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- The Wonderful World of Vegetable Oils: Varieties, Flavor, and Uses for the Home Cook
- Emulsions: making oil and water mix
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Food Applications
- Pure Vegetable Oil
- Palm oil: why it’s bad for the environment and how to avoid palm oil products
- The 4 Healthiest Substitutes for Vegetable Oil
- Vegetable Oil
- Vegetable oil
The Wonderful World of Vegetable Oils: Varieties, Flavor, and Uses for the Home CookVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Air Fryer Recipes You'll Be Addicted To (Vegan Classics)
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion.
However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar. For centuries, cooks have added natural emulsifiers, such as egg yolk, mustard, or honey, to help prevent this separation. Today, a wide variety of nature-based and synthetic emulsifiers are available for the diverse fields that benefit from them, including food, nutraceuticals, home and personal care, biofuel, environmental cleanup, and industrial lubricant applications.
Emulsifiers work by forming physical barriers that keep droplets from coalescing. A type of surfactant see Sidebar , emulsifiers contain both a hydrophilic water-loving, or polar head group and a hydrophobic oil-loving, or nonpolar tail. Therefore, emulsifiers are attracted to both polar and nonpolar compounds. In this way, emulsifiers lower the interfacial tension between the oil and water phases, stabilizing the droplets and preventing them from coalescing. Emulsifiers can be cationic positively charged polar head group , anionic negatively charged head group , or non-ionic uncharged head group.
Non-ionic emulsifiers tend to have large, bulky head groups that point away from the oil droplet. These polar head groups clash and tangle with head groups on other water droplets, sterically hindering the droplets from coming together. The type of emulsifier used depends on the application, with cationic emulsifiers typically used in low-to-neutral pH solutions and anionic emulsifiers in alkaline solutions.
Non-ionic emulsifiers can be used alone or in combination with charged emulsifiers to increase emulsion stability. How do product formulators choose which emulsifier to use for a particular emulsion? Calculating the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance HLB of an emulsifier or combination of emulsifiers can help. In an ideal emulsion, the emulsifier is equally attracted to the water phase and the oil phase. If the balance is tipped in either direction, the emulsifier may lose contact with the phase to which it is less attracted, causing the emulsion to break down.
Different emulsifiers have different HLB values, which can predict their ability to stabilize various kinds of emulsions Fig. The HLB scale ranges from 0 to 20, with 10 corresponding to an emulsifier that is equally attracted to water and oil. Furthermore, different oils have different HLB requirements. For example, vegetable oil emulsions need an emulsifier with an HLB of 7—8, whereas the required HLB value to form a stable castor oil emulsion is By matching the HLB value of the emulsifier with that of the oil, formulators can greatly increase their chances of producing a stable emulsion.
When you combine them, the average comes out around The HLB system, which works primarily for non-ionic emulsifiers, has been around since In the s, the hydrophilic-lipophilic difference HLD system was introduced. The HLD system works for ionic as well as non-ionic surfactants, and it is better able to take into account detailed characteristics of a particular emulsion such as salinity, oil type, surfactant concentration, and temperature.
For example, a very hydrophilic emulsifier, sodium laurel sulfate, has a Cc of —2. The Cc for combinations of emulsifiers is the weighted average for each emulsifier. The HLD scale centers on 0, which corresponds to the optimal emulsion.
Online calculators exist to optimize the HLD for a particular emulsion e. Increasingly, formulators are interested in making microemulsions, which offer greater stability than conventional macroemulsions. As the name suggests, microemulsions have smaller droplet sizes than regular emulsions, making them appear transparent rather than opaque. Unlike macroemulsions, microemulsions are thermodynamically stable. In contrast, a macroemulsion requires an energy input to reappear.
Microemulsions are made differently from macroemulsions. Macroemulsions require high-intensity mixing. Because microemulsions are a thermodynamically stable end point that a system naturally migrates toward, they generally do not require vigorous mixing.
However, formulators often use gentle agitation to evenly spread the components and speed up the process of microemulsion formation. Compared to macroemulsions, microemulsions require more surfactant. Because of their remarkable stability, microemulsions are finding applications in diverse fields such as personal care products, oil field chemicals, and medicine. Many popular food items are emulsions, including mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces such as Hollandaise, chocolate, and ice cream.
Worldwide, most commercial lecithin comes from soybean oil. Egg yolk, the traditional emulsifier for mayonnaise and sauces, also contains lecithin. Other common emulsifiers in foods are proteins, fatty acid esters, sodium stearoyl lactylate, and mono- and diglycerides.
These differences may arise from seemingly subtle variations in plant conditions. This emulsifier can substitute for soy lecithin, which has recently come under fire, particularly in Europe, because most soy crops grown for export especially the United States, Brazil, and Argentina are genetically modified. Non-genetically modified soy is expensive and in short supply.
Therefore, CITREM may prove an attractive alternative for confectioners who want to avoid ingredients made from genetically modified soy. Sustainable sourcing of palm oil has also become a customer concern, as reports have surfaced that the development of palm oil plantations harms the environment and threatens endangered wildlife in Malaysia and Indonesia, where most palm oil originates. As a result, DuPont introduced a portfolio of emulsifiers based on sustainably sourced palm and non-palm oils.
Reduced-fat emulsions are another hot topic for the food industry. When fat is removed from a food to make a reduced-fat or fat-free version, the taste, appearance, and texture often suffer. Julian McClements, professor of physico-chemistry at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA, says that there are several ways that emulsions or emulsifiers could help reduce the fat content of foods.
Another approach, called heteroaggregation, is to mix oil droplets coated with emulsifiers of opposite charge. Researchers are exploring emulsions as delivery vehicles for vitamins, supplements, and other nutraceuticals. Eventually, he would like to incorporate nutraceuticals such as these into functional foods.
Different types of emulsions could have different applications. Multilayer emulsions consist of oil droplets coated with an emulsifier plus one or more biopolymer layers, dispersed in an aqueous solution. The emulsifier is typically electrically charged, and the polymer layer s have opposite charges that attract them to the surface of the oil droplet. According to McClements, multilayer emulsions tend to have better physical stability than single-layer emulsions through fluctuations in pH, ionic strength, temperature, freezing and thawing, and dehydration.
In addition, researchers can design multilayer emulsions to control their breakdown in the gastrointestinal tract.
Most personal care products, including lotions, creams, shampoos, and conditioners, are emulsions. Common emulsifiers for personal care products include ethoxylated alcohols, carboxylates, sodium isethionate, glycerol monostearate, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, and silicone emulsifiers such as dimethicones. Synthetic emulsifiers such as ethoxylated alcohols and their naturally derived counterparts have identical structures, performance, and biodegradation.
Juan Mateu, technical director at JEEN International in Fairfield, New Jersey, USA, says that there has been a move away from synthetic ethoxylated alcohols in recent years due to worries about residual 1,4-dioxane, a suspected carcinogen that is a by-product in their manufacture.
Naturally derived glucosides have been suggested as replacements for some applications. Prior to Jeesperse, manufacturers had to heat emulsifiers in the oil phase to melt them, and then add the melted emulsifier to the aqueous phase and cool the emulsion at a controlled rate down to room temperature. In contrast, Jeesperse allows the emulsion to be made in a single kettle at room temperature, resulting in significant savings of money and time. The secret ingredients in Jeesperse products are polyelectrolytes, such as sodium polyacrylate.
The polyelectrolytes are polar molecules that can induce polarity in nonpolar waxes, enabling them to dissolve in cold water a polar solvent. Mateu says that in the lab, he can make an emulsion with the cold process in about 20 minutes, as opposed to several hours of mixing, heating, and cooling with the conventional process. A short video demonstrating the cold-process formulation of a lotion with a Jeesperse emulsifier. Many household cleaners and laundry detergents contain surfactants that emulsify oily dirt particles so that they can be diluted and washed away.
Ethoxylated alcohols are a common ingredient of laundry detergents. Many detergents contain a blend of nonionic and anionic emulsifiers to lift stains out of textiles. According to Sabatini, removing triglycerides such as fats, bacon grease, and vegetable oils from fabrics is particularly challenging.
His lab has shown that extended surfactants, which are surfactants with intermediate polarity groups e. Emulsifiers allow metalworkers to make use of both the lubricating properties of oils and the cooling capabilities of water. Anionic and nonionic emulsifiers are often used together in metalworking fluids. Cationic emulsifiers are rarely used because they are unstable in the alkaline solutions pH 8—9. Emulsions and microemulsions have been applied to environmental technologies such as subsurface remediation and biofuel production.
For example, when oil or gas is spilled, the oil becomes trapped in pores in the soil and rock. In , Sabatini and several colleagues founded a company called Surbec Environmental, LLC, to implement this technology. Since then, Surbec has assisted with the environmental cleanup of multiple sites in the United States and abroad. Examples include a gas station with a leaky underground tank and a military site contaminated with jet fuel. Sabatini has also applied his emulsions research to the more efficient production of biofuel.
Biodiesel is a vegetable oil, such as soybean oil, that has been chemically modified through a transesterification reaction to reduce its viscosity. As it turns out, microemulsification of vegetable oils can reduce viscosity without the need for the transesterification reaction. This would save time and allow more of the raw material to be used as fuel.
However, Sabatini notes that the research is still in its early stages. Although humans have been making emulsions for hundreds, if not thousands, of years, we are only now beginning to appreciate their diverse applications in many fields. Complex emulsions, such as microemulsions and multilayer emulsions, promise to further expand the repertoire of applications, particularly in emerging areas such as functional foods and biodiesel production. Now if only we could find an emulsifier for that difficult coworker.
She has a Ph. The terms surfactant, emulsifier, and detergent are often used interchangeably, but there are distinctions. Surfactant is the broadest term: Both emulsifiers and detergents are surfactants. Surfactants, or surface-active agents , are compounds that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid.
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Emulsions: making oil and water mix
Frequently Asked Questions
Do you have questions about a product or recipe? We're here to help. Butter contains 7g saturated fat per tbsp. While all our delicious products are made with oils from plants, they differ in terms of dairy and usage:.
Reported by Ms. Recently, two Taiwanese companies were found to be selling various edible oils such as olive oil, peanut oil and sesame oil adulterated with the cheaper cottonseed oil. Media reported that cottonseed oil can be risky to health since cottonseeds contain a toxic substance called gossypol that can cause infertility. This article discusses cottonseed oil and its safety. Cottonseed oil is extracted from cottonseeds which are by-products of cotton fibre production. Cottonseeds are rich in oil and proteins and are therefore used for cottonseed oil production and as a feed supplement for cattle and sheep. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, cottonseed oil is a type of vegetable oil used mainly as food. Cottonseed oil can be used to make salad oil mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces and marinades , cooking oil for frying in both commercial and home cooking, and margarine or shortening for baked goods and cake icings. Besides, limited quantities may be used for producing industrial products such as soaps and cosmetics. Although cottonseed oil is not commonly sold as cooking oil in retail stores in Hong Kong, it is present in some foods such as bakery products and fried snacks.
Salad and cooking oils, salad dressings, mayonnaise, deep frying oils, margarines and spreads, chocolate fats, ice cream fats, bakery fats, confectionery filling and coating fats, vegetable fats for dairy products and fats for infant nutrition are some of the widely available products that are based entirely on fats and oils or contain fat or oil as a principal ingredient. Many of these products also are sold in commercial quantities to food processors, snack food manufacturers, bakeries and restaurants. Salad and cooking oils are prepared from vegetable oils that are refined, bleached, deodorized, and sometimes de-waxed or lightly hydrogenated and winterised.
Pioneer in weight filling for liquid food on rotary machines since glass, metal, rigid plastic , Serac is a leading packaging machines manufacturer in the oil and sauces sectors. Vegetable and seed oils , liquid margarines, olive oils, ketchups and other red sauces , mayonnaises , dressings and vinegars, table sauces, soy based sauces, guacamole and other dips. For flat and oval bottles as well as complex shapes, a preferential heating solution proposed by Serac has been designed as a complementary device that can be installed or removed without any tools, in just 15 minutes. This way, manufacturers can easily produce round and more complex bottles on the same equipment. The health conscious consumer has driven manufacturers to develop new recipes, with low salt and preservative content, wich are more sensitive to pathogen growth. Particularly sensitive recipes might require specific options such as packaging dedusting or packaging decontamination. Closed loop product circuit for better efficiency of the cleaning even with viscous products. Several tank and cleaning circuit configurations are possible. Support Contact Spare parts. Our expertise.
Pure Vegetable Oil
Some contain healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, while others are made from unhealthy trans fats. Most nonorganic vegetables oils are processed with chemical solvents. Not all oil substitutes are appropriate for all types of cooking and recipes. Some oils have stronger flavors than others, which may alter the taste of your food. Although many oils offer health benefits, keep in mind most options are also high in fat and calories. Olive oil is one of the healthiest oils you can buy. Olive oil contains mostly healthy monounsaturated fats, which may help lower your risk of heart disease. They may also help regulate blood sugar.
Palm oil: why it’s bad for the environment and how to avoid palm oil products
Because at Diana Food we listen to consumers, we develop natural and clean label products, through an innovative solution that renders the original taste of natural vegetables. We offer then a complete culinary experience, combining authenticity, freshness and intensity. They want to make responsible choices without compromising on taste or appearance. At Diana Food, we address these consumer demands with an industry-leading collection of high impact chicken-based products. Our wide palette of clean label chicken broths, chicken powders, purified chicken fat products and chicken pieces feature an intense profile and consistent taste impact. They are suited to almost any application, from soups, broths, sauces, seasonings, marinades and gravies to processed meats and prepared meals.
The 4 Healthiest Substitutes for Vegetable Oil
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature.
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The products manufactured by AGD are sold in Argentina and worldwide with its own brands and third-party brands. AGD brand products have captured an increasing share of the domestic market. With the purpose of offering both diversity and quality to consumers, AGD produces natural food items that improve human living conditions.
Cooking oils are a basic staple in our kitchens. We use them for searing, roasting, marinating , baking, deep frying , and seasoning, as well as making sauces , dips and dressings. Along with a high level of unsaturated fats, they contain additional substances that are important for our health.