Berliner, F. Cowart, R. Means, J. In a diversified project on horse, jack and mule breeding was started by the Animal Husbandry Department of the Mississippi Experiment Station.
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Horses, donkeys and mules and their utilityVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Donkeys are Different (2015) Jacks perpetuate the production of mules, an animal with 63 chromosomes
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny , which is the offspring of a female donkey jenny and a male horse stallion.
The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent dam. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight.
The mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size.
Mules also tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a "molly" or "Molly mule", though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general.
Pregnancy is rare, but can occasionally occur naturally as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule , though often called a john mule , which is the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt , and a young female is called a mule filly. With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, and short mane , the mule shares characteristics of a donkey. In height and body, shape of neck and rump , uniformity of coat, and teeth, it appears horse-like.
The mule comes in all sizes, shapes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses , fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more. The mule is an example of hybrid vigor.
That a hybrid should possess more reason, memory, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, and length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature. The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, toughness, endurance, disposition, and natural cautiousness.
From its dam it inherits speed, conformation, and agility. That said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims.
There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects. Handlers of working animals generally find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, and their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain. Their hooves are harder than horses', and they show a natural resistance to disease and insects.
Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound exactly like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound that is similar to a donkey's but also has the whinnying characteristics of a horse often starts with a whinny, ends in a hee-haw. Mules sometimes whimper. The coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel , bay , black , and grey.
Less common are white , roans , palomino , dun , and buckskin. Least common are paint mules or tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with even wilder skewed colors. The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex Lp. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule. Mules historically were used by armies to transport supplies, occasionally as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, and to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes , a mixture of the horse's 64 and the donkey's The different structure and number usually prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile. A few mare mules have produced offspring when mated with a purebred horse or donkey.
Aristotle , Historia animalium , 6. As of October , there had been only 60 documented cases of mules birthing foals since One of the foals was a female, sired by a jack. Unlike her mother, she was sterile. The other, sired by a five-gaited Saddlebred stallion, exhibited no characteristics of any donkey. That horse, a stallion, was bred to several mares, which gave birth to live foals that showed no characteristics of the donkey.
In the second half of the 20th century, widespread usage of mules declined in industrialized countries. The use of mules for farming and transportation of agricultural products largely gave way to steam then gasoline powered tractors and trucks. Mules are still used extensively to transport cargo in rugged roadless regions, such as the large wilderness areas of California's Sierra Nevada mountains or the Pasayten Wilderness of northern Washington state.
Commercial pack mules are used recreationally, such as to supply mountaineering base camps, and also to supply trail building and maintenance crews, and backcountry footbridge building crews. During the Soviet—Afghan War , mules were used to carry weapons and supplies over Afghanistan's rugged terrain to the mujahideen.
Approximately 3. Mule trains have been part of working portions of transportation links as recently as by the World Food Programme. A mule train is a connected or unconnected line of pack mules , usually carrying cargo. Because of the mule's ability to carry at least as much as a horse, their trait of being sure-footed along with their tolerance of poorer coarser foods and abilities to tolerate arid terrains, mule trains were common caravan organized means of animal powered bulk transport back into pre-classical times.
In many climate and circumstantial instances, an equivalent string of pack horses would have to carry more fodder and sacks of high energy grains such as oats , so could carry less cargo. In modern times, strings of sure footed mules have been used to carry riders in dangerous but scenic back country terrain such as excursions into canyons.
In the nineteenth century, twenty-mule teams , for instance, were teams of eighteen mules and two horses attached to large wagons that ferried borax out of Death Valley from to The wagons were among the largest ever pulled by draft animals, designed to carry 10 short tons 9 metric tons of borax ore at a time.
Grand Canyon on the South Kaibab trail. Gotthard Pass , Switzerland about White, Utah State University professor of animal science; and Dirk Vanderwall, University of Idaho assistant professor of animal and veterinary science. The baby mule, Idaho Gem , was born May 4. It was the first clone of a hybrid animal.
Veterinary examinations of the foal and its surrogate mother showed them to be in good health soon after birth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. For other uses, see Mule disambiguation.
Conservation status. Working mule train, Nicaragua — In contrast, the digestive system of horses and to a lesser extent cattle are more dependent upon grasses, and evolved in climates where grasslands involved stands of grains and their high energy seed heads.
Many of the latter would only become widely available through the development of machinery processing cotton gin , spinning jenny , etc. The waterproof qualities of beaver hats and coats was valuable in the days when transportation measured the six miles per hour of horsebacked travel as rapid transit. Library of Congress. Retrieved The Donkey Sanctuary. Danville, IL: Interstate. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press. Henry G. Allen and Company. Hunter's Specialties.
Archived from the original on Endurance Rider's Handbook. American Donkey and Mule Society. Jeffrey; Birchler, James A. Polyploid and Hybrid Genomics. What Mr. The Natural Superiority of Mules. Animal Cognition. Scientific American. BBC News. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. National Public Radio. Denver Post. Journal of Heredity. Eastern Sierra Packers. Angeles Chapter Sierra Club.
Presidio Press. World Food Programme. Texas State Library and Archives Commission. University of Idaho.
In the world today it is believed there are approximately 44 million mules and donkeys. These two groups of equids are currently receiving a lot of attention as recreational animals in the United States. They very well may be the fastest growing part of the recreational equine industry. Mules in particular can be found doing everything from trail riding and packing, to dressage, racing, jumping and western pleasure. Donkeys, in many instances, are family pets and of course are a necessary ingredient in the production of mules.
Pmu Horse Breed
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny , which is the offspring of a female donkey jenny and a male horse stallion. The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent dam. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight.
It seems that the Poitou donkey first appeared in the 10 th century in France. The Poitou mule breeding industry, which flourished particularly from the 17 th to the 19 th century, gave a solid reputation to the donkey as a procreator, and it was widely exported to many countries America, Mediterranean countries etc. Annick Audiot, who was put in charge of this work, could only record 44 Poitou donkeys, 20 jacks and 24 jennies, belonging to 14 owners. Starting with births in the year , foals must also be subjected to genetic filiation testing through DNA tests.
Livestock , farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals, such as buffalo, oxen, llamas, or camels, may predominate in the agriculture of other areas. A brief treatment of livestock follows. For information on individual species, see alpaca , buffalo, camel , cattle , cow , donkey , goat , horse , llama , ox , pig , reindeer , sheep , water buffalo , and yak. Cattle genus Bos make up the largest livestock group worldwide. Among those prominent in beef production are Hereford , Shorthorn , and Angus. Cattle feed primarily on pasture by grazing, but in modern farming their diet is ordinarily supplemented with prepared animal feeds. Cattle are sometimes used as draft animals, particularly in small-scale farming and in less developed regions. Sheep genus Ovis were among the first animals to be domesticated, perhaps as early as 10, bce.
The words donkey and ass are generally used interchangeably to denote the same animal, though ass is more properly employed when the animal is wild e. Wild asses inhabit arid semidesert plains in Africa and Asia where the vegetation is sparse and coarse; the domestic donkey does well on coarse food and is hardy under rough conditions, hence its usefulness to humanity as a beast of burden in places where horses cannot flourish, such as the mountains of Ethiopia and other parts of northeast Africa, the high plains of Tibet, and the arid regions of Mongolia. It is naturally patient and persevering, responding to gentle treatment with affection and attachment to its master. One of the largest donkey breeds, the Mammoth Jack, was developed in the United States in the late 18th century from European imports, including the Adalusian, the Maltese, the Majorcan, the Poitou, and various Italian strains.
To ensure the site displays correctly, please use a more modern browser, like Firefox or Google Chrome. Animal biotechnology is the use of science and engineering to modify living organisms. The goal is to make products, to improve animals and to develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses. Examples of animal biotechnology include creating transgenic animals animals with one or more genes introduced by human intervention , using gene knock out technology to make animals with a specific inactivated gene and producing nearly identical animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer or cloning. The animal biotechnology in use today is built on a long history. Some of the first biotechnology in use includes traditional breeding techniques that date back to B. Such techniques include crossing diverse strains of animals known as hybridizing to produce greater genetic variety. The offspring from these crosses then are bred selectively to produce the greatest number of desirable traits. For example, female horses have been bred with male donkeys to produce mules, and male horses have been bred with female donkeys to produce hinnies, for use as work animals, for the past 3, years. This method continues to be used today. These enzymes cut the DNA strands of any organism at precise points.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey a jack and a female horse a mare. A horse has 64 chromosomes, and a donkey has The mule ends up with However, a male mule should be gelded in order to make him a safe and sociable animal. Except for the long ears, mules look very similar to horses, but their muscle composition is different.
Лишь случайно мы обнаружили вас, но ведь многие желали бы услышать о Великих. Хилвар резко поднял глаза на Элвина, явно не понимая его намерений. Полип выглядел взволновано, и постоянные колебания его дыхательного аппарата прервались на несколько секунд. Затем он ответил, не вполне справляясь со своей речью: - Многие годы мы обсуждали эту проблему. Но мы не можем покинуть Шалмирану. Значит, мир должен придти к нам, как много времени это бы ни отняло.
- У меня есть лучшая идея, - сказал Элвин нетерпеливо. - Истина такова: вы должны оставаться здесь в озере, но нет причин, чтобы ваш спутник не мог отправиться с нами. Как только он пожелает, или когда у вас возникнет в нем нужда, он сможет вернуться. После смерти Учителя многое изменилось; вам следовало бы узнать об этих изменениях, но вы их никогда не постигнете, оставаясь .
Мы задумали известный тебе город и сочинили ложное прошлое, чтобы скрыть нашу трусость. Нет, мы не были первыми из числа поступивших так - но оказались первыми, кто сделал это столь тщательно. И мы перестроили человеческий дух, отняв у него честолюбие и неистовые страсти, чтобы он был удовлетворен тем миром, которым реально обладал.
Тысячу лет длилась постройка города со всеми его машинами.
Кроме того, теперь у него был могущественный, хотя и не совсем надежный союзник. Лучшие умы Лиза не смогли противостоять его планам. Трудно сказать почему, но Олвин был уверен, что у Диаспара дела пойдут не. Под этой уверенностью были, конечно, и рациональные основания, но в целом она держалась на чем-то таком, что выходило за пределы рационального,-- это вера в свое предназначение медленно, но упрямо укреплялась в сознании Олвина.
Некоторые из них достигали огромных размеров, занимая своими полупрозрачными телами и лесом стрекающих щупалец пятьдесят, а то и сто футов пространства. Но ни одна из этих медуз не обрела и крупицы интеллекта, если не считать за интеллект способность реагировать на простые раздражители.
Он понимал, что лететь к другим мирам Семи Солнц -- дело вполне безнадежное. Даже если во Вселенной разумная жизнь еще и существовала, где теперь было ее искать. Он глядел на звезды, пылью рассыпанные по экрану корабля, и его мучила мысль, что время, оставшееся в его распоряжении, не позволяет ему исследовать их .