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You can help by splitting this big page into smaller ones. Please make sure to follow the naming policy. Dividing books into smaller sections can provide more focus and allow each one to do one thing well, which benefits everyone. This is a document for everyday use of electricity in a household. Many circuits are a mixture of electrical, mechanical, and electronic components, which interact in different ways to produce strange and useful effects.
Topics include commercially generated AC as well as AC generated from inverters for alternative power use such as off-the-grid homes, cabins or recreational vehicles.
Electricity has become an integral part of life and difficult to imagine to be without it. Alternating Current is used for electric power distribution because it can easily be transformed to a higher or lower voltage.
Electrical energy losses are dependent on current flow. By using transformers, the voltage can be stepped up so that the same amount of power may be distributed over long distances at lower currents and hence lower losses due to the resistance of the conductors. The voltage can also be stepped down again so it is safe for domestic supply. Three-phase electrical generation and transmission is common and is an efficient use of conductors as the current-rating of each conductor can be fully utilized in transporting power from generation through transmission and distribution to final use.
Three-phase electricity is supplied only in industrial premises and many industrial electric motors are designed for it. Three voltage waveforms are generated that are degrees out of phase with each other. At the load end of the circuit the return legs of the three phase circuits can be coupled together at a 'neutral point', where the three currents sum to zero if supplied to a balanced load. This means that all the current can be carried using only three cables, rather than the six that would otherwise be needed.
Three phase power is a type of polyphase system. In most situations only a single phase is needed to supply street lights or residential consumers.
When distributing three-phase electric power, a fourth or neutral cable is run in the street distribution to provide one complete circuit to each house. Different houses in the street are placed on different phases of the supply so that the load is balanced , or spread evenly, across the three phases when consumers are connected. Thus the supply cable to each house can consist of a live and neutral conductor with possibly an earthed armoured sheath. In North America, the most common technique is to use a transformer to convert one distribution phase to a center-tapped 'split-phase' V winding; the connection to the consumer is typically two volt power lines out of phase with each other, and a grounded 'neutral' wire, which also acts as the physical support wire.
Although this method has certain advantages, there are obvious potential dangers associated with it. The use of "split phase" power, two volt power lines out of phase with each other, as described above, allows high-powered appliances to be run on V, thus decreasing the amount of current required per phase, while allowing the rest of the residence to be wired for the safer V. For example, a clothes dryer may need W of power, which translates to a circuit rating of 30 A at V.
If the dryer can instead be run on V, the service required is only 15 A. Granted, you would then need two 15 A circuit breakers, one for each side of the circuit, and you would need to provide two 'hot' lines, one neutral, and a ground in the distribution wiring, but that is offset by the lower cost of the wires for the lower current. Houses are generally wired so that the two phases are loaded about equally; connecting the high-power appliances such as clothes dryers, kitchen ranges, and built-in space heaters across both phases helps to ensure that the loads will remain balanced across the two phases.
For safety, a third wire is often connected between the individual electrical appliances in the house and the main electric switchboard or fusebox. The third wire is known in Britain and most other English-speaking countries as the earth wire , whereas in North America it is the ground wire.
At the main switchboard the earth wire is connected to the neutral wire and also connected to an earth stake or other convenient earthing point to Americans, the grounding point such as a water pipe. In the event of a fault, the earth wire can carry enough current to blow a fuse and isolate the faulty circuit.
The earth connection also means that the surrounding building is at the same voltage as the neutral point. The most common form of electrical shock occurs when a person accidentally forms a circuit between a live conductor and ground. As many parts of the neutral system are connected to the earth, balancing currents, known as earth currents , may flow between the distribution transformer and the consumer and other parts of the system, which are also earthed, this acts to keep the neutral voltage at a safe level.
This system of earthing the neutral points to balance the current flows for safety reasons is known as a multiple earth neutral system. Unfortunately in some cases this 'protection' can have a cascading effect, because the switching-off of one circuit can lead to an overload of adjacent circuits that may switch off later.
The amount of time taken to restore generation and reestablish that balance depends on the type of generation thermal, hydroelectric. The design of the power generators has three sets of coils placed degrees apart rotating in a magnetic field.
Standard frequencies of rotation are either 50 Hertz cycles per second in Europe or 60 Hertz in North America. The voltage across any pair of these three conductors, or between a single conductor and ground in a grounded system is what is known as "single phase" electric power.
Single phase power is what is commonly available to residential and light-commercial consumers in most distribution power grids. In North America, the single phase that is supplied is developed across a transformer coil at the utility pole for aerial drop or transformer pad for underground distribution.
This single coil is center tapped and the tap is grounded. The voltage from either side of the coil to the center tap ground is volts whereas the voltage between the two conductors on either end of the coil develops the full voltage of volts. An inverter is a circuit for converting direct current to alternating current. An inverter can have one or two switched-mode power supplies SMPS. This is then fed through a transformer to smooth the square wave into a sine wave and to produce the required output voltage.
More efficient inverters use various methods to produce an approximate sine wave at the transformer input rather than relying on the transformer to smooth it. Capacitors can be used to smooth the flow of current into and out of the transformer. It is also possible to produce a more sinusoidal wave by having split-rail direct current inputs at two voltages, positive and negative inputs with a central ground.
By connecting the transformer input terminals in a timed sequence between the positive rail and ground, the positive rail and the negative rail, the ground rail and the negative rail, then both to the ground rail, a 'stepped sinusoid' is generated at the transformer input and the current drain on the direct current supply is less variable.
This output is converted to DC at the same voltage, and then inverted again to a quasi sine wave output about V RMS. A disadvantage of the modified sine wave inverters is that the output voltage depends on the battery voltage. It is quite difficult to obtain a good sine wave from an inverter. Most home systems use conventional lead acid batteries for storage. They are cheap, and are deep cycle batteries, i.
You cannot use automobile batteries in inverters, as they are only used to provide a large starting current, and are not meant to be discharged completely.
The lead acid batteries have the disadvantage that they have to be replenished with distilled water every few months, and if it dries out, it cannot be repaired. However, they can provide the large surge currents which are required by many loads such as induction motors which may be connected to the system. Wikipedia has related information at DC to DC converter.
A switched-mode power supply , or SMPS or switching regulator, is an electronic power supply circuit that attempts to produce a smoothed, constant-voltage, output from a varying input voltage. Switched-mode power supplies may be designed to convert from alternating current or direct current, or both.
They generally output direct current, although an inverter is technically a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies operate by using an inverter to convert the input direct current supply to alternating current, usually at around 20 kHz.
If the input is alternating current but at a lower frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz line power then an inverter is still used to bump the frequency up. This high frequency means that the output transformer of the inverter will operate more efficiently than if it were run at 50 Hz or 60 Hz, due to hysteresis in the transformer core, and the transformer will not need to be as large or heavy.
This high-frequency output is then fed through a rectifier to produce the output direct current. Regulation is achieved through feedback. The output voltage is compared to a reference voltage and the result used to alter the switching frequency or duty cycle of the inverter oscillator, which affects its output voltage.
Switched-mode PSUs in domestic products such as personal computers often have universal inputs, meaning that they can accept power from most mains supplies throughout the world, with frequencies from 50 Hz to 60 Hz and voltages from V to V. Unlike most other appliances, switched mode power supplies tend to be constant power devices, drawing more current as the line voltage reduces.
This may cause stability problems in some situations such as emergency generator systems. Also, maximum current draw occurs at the peaks of the waveform cycle.
This means that basic switched mode power supplies tend to produce more harmonics and have a worse power factor than other types of appliances. However, higher-quality switched-mode power supplies with power-factor correction PFC are available, which are designed to present close to a resistive load to the mains.
The term power factor with respect to switched-mode supplies is misleading as it doesn't have much to do with leading or lagging voltage, but the way in which it loads the circuit i.
There are several types of switched-mode power supplies, classified according to the circuit topology. The most common single-phase motor is the shaded-pole synchronous motor, which is most commonly used in devices requiring lower torque such as electric fans, microwave ovens and other small household appliances. Another common single-phase AC motor is the induction motor, commonly used in major appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers.
These motors can generally provide greater starting torque by using a special startup winding in conjunction with a starting capacitor and a centrifugal switch. When starting, the capacitor and special winding are temporarily connected to the power source and provide starting torque.
Once the motor reaches speed, the centrifugal switch disconnects the capacitor and startup winding. Shaded-pole synchronous motors are a class of AC motor that uses single phase electric power to convert electric power to mechanical energy. They work by using a squirrel-cage rotor and a split stator that has copper shorting rings placed on it so as to shade a portion of the stator's magnetic field enough to provide starting torque.
The number of poles in an induction motor is an important factor in its interaction with non sine wave input. As a rule of thumb, motors with larger number of poles are more sensitive to harmonic distortion. Early applications of lighting was using lamps which used a heated filament to provide light. The filament was made of tungsten and was placed inside a near vacuum glass enclosure. While it was cheap, it produced a lot of heat, so that it was inefficient too.
Note that the incandescent bulb is a purely resistive load power factor 1. Wikipedia has related information at inrush current. The incandescent bulb is designed to operate at high temperatures. At normal operating temperatures, a tungsten filament has a resistance nearly 20 times its room-temperature resistance. So when a bulb is turned on, it draws a current nearly 20 times the normal current until it warms up. This current surge is called the inrush current , which lasts for milliseconds.
Again, something different from the "dumb load" point of view. Thus, 5 W bulbs in parallel, which would consume just W in normal circumstances, will have a inrush load of more than W. More importantly, a huge current flows, and it is important that all components on the line can carry the current.
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Basic Electrical Generation and Distribution
In an electric power system , switchgear is composed of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply. The earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches , mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated, making opening manually operated switches too dangerous for anything other than isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oil-filled switchgear equipment allow arc energy to be contained and safely controlled. By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed structure with electrically operated switching elements, using oil circuit breakers.
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High Voltage Connection. Your source for high voltage products, plus…. What is High Voltage? There is no universally accepted definition, although some industry standards do specify various minimum voltages, above which is considered high voltage. These definitions are generally based on safety considerations or the voltage where arcing will occur. It would be convenient if high voltage was universally accepted to start at a nice round number, for example, 1kV.
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Sales are made worldwide with spares and support readily available. We offer techniques for both online process motor testing, as well as offline functional bench testing. Our latest Schleich range also offers versatile testing in the production line environment as well as for consumer goods, such as cookers, luminaries etc.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms. Equipment and conductors that carry high voltage warrant particular safety requirements and procedures. In certain industries, high voltage means voltage above a particular threshold see below. High voltage is used in electrical power distribution , in cathode ray tubes , to generate X-rays and particle beams , to demonstrate arcing , for ignition, in photomultiplier tubes , and in high power amplifier vacuum tubes and other industrial, military and scientific applications. The numerical definition of "high voltage" depends on context. Two factors considered in classifying a voltage as "high voltage" are the possibility of causing a spark in air, and the danger of electric shock by contact or proximity. The definitions may refer to the voltage between two conductors of a system, or between any conductor and ground. In electric power transmission engineering, high voltage is usually considered any voltage over approximately 35, volts. This is a classification based on the design of apparatus and insulation.
Electromagnetic radiation in large amounts can be dangerous to biological systems, including human bodies. This is a source of concern given the considerable fraction of the population that lives in close proximity to high-voltage, above-ground power lines, also known as high-tension wires. A number of people use Internet "evidence" to claim that living near high-tension wires can cause serious ailments, but the actual story is not yet known. Despite that controversy, the effects of electromagnetic radiation emanating from power lines are of particular interest to neuroscientists, because the brain itself operates by sending a form of electrical signal between neurons and target tissues outside the central nervous system. Deciding how far from these wires is "safe" requires sorting through the available evidence. The minimum safe distance from high-tension electrical wires varies if your concern is for your general health. For people working near electrical wires, at least one utility company advises keeping all equipment under 14 feet tall when near power lines. Electric fields and magnetic fields, which are related but physically distinct, are created by anything that carries electrical current, from high-tension lines to the wiring in homes to household appliances.
Spark gap systems fire a pulse when the charge on the capacitor reaches a voltage that causes a spark between the electrodes. If the light is still off, check for a bad connection between the coil and the key switch. The Arduino can do this in a number of ways. If the wire for this is the type that looks like a braided cover and not a typical plastic coated wire then replace the wire. How to test and repair small engine ignition system problems? Is there no spark in the engine of your lawn mower, snow blower or outdoor power equipment? Nice work! I have always been tempted to build a ASRSG spark-gap coil, mostly for that asynchronous rotary gap sound and the way the sparks move especially without breakout point. When the gap electrodes are stationary, the gap is referred to as a "static" gap.
Electrical Safety Precautions and Basic Equipment
Last updated: October 31, D o you ever hear people talking about using a sledgehammer to crack a nut? Using too much force where only a little would do is obviously a waste of energy —but it's something we all do, all the time, where electricity is concerned.
Pulser Coil Gap
The power system deals with voltage above 36KV, is referred as high voltage switchgear. As the voltage level is high the arcing produced during switching operation is also very high. So, special care is to be taken during the designing of high voltage switchgear.
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