing is operating, but resistance to initial movement may be excessive. In certain smaller machines, starting may be impossible when very cold.
Under such operating circumstances, greases containing low-temperature oils generally are required if the operating temperature range is wide. Calcium- and aluminum-based greases have excellent water resistance and are used in industrial applications where water ingress is an issue. Lithium-based greases are multipurpose and are used in industrial applications and wheel bearings. Synthetic base oils, such as esters, organic esters and silicones, used with conventional thickeners and additives typically have higher maximum operating temperatures than petroleum-based greases.
An important point concerning lubricating greases is that the starting torque is not necessarily a function of the consistency or the channel properties of the grease. Starting torque is more a function of the individual rheological properties of particular grease and is best evaluated by application experience. The high temperature limit for lubricating greases is generally a function of the thermal and oxidation stability of the fluid and the effectiveness of the oxidation inhibitors.
Grease temperature ranges are defined by both the dropping point of the grease thickener and the composition of the base oil. A rule of thumb, developed from years of testing grease-lubricated bearings, indicates that grease life is halved for every 10 C 50 F increase in temperature. For example, if a particular grease provides 2, hours of life at 90 C F , by raising the temperature to C F , reduction in life to approximately 1, hours would result. On the other hand, 4, hours could be expected by lowering the temperature to 80 C F.
Thermal stability, oxidation resistance and temperature limitations must be considered when selecting greases for high-temperature applications. In non-relubricatable applications, highly refined mineral oils or chemically stable synthetic fluids are required as the oil component of greases for operation at temperatures above C F. Water and moisture can be particularly conducive to bearing damage. Lubricating greases may provide a measure of protection from this contamination. Certain greases, such as calcium and aluminum-complex, are highly water-resistant.
Sodium-soap greases are water-soluble and should not be used in applications involving water. Either dissolved or suspended water in lubricating oils can exert a detrimental influence on bearing fatigue life.
Water can cause bearing etching, which also can reduce bearing fatigue life. The exact mechanism by which water lowers fatigue life is not fully understood. It has been suggested that water enters microcracks in the bearing rings, which are caused by repeated stress cycles. This leads to corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement in the microcracks, reducing the time required for these cracks to propagate to an unacceptable-sized spall.
Water-based fluids, such as water glycol and invert emulsions, also have shown a reduction in bearing fatigue life.
Although water from these sources is not the same as contamination, the results support the previous discussion concerning water-contaminated lubricants. Lubrication Have the right information to make the right choices. By Timken June 10, Oil lubrication Oils used for bearing lubrication should be high-quality mineral oils or synthetic oils with similar properties. Some features and advantages of oil lubrication, in addition to the above, are: Oil is a better lubricant for high speeds or high temperatures.
It can be cooled to help reduce bearing temperature. It is easier to handle and control the amount of lubricant reaching the bearing. It is harder to retain lubricant inside the bearing.
Lubricant losses may be higher than with grease. Oil can be introduced to the bearing in many ways, such as drip-feed, wick-feed, pressurized circulating systems, oil bath or air-oil mist. Each is suited for certain types of applications. Oil is easier to keep clean for recirculating systems. Oil and bearings Oil may be introduced to the bearing housing in many ways. The most common systems are: Oil bath.
This system has the advantages of: An adequate supply of oil for both cooling and lubrication. Metered control of the quantity of oil delivered to each bearing. Removal of contaminants and moisture from the bearing by flushing action.
How to Choose an Oil Filtration System
Air leaving a compressor is hot, dirty, and wet—which can damage and shorten the life of downstream equipment, such as valves and cylinders. Before air can be used it needs to be filtered, regulated and lubricated. An air line filter cleans compressed air. It strains the air and traps solid particles dust, dirt, rust and separates liquids water, oil entrained in the compressed air. Filters are installed in the air line upstream of regulators, lubricators, directional control valves, and air driven devices such as cylinders and air motors. Air line filters remove contaminants from pneumatic systems, preventing damage to equipment and reducing production losses due to contaminant related downtime.
What is a Filter Regulator Lubricator – FRL?
Original equipment manufacturer OEM machine designers have long recognized and respected the value of choosing the correct lubricant for the job. They spend considerable time with lubricant-company engineers to choose the types of oils and greases that will adequately perform under given sets of ambient and machine conditions and allow equipment to function per design specifications. To combat temperature excesses, a lubricant with a suitable viscosity and viscosity index VI is chosen. To ensure the lubricant has a chance of an extended life cycle, a good designer will incorporate a variety of contamination-control devices in the lubrication-system design.
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About the company
Lubricating systems are systems used to assist the smooth and healthy operation of rotating machinery parts like gears, bearings, dies, chains, spindles, cables, pumps, and rails. Manual lubricating methods e. Read More….
An oil filter is a filter designed to remove contaminants from engine oil , transmission oil , lubricating oil , or hydraulic oil. Oil filters are used in many different types of hydraulic machinery. A chief use of the oil filter is in internal-combustion engines in on- and off-road motor vehicles , light aircraft , and various naval vessels. Other vehicle hydraulic systems, such as those in automatic transmissions and power steering , are often equipped with an oil filter. Gas turbine engines, such as those on jet aircraft, also require the use of oil filters. Aside from these uses, oil production, transport, and recycling facilities also employ filters in the manufacturing process. Early automobile engines did not use oil filters. For this reason, along with the generally low quality of oil available, very frequent oil changes were required.
Selecting aerosol lubrication for compressed air systems
This useful book is very good and helpful to designers especially those beginners like me. Thanks a lot and more power to the author. He has written numerous publications on such topics as plant performance, maintenance engineering, maintenance management, and predictive maintenance. He is also a contributing editor for Plant Services magazine. Account Options Sign in.
10 Lubrication Best Practices for Improved Equipment Reliability
Few industries are as challenging as the automotive market. Strict quality standards, high volumes, and tight production deadlines mean that there is little to no room for errors in the manufacturing process. Pall filtration products can help maximize production and increase plant efficiency. Water and lubricant filtration: Numerous processes utilize water as a process or wash fluid and lubricating oil for a wide range of industrial equipment. Regardless of the application, the need for high performance filtration remains. Effective and reliable filtration results in reduced downtime for equipment maintenance as well as extended life for machinery and process equipment for overall improved business performance. Pall is a global supplier of filtration solutions for pulp and paper applications.
Automatic lubrication systems
Compressed air is used to power tools or actuators in a variety of manufacturing, processing, packaging and warehouse operations to push, pull, lift, position or convey. But the air leaving the compressor is not ready to power this equipment without proper preparation.
Series Ly Plate Frame Oil Filtering Machine for Lubricating Oil
A common question that I am often asked is about how to select the right filtration skid for offline kidney-loop oil filtration. This is one of the most neglected and least understood issues in the industry, costing companies billions of dollars in losses.
The need for lubrication in mechanical systems is understood-and sometimes it can be taken for granted. The following information covers some of the basic issues in lubrication, such as making the choice between oil and grease for lubrication and the impact which oil-distribution methods, viscosity and heat can have on the process. The wide range of bearing types and operating conditions precludes any simple, all-inclusive statement or guideline allowing the selection of the proper lubricant.
Lubrication has a direct effect on equipment reliability. If you have a good lubrication strategy, you will improve your plant and equipment uptime. For any given plant, there are a number of important steps that, if implemented, will increase equipment reliability.