Modern biotechnology refers to various scientific techniques used to produce specific desired traits in plants, animals or microorganisms through the use of genetic knowledge. Since its introduction to agriculture and food production in the early, biotechnology has been utilized to develop new tools for improving productivity. Biotechnology is a broad term that applies to the use of living organisms and covers techniques that range from simple to sophisticated. In contrast, modern agricultural biotechnology techniques, such as genetic engineering, allow for more precise development of crop and livestock varieties. The potential benefits of biotechnology are enormous.
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Berry (botany)VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Straight to the village/ Dried Fruit Food Factory Թիմը գնում է գյուղ. Չորացրած մրգերի արտադրություն
In botany , a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary. Berries so defined include grapes , currants , and tomatoes , as well as cucumbers , eggplants aubergines and bananas , but exclude certain fruits that meet the culinary definition of berries, such as strawberries and raspberries.
The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible " pericarp ". Berries may be formed from one or more carpels from the same flower i. The seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers , with air rather than pulp around their seeds.
Many berries are edible, but others, such as the fruits of the potato and the deadly nightshade , are poisonous to humans. A plant that bears berries is said to be bacciferous or baccate a fruit that resembles a berry, whether it actually is a berry or not, can also be called "baccate". In everyday English, a " berry " is any small edible fruit. Berries are usually juicy, round, brightly coloured, sweet or sour , and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present.
In botanical language, a berry is a simple fruit having seeds and fleshy pulp the pericarp produced from the ovary of a single flower. The ovary can be inferior or superior. It is indehiscent , i. The outer layer is called the "exocarp" or " epicarp "; the middle layer, the " mesocarp " or "sarcocarp"; the inner layer, the " endocarp ". Botanists have not applied these terms consistently. Exocarp and endocarp may be restricted to more-or-less single-layered "skins", or may include tissues adjacent to them; thus on one view, the exocarp extends inwards to the layer of vascular bundles "veins".
The inconsistency in usage has been described as "a source of confusion". The nature of the endocarp distinguishes a berry from a drupe, which has a hardened or stony endocarp see also below. The two kinds of fruit intergrade, depending on the state of the endocarp. Some sources have attempted to quantify the difference, e.
This distinguishes, for example, a Vaccinium or Solanum berry from an Adansonia baobab amphisarca, which has a dry, more rigid and self-supporting skin. Berries that develop from an inferior ovary are sometimes termed epigynous berries or false berries, as opposed to true berries, which develop from a superior ovary.
In epigynous berries, the berry includes tissue derived from parts of the flower besides the ovary. The floral tube, formed from the basal part of the sepals, petals and stamens can become fleshy at maturity and is united with the ovary to form the fruit. Common fruits that are sometimes classified as epigynous berries include bananas , coffee , members of the genus Vaccinium e.
Many fruits commonly referred to as berries are not actual berries by the scientific definition, but fall into one of the following categories:. Drupes are fleshy fruits produced from a usually single-seeded ovary with a hard woody layer called the endocarp surrounding the seed. Familiar examples include the stonefruits of the genus Prunus peaches , plums and cherries , olives , coconut , bayberry and Persea species.
Some definitions make the mere presence of an internally differentiated endocarp the defining feature of a drupe;  others qualify the nature of the endocarp required in a drupe, e.
Other drupe-like fruits with a single seed that lack the stony endocarp include sea-buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides , Elaeagnaceae , which is an achene , surrounded by a swollen hypanthium that provides the fleshy layer. The pome fruits produced by plants in subtribe Pyrinae of family Rosaceae , such as apples and pears, have a structure the core in which tough tissue clearly separates the seeds from the outer softer pericarp.
Amelanchier pomes become so soft at maturity that they resemble a blueberry and are known as Juneberries, serviceberries or Saskatoon berries. Aggregate or compound fruits contain seeds from different ovaries of a single flower, with the individual "fruitlets" joined together at maturity to form the complete fruit. Multiple fruits are the fruits of two or more multiple flowers that are merged or packed closely together.
The female seed cones of some conifers have fleshy and merged scales, giving them a berry-like appearance. Juniper "berries" family Cupressaceae , in particular those of Juniperus communis , are used to flavour gin.
The seed cones of species in the families Podocarpaceae and Taxaceae have a bright colour when fully developed, increasing the resemblance to true berries. The "berries" of yews Taxus species consist of a female seed cone with which develops a fleshy red aril partially enclosing the poisonous seed.
The Latin word baca or bacca plural baccae was originally used for "any small round fruit". He did not make the modern distinction between "fruits" and "seeds", calling hard structures like nuts semina or seeds. A fleshy fruit was called a pericarpium. For Caesalpinus, a true bacca or berry was a pericarpium derived from a flower with a superior ovary; one derived from a flower with an inferior ovary was called a pomum.
In , Carl Linnaeus wrote Philosophia Botanica , considered to be the first textbook of descriptive systematic botany. Botanists continue to differ on how fruit should be classified. Joseph Gaertner published a two-volume work, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum on the fruits and seeds of plants between and In addition to Linnaeus' eight terms, he introduced seven more, including pepo for the berry-like fruits of cucurbits. Nicaise Auguste Desvaux in used the terms hesperidium and amphisarca as further subdivisions of berries.
An amphisarca was described as woody on the outside and fleshy on the inside. There remains no universally agreed system of classification for fruits, and there continues to be "confusion over classification of fruit types and the definitions given to fruit terms". By definition, berries have a fleshy, indehiscent pericarp, as opposed to a dry, dehiscent pericarp. Fossils show that early flowering plants had dry fruits; fleshy fruits, such as berries or drupes, appeared only towards the end of the Cretaceous Period or the beginning of the Paleogene Period , about 66 million years ago.
The increasing importance of seed dispersal by fruit-eating vertebrates, both mammals and birds, may have driven the evolution of fleshy fruits. Alternatively, the causal direction may be the other way round. Large fleshy fruits are associated with moist habitats with closed tree canopies, where wind dispersal of dry fruits is less effective. Such habitats were increasingly common in the Paleogene and the associated change in fruit type may have led to the evolution of fruit eating in mammals and birds.
Fruit type has been considered to be a useful character in classification and in understanding the phylogeny of plants. Repeated transitions between fleshy and dry pericarps have been demonstrated regularly. One well-studied family is the Solanaceae , because of the commercial importance of fruit such as tomatoes, bell peppers, and eggplants or aubergines.
Capsules , which are dry dehiscent fruits, appear to be the original form of the fruit in the earliest diverging members of the family. Berries have then evolved at least three times: in Cestrum , Duboisia , and in the subfamily Solanoideae.
Detailed anatomical and developmental studies have shown that the berries of Cestrum and those of the Solanoideae are significantly different; for example, expansion of the fruit during development involves cell divisions in the mesocarp in Solanoideae berries, but not in Cestrum berries. When fruits described as berries were studied in the family Melastomaceae , they were found to be highly variable in structure, some being soft with an endocarp that soon broke down, others having a hard, persistent endocarp, even woody in some species.
The presence or absence of berries is not a reliable guide to phylogeny. Berries, defined loosely, have been valuable as a food source to humans since prior to the start of agriculture, [ citation needed ] and remain among the primary food sources of other primates. Botanically defined berries with culinary uses include:. Some berries are brightly coloured, due to plant pigments such as anthocyanins and other flavonoids.
These pigments are localized mainly in the outer surface and the seeds. Consequently, it is not permitted to claim that foods containing plant pigments have antioxidant health value on product labels in the United States or Europe. Some spices are prepared from berries.
Allspice is made from the dried berries of Pimenta dioica. Pepos, characterized by a hard outer rind, have also been used as containers by removing the inner flesh and seeds and then drying the remaining exocarp.
The English name of Lagenaria siceraria , "bottle gourd", reflects its use as a liquid container. Some true berries have also been used as a source of dyes. In Hawaii , these included berries from a species of Dianella , used to produce blue, and berries from black nightshade Solanum americanum , used to produce green.
Cucurbit berries or pepos, particularly from Cucurbita and Lagenaria , are the earliest plants known to be domesticated — before 9,—10, BP in the Americas, and probably by 12,—13, BP in Asia.
The history of cultivated citrus fruit remains unclear, although some recent research suggests a possible origin in Papuasia rather than continental southeast Asia. Chinese documents show that mandarins and pomelos were established in cultivation there by around 4, BP. The other was a pome apples. The top five fruit exports by weight in are shown in the table below.
The top two places are again occupied by bananas and citrus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the everyday use of the term, see Berry. For other uses, see Berry disambiguation.
Avocado contains a single large seed surrounded by an imperceptible endocarp. Berberidaceae Strawberry tree Arbutus unedo not to be confused with the strawberry Fragaria , which is an accessory fruit , bearberry Arctostaphylos spp. In the first image, only the blueberry is botanically a berry: blackberries are aggregate fruit composed of many drupelets, and strawberries are aggregate accessory fruits.
Sloes, the fruits of Prunus spinosa , are drupes. Avocado fruit are described as either drupes or berries. Serviceberries, fruits of Amelanchier species, are pomes. Mulberries, the fruits of Morus nigra , are multiple fruits. Main article: Drupe. Main article: Pome. Main article: Aggregate fruit. Main article: Multiple fruit. Main article: Accessory fruit. Data for bananas and plantains were combined, as these are not distinguished by all countries.
Data for all citrus fruits were also combined, since some countries provide data under a general heading of "citrus fruit". The resulting table was then sorted and the top five entries used.
Data for bananas and plantains were combined, as was data for all citrus fruits. Retrieved 14 August
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Everything you need to know about strawberries
Yes, we might as well call it a lifestyle. Over years of following this way of eating ourselves, we acquired the insights, expertise and real-life know-how to help you take your next steps, too! So, no meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, or honey, but also no refined grains, added sugars or added fats like oils. However, there are different degrees of processed foods, and the whole food plant-based diet may include minimally processed items like tofu, whole grain flour, nut butter or tomato sauce. We personally use the terms plant-based, whole food plant-based and healthy vegan diet interchangeably throughout this website, always referring to the same concept as explained in this guide.
Whole Food Plant-Based Diet (Full Guide)
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Supplying South Africa with the widest variety of quality dried fruit and nuts from around the world. In June this man traveled the world in pursuit of the finest quality product available. He visited 12 countries and over nut farms and fruit drying facilities. Providing South Africans with the healthiest products sourced from around the world is still our dream and what gets us out of bed in the morning. All of our nuts are dry roasted and contain zero oil. We dry roast our nuts because it reduces the water content found in the nuts, which in turn concentrates the nutrients of the nuts. This is why our nuts are crispy, healthy and scrumptiously tasty. All of our products are packaged by us with over 70 dedicated staff ensuring we do not miss a beat.
In botany , a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary. Berries so defined include grapes , currants , and tomatoes , as well as cucumbers , eggplants aubergines and bananas , but exclude certain fruits that meet the culinary definition of berries, such as strawberries and raspberries. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible " pericarp ".
Cargo information. Marine insurance. Load securing. Photo of the month. German version - Homepage. Container Handbook. Lampong pepper, Sarawak pepper, Cambodia pepper: brownish to black, uneven, not markedly netted, spherical. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.
Fresh summer strawberries are one of the most popular, refreshing, and nutritious fruits available. The sweet, slightly tart berries have powerful antioxidant content and do not rapidly boost a person's blood sugar, making them an ideal choice for those who have diabetes , and a safe, delicious addition to any diet. Fruits and vegetables of all types, including strawberries, offer many health benefits. The World Health Organization WHO suggests that consuming grams g of fruit and vegetables a day can reduce the risk of heart disease , diabetes, and cancer. In this article, we look at the health benefits of strawberries, their nutritional information, and ways to include them in the diet. Strawberries provide a range of potential benefits and can support the body's defences against a variety of diseases. There are more than varieties of strawberry. Strawberries might have a preventive effect against heart disease due to their high polyphenol content. Polyphenols are plant compounds that are good for the body.
Потребовалось некоторое время, чтобы разрешить эту загадку, но, когда ответ был найден, он оказался очень простым. Давным-давно у Земли был ее единственный спутник -- Луна. Когда в бесконечном противоборстве приливов и тяготения Луна наконец стала падать, возникла необходимость уничтожить. Шалмирейн был построен именно для этой цели, и только позже вокруг него навились легенды, которые вам известны. Коллитрэкс улыбнулся своей огромной аудитории. Улыбка эта была несколько печальна: -- Таких легенд -- частью правдивых, частью лживых --.
Есть в нашем прошлом и другие парадоксы, которые еще предстоит разрешить. Но это уже проблемы, скорее, для психолога, нежели для историка. Даже сведениям, хранящимся в Центральном Компьютере, нельзя доверять до конца, поскольку они несут на себе явственные свидетельства того, что в очень далекие времена их На Земле лишь Диаспар и Лиз пережили период упадка -- первый благодарясовершенству своих машин, второй -- в силу своей изолированности и необычкых интеллектуальных способностей народа.
Но обе эти культуры, даже когда они стремились возвратиться к своему первоначальному уровню, уже не могли преодолеть искажающего влияния страхов и мифов, унаследованных ими.
Олвин догадался, чем он сейчас занят, и не стал мешать молчаливому расследованию друга. Наконец Хилвар вздохнул -- разочарованно.
Вымолвила наконец -- Ничего не могу с собой поделать, -- насупившись ответил. -- По-моему, все эти правила просто глупы. Да и потом -- как же мне о них помнить, если я в данный момент живу в саге.
Элвин увидел, как дрогнули ее губы, но слова не долетали до. Сперва он оглянулся с изумлениям, затем с нетерпением, смешанным с жалостью.
Вэйнамонд в состоянии описывать прошлое в мельчайших деталях, но, поскольку он не понимает того, что видит, работать с ним совсем не. Олвину было бы интересно узнать, откуда все это известно Сирэйнис. Но он тотчас же вспомнил, что едва ли не каждый в Лизе стал свидетелем этого неподражаемого расследования. Он испытывал чувство гордости от того, что сделал так много для Лиза и для Диаспара, но к этой гордости все же примешивалось еще и чувство беспомощности.