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Product building testing and adjustment equipment of optical instruments

During alignment turning, the mount edge and the flange surfaces of mounted spherical, aspherical and cylindrical lenses are produced so that the axis of symmetry of the mount coincides with the optical axis of the lens. UV or IR lenses can also be processed with high precision. This makes it possible to adjust and control all relevant parameters while processing the mount, such as diameter of the mount or the distance of the lens from the contact surfaces of the mount. The high-precision measurement of decentering and the extremely accurate processing of the mount prevent cumbersome, iterative adjustment steps in the overall optical system. The intuitive operation results in operator-independent results during measurement and processing. All ATS alignment turning stations are suitable for a variety of samples and applications.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Since the early part of this century the manufacturing of optical components and systems has changed dramatically throughout the world, both in the types of products that are made and in the approach that is taken to making them. Once devoted entirely to passive image-forming components such as lenses and mirrors and to the instruments made from them, the industry now also manufactures a wide range of active elements such as lasers and optical sensors.

Until recently, the industry depended heavily on a craftsman-style approach to manufacturing, with much of the work being carried out on an order-by-order basis by very small businesses. As new mass consumer markets have emerged that rely on optical technology—such as compact disk CD players and laptop computer displays—the implementation of high-volume mass-manufacturing techniques similar to those of the electronics industry has revolutionized this segment of the optics industry.

To take just one example of this new manufacturing technology, more than million diode lasers are now produced each year, on highly automated production lines. The availability of these inexpensive diode lasers has revolutionized entertainment in CD players , made high-quality printing affordable for small businesses and home users in laser printers , and made possible numerous other new products that together account for hundreds of billions of dollars in global business revenue each year.

These changes in manufacturing are exciting, but they are reflected most prominently in the globalization of the optics industry, rather than in the domestic development of U. Indeed, almost all mass. There are only a handful of large U. This U. The main strength of the U. This strategy has produced a strong industry based on the diverse activities of many small companies but lacking the manufacturing base required for expansion into mass consumer markets. There are several thousand small optics and optics-related companies in the United States, with an average of 50 or 60 employees each.

A key finding of this report is that despite the optics industry's significant contribution to the U. The enabling character of optics, a repeated theme of this report, is an especially important consideration for the manufacture of optical components.

The value of a component such as a laser diode or an aspheric lens is usually small compared with the value of the optical system that it enables. It is even smaller compared with the value of the resulting high-level application.

Advances in the manufacturing of optical components are greatly magnified into improved capabilities and economic advantages at the systems and applications level.

Advanced optical components cannot be considered commodity items. This chapter addresses two distinct challenges. First, how can we maintain and strengthen the U. Second, how can we ensure the U. Following a brief history of optics manufacturing in the United States and a short overview of the current state of the industry, the chapter divides into two main parts: 1 low-volume manufacturing of high-performance specialty products. These numbers are based on a sample of the companies listed in the annual Photonics Directory.

The chapter ends with a discussion of some crosscutting issues, such as metrology and design, and the industry's composition, size, and growth. Before about , the U. Virtually all such products were imported from Europe. World War I stimulated demands for a domestic capability, and the need to provide components for these instruments was the basis for the U. The s and s supported several medium-to-large optical companies, such as Bausch and Lomb, American Optical, and Eastman Kodak—high-volume producers of both traditional and new optical instruments.

A well-organized photographic industry provided almost all the cameras demanded by U. Most microscopes, binoculars, telescopes, and optical inspection equipment were also manufactured domestically. The needs of the military during World War II placed significant demands on the industry's capabilities, and when military contracts ceased abruptly at the end of the war, most optics companies fell on hard times.

Demand for cameras and other optical instruments for consumer and civilian uses grew, but Japanese and European competitors could satisfy this demand more cheaply than most U. The remaining domestic camera and instrument manufacturers cut costs by turning to component suppliers in the Pacific Rim, first in Japan and more recently in China and Malaysia.

From the s through the s, the industry became increasingly divided, with overseas suppliers dominant in the high-volume markets and U. Small companies came to dominate the U. In , the invention of the laser spawned an entirely new segment of optics manufacturing, a segment that has grown astonishingly. Technologies developed to take advantage of the laser's capabilities have led to additional major markets for optical fibers, optical communications systems, optical sensors, and a broad range of other new applications.

Mass U. The nature of the optics industry continues to change. Mass production techniques are used to manufacture components for an increasing. Among the products manufactured in this way are optical fiber for telecommunications and flat-panel displays for computers. Most of this type of manufacturing currently takes place overseas, not in the United States. At the same time, demand remains strong for high-performance specialty products that are manufactured in small numbers.

There are three main markets for these items: 1 the military, 2 other high-technology scientific and government programs, and 3 specialized industrial applications. Many high-performance military optical systems have very specialized capabilities but low production volumes.

Some federal facilities for civilian research and development have similarly specialized needs. A key private-sector market for high-precision optical systems is the electronics industry, in which a relatively small market for photolithography systems enables the huge semiconductor business.

The United States excels in this high-value, low-volume portion of the optics industry. Most of the industry that serves the low-volume, high-accuracy component market remains dependent on very traditional fabrication methods, although it is increasingly facilitated by high-quality interferometric test equipment.

This sector of the industry, made up mostly of small companies, faces increasing competition and must adapt to the new global marketplace. To maintain market share as overseas competitors improve their accuracy, domestic manufacturers will have to develop and use more deterministic fabrication methods that achieve the same results at lower cost with fewer high-skill workers. For each of these types of manufacturer, an important element in the future growth of the industry is the growing integration of passive image-forming components with active sensors and light processors.

The acceleration of this trend will mean a corresponding integration of the traditional optical component industry with the developers and suppliers of electrooptical materials and devices. The challenges of the future will require new, faster, more flexible approaches to optical component fabrication, with less reliance on skill-intensive, iterative production methods.

Some programs have already been established to promote this goal. For example, the Center for Optical Manufacturing has developed a series of computer-controlled generating machines that use diamond tools to produce accurate surfaces on glass elements. Similar approaches are being implemented overseas. It is not clear, however, that such methods will be enough to revitalize U.

Collaborative programs in optics manufacturing should include universities so that students are trained in the latest technical solutions to production problems. A critically important asset of the U. The development of sophisticated lens design programs, with good interaction with the designer, is remarkable. Programs that will run on a high-level personal computer now give any optical engineer access to modern design tools, and this easy availability has stimulated a widespread interest in optical design.

There is as yet little integration of active components into the design process, however, and comprehensive software for physical optical design is still at a relatively rudimentary stage. Manufacturing of optical components and systems requires a large skilled and semiskilled workforce, and emerging new mass markets will increase the optics industry's need for trained workers.

The quality and availability of optics training at the technician level is a widespread concern. A key challenge for the future is the establishment of standards for the interchangeability of optical components, which is an important driver for cost-effective manufacturing. There continues to be strong demand for high-performance specialty products that are manufactured in small numbers.

For many of these products, the customer is the government, especially DOD, but certain high-value items are also vitally important in the commercial sector. Specialized high-value applications, such as lenses for photolithography, continue to be an area in which the U. As described in Chapter 4 , military optical systems tend to have high-performance and specialized requirements but low production volumes Joint Precision Optics Technical Group, For example,. Ring laser gyroscopes require low-scatter surfaces and very high-precision optical components.

High-performance aircraft and missiles require unusual aspheric components, conformal to the shape of the airflow. Affordability is becoming increasingly important to the Department of Defense, but despite its wish to use commercial products off the shelf where possible, DOD supports design and manufacturing development for a number of specialized optical technologies.

The volume of demand for such items, even including the commercial applications, is often too small to ensure the necessary development of fabrication techniques by industry alone. DOD should continue to maintain technology assets and critical skills in optics manufacturing in order to meet future needs. Some government projects require so many specialized optical components that they have a significant impact on the entire optics industry, despite the low volume for each of their individual components.

These two DOE programs will consume thousands of medium-to-large optical components with high-precision surfaces and coatings resistant to high-power lasers. The overall size of these programs allows the private sector to plan some investments in improved machinery and processes. Photolithography for manufacturing electronics is a key private-sector use of high-precision optical systems. The production of short-wavelength photolithography systems of ever-higher quality is essential for continued growth of the semiconductor industry.

The Moore's law trend of increasing semiconductor miniaturization will drive photolithography through deep ultraviolet UV wavelengths and into the soft x-ray region by the turn of the century. At present, most imaging tools are produced overseas, but there are opportunities for U. Specialized applications such as these incorporate a wide variety of traditional and modern optical technologies, each with its own manufacturing issues. The curved surfaces of a lens cause rays of light from a point on a distant object to come to a focus.

A single lens with spherical surfaces, although quite economical to manufacture, forms an image that is not a perfect point see Figure 6. Optical design has traditionally been a search for combinations of spherical-surfaced components, made of. To reduce this effect, a typical photographic or video lens right consists of many elements. In general, the wider the field of view or the more extended the spectral range required, the more elements will be needed.

The traditional approach to making spherical surfaces has been surface lapping, which can produce high-quality polished surfaces that deviate from the designer's specifications by as little as a few hundredths of a wavelength. This lapping or averaging method has been very successful in fabricating spherical and flat components, but it is by nature a time-consuming and craftsman-intensive activity.

Improvements currently being investigated are directed toward deterministic fabrication, in which the accuracy of surface production is inherent in the machine carrying out the process rather than in the time-varying lapping of surfaces. Processes that are successful in finishing unusual materials, including optically active materials, have become more important. There have been several attempts to improve and modernize the methods used for serial production.

These approaches, however, such as high-speed surfacing, molding, and automated test and assembly machines, are usually directed at reducing the cost of a specific product. The improved production capability rarely extends to other products.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Modern manufacturing is being revolutionized by the use of optics, which can both improve current manufacturing capabilities and enable new ones. Light can be used to process or probe materials remotely, even through windows isolating harsh or vacuum environments. With no surface contact, there is no contamination of the process by the probe beam and no wear of tool edges. Scanning provides action over large areas.

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By continuing to use this website, you agree to the use of cookies. Find out more here. Accept cookies. Free psychological tests 1,, taken last month. Optical engineers design and develop different industrial applications with optics. They have knowledge of light, light transmission principles, and optics in order to design engineering specs of equipment such as microscopes, lenses, telescopes, and other optical devices. Would you like to know what kind of career and professions suit you best?

Profession optical engineer

Города, который он ожидал увидеть, не. Насколько хватал глаз, вокруг не было ничего, кроме леса и ровных пространств, заросших Олвин перевел взгляд на горизонт, и там, над кромкой деревьев, простираясь справа налево исполинской дугой, замыкающей в себе мир, темнела каменная гряда, по сравнению с которой даже самые гигантские сооружения Диаспара показались бы карликами. Гряда эта лежала так далеко, что детали ее скрадывались расстоянием, но все-таки угадывалось в ее очертаниях что-то такое, что до глубины души поразило Олвина.

Наконец его глаза приноровились к пространствам этого необъятного ландшафта, и он понял, что эти каменные исполины были нерукотворны. Время поработило далеко не. Земля и по сей день была обладательницей гор, которыми она могла бы гордиться.

Олвин долго стоял в устье туннеля, постепенно привыкая к этому странному миру, в котором так неожиданно очутился.

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Земле все это было безразлично.

Олвин умолк, устремив взор в будущее, контуры которого он определил, но которого ему, возможно, и не суждено увидеть. Пока Человек перестраивает свой мир, этот корабль будет пересекать пропасти тьмы между галактиками и возвратится лишь через многие тысячи лет. Может быть, он, Олвин, еще будет здесь, чтобы встретить его, но даже если нет, он все равно был вполне удовлетворен своим решением. -- Мне представляется, что ты рассудил мудро, -- отозвался Джизирак. И тут же, в последний раз, отголосок былого страха вспыхнул в его душе, чтобы помучить его: -- Но, предположим, что корабль войдет в контакт с чем-то таким, встречи с чем мы бы не хотели.

-- Голос его упал, поскольку он осознал источник своей тревоги, и он улыбнулся кривой улыбкой, в которой был упрек самому себе и которая тотчас же прогнала последний призрак Пришельцев. Олвин, однако, отнесся к делу куда серьезнее, чем того ожидал Джизирак. -- Ты забываешь, что скоро у нас помощником будет Вэйнамонд,-- сказал.

-- Мы еще не знаем, какими возможностями он располагает, но в Лизе все, похоже, думают, что возможности эти потенциально безграничны. Разве не так, Хилвар ответил не .

И Джизирак и прокторы остались на своих местах. Интересно, подумалось Олвину, получили ли они приказание оставаться наверху или же решили, что им и отсюда все будет отлично видно и поэтому нет никаких причин к тому, чтобы утомлять себя долгим спуском.

Или, возможно, они до такой степени приблизились к святая святых Диаспара, что просто не могли найти в себе решимости двинуться .

Ну что ж, полагаю, это честное сопоставление. Тебе надо будет расспросить об этом у кого-нибудь из наших специалистов по теории поля. Я, конечно, не смогу тебе ответить.

Олвин понял, что это -- урок. Странный инстинкт, известный под именем интуиции, способный приводить к цели напрямик, срезая углы, тотчас сказал ему об. Он уставился на Золотистую крошку, лежащую у его ног пытаясь как-то связать ее с проблемой, занимающей его сознание. Найти ответ было несложно, коль скоро ему стало очевидно, что ответ такой существует.

-- Да, я понимаю, что именно вы стараетесь мне втолковать,-- сказал он Хедрону. -- Это значит, что в Диаспаре есть объекты, которые не зафиксированы в ячейках памяти. Вот поэтому-то я и не мог найти их с помощью мониторов там, в Зале Совета.

Пойди я туда и нацелься на этот дворик, мне бы и следа не углядеть этой вот стенки, на которой мы сейчас сидим.

product, as in the semiconductor industry's use of optical inspection tools to processes in real-time or the use of lasers for alignment and control in the construction industry. that represent large markets for optical systems and devices. The first use of rapid prototyping in commercial, industrial equipment was based on.

В биологической анархии на планете было нечто недоброе, враждебное тому порядку и правильности, на которых основывались Лис и Диаспар. Здесь миллиард лет бушевала беспрерывная битва; стоило опасаться тех, кто выжил в. Они осторожно опустились над огромной плоской и удивительно гладкой равниной, которая была окаймлена возвышенностью, полностью покрытой деревьями. О высоте последних можно было только гадать - они стояли столь плотно и были так опутаны прочей растительностью, что стволы их были почти совершенно скрыты.

Между верхними ветвями летало множество крылатых существ, носившихся так стремительно, что невозможно было решить - птицы это, насекомые, - или что-то Какой-нибудь древесный гигант на том или ином участке леса ухитрялся перерасти своих конкурентов на несколько десятков метров; те тут же заключали временный союз, чтобы свалить его и уничтожить завоеванное им преимущество. Несмотря на безмолвие этой войны, идущей слишком медленно и незаметно для глаз, впечатление от беспощадной, неутолимой вражды было Равнина же выглядела сравнительно мирно и спокойно.

На миг Элвин увидел человечество как нечто большее, чем живой фон собственной жизни, и без колебаний согласился принять несчастья, которые неизбежно влек за собой сделанный им выбор. Мир под ними продолжал свое бесконечное вращение.

Чувствуя настроение друга, Хилвар молчал до тех пор, пока Элвин сам не нарушил тишину. - Когда я впервые покинул Диаспар, - сказал он, - я не знал, что именно надеюсь обнаружить. Лис тогда удовлетворил бы меня - даже более чем удовлетворил - а сейчас все на Земле кажется мне маленьким и незначительным.

С индексными номерами можно было вести себя достаточно свободно; фактический же адрес открывали лишь самым близким Возвращаясь в город, Элвин раздумывал над всем услышанным от Хедрона о Диаспаре и его социальном устройстве. Примечательно, что он никогда не встречал недовольных своим образом жизни.

Иногда, если собеседник не знал, в каком виде вы с ним разговариваете, это могло поставить его в чрезвычайно невыгодное положение. Вполне возможно, что все это время Хедрон преспокойно сидел дома -- где бы он ни был, его дом, Номер, который он дал Олвину, мог обеспечить поступление к нему любой информации, но отнюдь не раскрывал адреса.

Впрочем, это-то, по крайней мере, было в рамках принятых норм.

Сам-то он уже не отвергал силу внушения и верно оценивал мотивы, которые могут заставить человека действовать в защиту логики. И он не мог не сравнить холодное мужество Джизирака с паническим бегством в будущее Хедрона, хотя теперь, когда он стал лучше понимать человеческую натуру, он уже больше не решался осуждать Шута за его поступок.

Он не сомневался в том, что Джирейну удастся задуманное. Быть может, Джизирак и окажется слишком уж стар, чтобы переломить пожизненную привычку -- как бы ему ни хотелось начать все сначала.

Мастер останавливался на многих мирах и навербовал себе паству среди представителей множества рас. Надо полагать, он был весьма сильной личностью, если мог с одинаковым успехом воспламенять своими проповедями гуманоидов и негуманоидов, и, видимо, учение, находившее столь широкий отклик, содержало в себе еще и что-то такое, что представлялось людям благородным и чистым. Быть может, этот самый Мастер оказался самым удачливым -- как и самым последним -- из всех мессий, которых когда-либо знало человечество.

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