Bread has been a staple food around the world for thousands of years. People continue to consume it because of its convenience, portability, nutrition, and taste. There are many different types of bread, which people make in different ways, using a variety of ingredients. Examples include whole-grain bread, sweetened bread, cornbread, leavened and unleavened bread, flatbread, sourdough, sprouted grain bread, soda bread, and many more. This article looks at some aspects of bread that may make one type of bread more or less healthful than another.
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- Is bread healthful or should I avoid it?
- What Are Food Additives
- Nutritional properties of bread
- The 5 Healthiest Breads You Can Find at the Grocery Store
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration
- Food fortification
- The Importance of Bread
- Is bread healthful or should I avoid it?
- Inside the food industry: the surprising truth about what you eat
Is bread healthful or should I avoid it?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Skincare Mistakes That Cause Acne, Breakouts & Inflammation: Sugar & Dairy
Deciding what foods to buy was simpler when most food came from farms. Now, factory-made foods have made chemical additives a significant part of our diet. And don't forget to cut back on sugar and salt, which cause more harm than all the other additives combined. See our Overview of Food Additives Infographic to learn more.
Learn more here. Artificial sweetener: "Diet," "no sugar added," "sugar-free," and other products, including soft drinks, drink mixes, baked goods, gelatin desserts, frozen desserts, yogurt, candy, chewing gum, packaged tabletop sweeteners. This artificial sweetener is widely used around the world.
It is about times sweeter than sugar. In July , the FDA allowed this chemical in soft drinks, thereby greatly increasing its use and consumer exposure. It is often used together with sucralose or aspartame. The safety tests of ace-K were conducted in the s and were of mediocre quality. Key rat tests used animals afflicted by disease; a mouse study was several months too brief and did not expose animals during gestation.
Two rat studies suggested that the additive might cause cancer. It was for those reasons that in the Center for Science in the Public Interest urged the FDA to require better testing before permitting ace-K in soft drinks.
In addition, large doses of acetoacetamide, a breakdown product of ace-K, have been shown to affect the thyroid in rats, rabbits, and dogs. Pregnant and nursing women may want to make a special effort to avoid ace-K and other artificial sweeteners. Preservative, flavoring, or acidulant. Acetic acid is the chemical that gives vinegar its sharp taste and odor.
Acid, flavoring agent, antioxidant: soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, edible oils, gelatin desserts. Adipic acid is sometimes used as the acid in bottled drinks and throat lozenges. Because it has little tendency to pick up moisture, adipic acid may be used to supply tartness, and it may account for the je ne sais quoi taste of highly manufactured powdered products, such as gelatin desserts and fruit flavored drinks. It is occasionally added to edible oils to prevent them from going rancid.
Rats, and presumably humans, metabolize adipic acid without any difficulty. Artificial sweetener: "Diet," "no sugar added," "sugar-free," and other products. Advantame is the newest and sweetest artificial sweetener. An incredible 20, times sweeter than sucrose, it was approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration in May It is permitted to be used in soft drinks, baked goods, chewing gum, confections and frostings, frozen desserts, gelatins and puddings, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices, toppings, and syrups.
It is made from aspartame and vanillin, but appears to be processed by the body differently from aspartame. Two key safety studies on advantame were flawed.
Nevertheless, because the additive is so incredibly sweet, the amounts that will be added to foods are so minuscule that any possible cancer risk would be negligible. For example, in the cancer study in mice, the number of animals that survived to the end of the study was below FDA's own recommendations.
An FDA statistician concluded that the low survival rate "probably masked the occurrence of late developing tumors. Snack foods, ice cream, breakfast cereals Air is by far the cheapest food additive, and perfectly safe.
Extruded snack foods such as Cheetos, breakfast cereals like Kix, and inexpensive ice creams are fluffed out with air. In the ice cream world, the amount of air whipped into the final product is called overrun. That's one reason why the premium ice creams are higher in calories—they contain more actual ice cream per serving—and why the cheaper and lower-calorie ice creams are, well, cheaper.
Thickening agents, foam stabilizer: Ice cream, cheese, candy, yogurt, beer. Alginate, an apparently safe derivative of seaweed kelp , maintains the desired texture in dairy products, canned frosting, and other factory-made foods. Propylene glycol alginate, a chemically-modified algin, thickens acidic foods soda pop, salad dressing and can stabilize the foam in beer. Beverages, yogurt, desserts, flavoring. Aloe vera, which comes from a succulent plant, is sold as a juice and is added to various other foods and supplements.
It is also marketed in various skin care products, for example to treat wounds and burns. Companies make diverse health claims, but scientific evidence is scarce.
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health concluded that Aloe vera "may" help heal burns and abrasions when used topically , but there is not enough evidence to support other claims.
Aloe vera taken orally can cause diarrhea and cramps and is recognized by FDA as a laxative. However, in FDA banned it from over-the-counter laxatives due to a lack of safety information. Carefully conducted studies by the U. The form tested, called non-decolorized whole-leaf extract of aloe vera, contains more of the components that are suspected of being cancer-causing—aloin and other anthraquinones—than do some aloe vera products on the market. The outer leaf pulp of aloe leaves, known as the latex, contains anthraquinones.
However, it is not known for sure what components of Aloe vera are responsible for the tumors. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine also notes several other possible concerns: 1 people with diabetes who use glucose-lowering medication should be cautious about taking Aloe vera by mouth since preliminary studies suggest it may lower blood glucose levels; 2 there have been a few case reports of acute hepatitis following oral Aloe vera use, but a cause-effect relationship has not been established; and 3 the diarrhea caused by the laxative effect of oral Aloe vera can decrease the absorption of many drugs.
Given the possible risks and unsubstantiated benefits, people should not consume Aloe vera. People who choose to consume it should at least look for products made with a charcoal filtration process to decolorize and remove anthraquinones, and monitored to ensure than aloin levels are low e.
Some solid or semi-solid products have much higher levels of aloin. However, low levels of aloin do not guarantee safety, since it is not known for sure exactly which components of Aloe vera triggered cancers in rats. Antioxidant, nutrient: Vegetable oils, breakfast cereals, beverages. Vitamin E is abundant in whole wheat, rice germ, and vegetable oils.
It is destroyed by the refining and bleaching of flour. Vitamin E prevents oils from going rancid. Large amounts of vitamin E, such as from vitamin supplements, do not appear to provide any health benefit. Ammonium compounds are sources of ammonia, which is used in the body to synthesize nitrogen-containing compounds and to adjust the acidity of bodily fluids, with an excess converted to urea and excreted in the urine.
Ammonia is widely available in natural forms. Amylases are enzymes that convert starch to sugar. They occur naturally in plants, saliva, pancreatic juice, and microorganisms.
Bakers add amylase to bread dough to supplement the small amount found naturally in wheat flour. The sugar that the amylases produce serves as food for the fermenting yeast and also makes for better-tasting, better-toasting bread. Amylases also improve the dough's consistency and the bread's keeping quality.
Natural coloring: butter, cheese, other foods. Annatto is a widely used food coloring obtained from the seeds of a tropical shrub. Its hue is yellow to orange. Unfortunately, natural does not always mean perfectly safe. Annatto causes hives in some people. In fact, allergic reactions to annatto appear to be more common than reactions to commonly used synthetic food dyes. Because food dyes are used almost solely in foods of low nutritional value candy, soft drinks, gelatin desserts, etc.
That is the technical term for the water-insoluble form of a dye, often used in fatty foods and low-moisture foods. In addition to problems mentioned below, synthetic food dyes cause hyperactivity in some sensitive children. You can report adverse reactions to food dyes to www.
Some foods are artificially colored with natural substances, such as beta-carotene or carmine. Just because they are natural does not mean that they are entirely safe. Carmine, for example, can cause severe allergic reactions. Please see their entries in the alphabetical listing.
The use of colorings, be they natural or synthetic, usually indicates that a natural ingredient is not used. Artificial Coloring: Beverages, candy, baked goods. One unpublished animal test suggested a small cancer risk, and a test-tube study indicated the dye might affect neurons.
It also causes occasional allergic reactions. Blue 1 might be safe for people who are not allergic, but it should be better tested. Artificial Coloring: Pet food, beverages, candy. Animal studies found some—but not conclusive—evidence that Blue 2 causes brain cancer in male rats, but the Food and Drug Administration concluded that there is "reasonable certainty of no harm. Artificial Coloring: Skin of some Florida oranges only.
The amounts of this rarely used dye that one might consume, even from eating marmalade, are so small that the risk is not worth worrying about. Artificial Coloring: Candy, beverages. A industry-sponsored study gave hints of bladder and testes tumors in male rats, but FDA re-analyzed the data using other statistical tests and concluded that the dye was safe.
Fortunately, this possibly carcinogenic dye is not widely used. Artificial Coloring: Sausage. Approved for use only in sausage casings, high doses of this dye are harmful to the liver and bile duct. However, that is not worrisome because Orange B has not been used for many years.
Artificial Coloring: Candy, baked goods. The evidence that this dye caused thyroid tumors in rats is "convincing," according to a review committee report requested by FDA.
Bread supplies a significant portion of the nutrients required for growth, maintenance of health and well-being. It is an excellent source of protein , vitamins , minerals , fibre and carbohydrates. It is also low in fat and cholesterol. Bread is quite bulky so it takes longer to digest and is more satisfying.
What Are Food Additives
Bread is a staple food prepared by baking a dough of flour and water. The virtually infinite combinations of different flours and differing proportions of ingredients, has resulted in the wide variety of types, shapes, sizes, and textures available around the world. It may be leavened aerated by a number of different processes ranging from the use of naturally occurring microbes to high-pressure artificial aeration during preparation and baking, or may be left unleavened. A wide variety of additives may be used, from fruits and nuts to various fats, to chemical additives designed to improve flavour, texture, colour and shelf life. Bread may be served in different forms at any meal of the day, eaten as a snack and is even used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations. As a basic food worldwide, bread has come to take on significance beyond mere nutrition, evolving into a fixture in religious rituals, secular cultural life and language.
Nutritional properties of bread
Protein Concentrates from Distillers ByProducts. Nutritive Assessment and Potential Food Applications. Wheat Germplasm Resources The Program at. List of Attendees Opportunity to Improve the Nutritional Value. Protein Electrophoresis Aids in Wheat Breeding. Changes in Production and Utilization of Durum.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Sugar: The Bitter Truth
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients essential trace elements and vitamins to food. It can be carried out by food manufacturers, or by governments as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population. The predominant diet within a region can lack particular nutrients due to the local soil or from inherent deficiencies within the staple foods; addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases. Food fortification has been identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level. The WHO and FAO, among many other nationally recognized organizations, have recognized that there are over 2 billion people worldwide who suffer from a variety of micronutrient deficiencies. In Canada, the Food and Drug Regulations have outlined specific criterion which justifies food fortification:. There are also several advantages to approaching nutrient deficiencies among populations via food fortification as opposed to other methods. These may include, but are not limited to: treating a population without specific dietary interventions therefore not requiring a change in dietary patterns, continuous delivery of the nutrient, does not require individual compliance, and potential to maintain nutrient stores more efficiently if consumed on a regular basis.
The 5 Healthiest Breads You Can Find at the Grocery Store
Box , Karaj, Iran. Bread is one of the oldest functional foods which its health effects have been investigated in many studies. The current communication presents a review of published studies in recent years on the topic and looks at possible future trends in the improved nutritional and health qualities which have been applied in the bakery industry, directing it further to the formulation design and production of functional breads.
The following sections describe a healthy eating pattern and how following such a pattern can help people meet the Guidelines and its Key Recommendations. Throughout, it uses the Healthy U. The Healthy U. Because calorie needs vary based on age, sex, height, weight, and level of physical activity see Appendix 2. The 2,calorie level of the Pattern is shown in Table These three patterns are examples of healthy eating patterns that can be adapted based on cultural and personal preferences. The USDA Food Patterns also can be used as guides to plan and serve meals not only for the individual and household but in a variety of other settings, including schools, worksites, and other community settings. Oils are shown in grams g. Quantity equivalents for each food group are defined in Appendix 3. Amounts will vary for those who need less than 2, or more than 2, calories per day.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
As runners, bread is an integral part of most of our diets, but choosing from the different types can be a little overwhelming to say the least. Instead of spending way too long picking out a loaf of bread at the supermarket, know the facts about bread and how to select one that is right for you. This may seem obvious, but the main ingredient in most bread is wheat. Gluten-free bread is an exception to that rule, since gluten is a protein in wheat. Wheat is an excellent source of carbohydrates , which is the primary fuel source for exercise. Those three components of the grain house the valuable nutrients, such as fiber, protein, B vitamins, iron, zinc, and copper. White bread, on the other hand, is made from refined flour, which has the bran and germ removed. Without those two nutritious parts of the grain, the final refined flour is lacking nutrients such fiber and protein.
Also available in printable brochure format PDF kb. For centuries, ingredients have served useful functions in a variety of foods. Our ancestors used salt to preserve meats and fish, added herbs and spices to improve the flavor of foods, preserved fruit with sugar, and pickled cucumbers in a vinegar solution. Today, consumers demand and enjoy a food supply that is flavorful, nutritious, safe, convenient, colorful and affordable. Food additives and advances in technology help make that possible. There are thousands of ingredients used to make foods. Still, some consumers have concerns about additives because they may see the long, unfamiliar names and think of them as complex chemical compounds. In fact, every food we eat - whether a just-picked strawberry or a homemade cookie - is made up of chemical compounds that determine flavor, color, texture and nutrient value.
The Importance of Bread
Ну и, в какой-то степени, познакомишься с его историей. Даже я, хоть я уже и приближаюсь к окончанию своей нынешней жизни, видел менее четверти Диаспара и, вполне вероятно,-- не более всего лишь одной тысячной доли его сокровищ. Во всем этом для Олвина пока что не содержалось ничего нового, но как-то поторопить Джизирака -- это было совершенно невозможным делом.
Старик пристально смотрел на него через бездну столетий, и его слова падали, отягощенные непостижимой мудростью, накопленной за долгую жизнь среди людей -- Ответь мне, Олвин,-- продолжал Джизирак,-- спрашивал ли ты себя когда-нибудь -- где был ты до своего рождения, до того момента, когда встретился лицом к лицу с Эристоном и Итанией.
Is bread healthful or should I avoid it?
Многие здания со времен постройки города были разобраны, вместо них воздвигнуты новые. - Конечно. Но только путем сброса информации, хранящейся в Банках Памяти, и установки затем новых образов.
Inside the food industry: the surprising truth about what you eat
К концу трапезы за пределами их маленького освещенного мирка стало уже совершенно темно, и на самой границе света и тьмы Олвин заметил какие-то движущиеся тени -- это обитатели леса выползали из своих дневных укрытий. Время от времени он видел отблески -- чьи-то бледные глаза смотрели на него, но, кто бы это ни был, зверье близко не подходило, так что хорошенько разглядеть ничего не удавалось.
Было так спокойно и славно, и Олвин испытывал полнейшее удовлетворение.
Нет, не Элвин. Кто-то иной. Опустив свой верный корабль на поляну Эрли, Элвин подумал: едва ли когда-нибудь за всю историю человечества какой-либо звездолет доставлял на Землю подобный груз - если только Ванамонд в самом деле физически находился внутри корабля.