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- About Food Science and Technology
- Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
- Process Technology Food, Feed & Fine Chemicals
- Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources
- Solutions for sustainable animal feed production
- Food Manufacturing Industry
- About Food Science and Technology
About Food Science and TechnologyVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Israel Avocado Harvesting and Processing
Domestic animals continue to make important contributions to global food supply and, as a result, animal feeds have become an increasingly critical component of the integrated food chain. Livestock products account for about 30 percent of the global value of agriculture and 19 percent of the value of food production, and provide 34 percent of protein and 16 percent of the energy consumed in human diets. Meeting consumer demand for more meat, milk, eggs and other livestock products is dependent to a major extent on the availability of regular supplies of appropriate, cost-effective and safe animal feeds.
Few issues have generated as much public concern in recent times, however, as the protein supply in feeds for livestock production. Not only is the demand for livestock products increasing markedly due to population growth, particularly in the developing world, but feed suppliers also have to cope with increasing safety concerns, epitomized by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE or mad cow disease crisis, associated with the feeding of meat and bone meal MBM.
There is also anxiety about the use of genetically modified crops such as soybean and maize and concern about incidents involving chemical contamination e. The considerable and increasing demand for animal protein is focusing attention on the sources of feed protein and their suitability, quality and safety for future supply. Consumers in the market are increasingly demanding assurances about food safety and production methods throughout the integrated food chain. The consultation and following workshop were attended by 70 participants from 26 countries, representing developed, developing and transition countries.
This Executive Summary highlights some of the key issues raised. These are developed in greater detail in the following papers from contributors, and pose some important questions that still need to be addressed.
In addition, global drivers for change in certain livestock sectors such as poultry include increasing consumer health concerns, the continuing growth of fast food chains and increasing consumption of convenience and processed foods.
Further justification, if required, for the FAO meeting is emphasized in some of the following statements from different presenters which highlight pressures on the animal feed industry. Global demand for meat products will increase by 58 percent between and Consumption of meat will rise from million t in to a possible million t by ; milk consumption will increase from to million t by , and there will be an estimated 30 percent increase in egg production.
Consumption of meat grew three times faster in developing countries than in the developed world between the s and s, much of this is being explained by consumption in Asia.
Between and , about Meat demand in the developing world will double by Between the mids and , meat consumption in the developing world rose from 11 kg to 23 kg per person. Two major contributors to this demand were China and Brazil. With China and Brazil excluded, the increase per person was from 11 kg to 15 kg per caput. Global demand for poultry meat will increase by up to 85 percent, beef by 80 percent and pig meat by 45 percent by from The growth of meat and milk consumption in the developing world is predicted to be 2.
Much of the predicted increase in consumption in the developing world will be of poultry and pig meat, as well as milk. The world meat economy has been driven both by the pig sector in China and rapid growth in the global poultry industry. During the last 30 years, the poultry share of total meat consumed has increased from 13 to 28 percent, with the USA, Brazil and Thailand being major contributors to production.
Future increases in this sector are also likely to be boosted by considerable annual increases in both egg and broiler production in India. Consumption in the developing world is determined by purchasing power, and greater consumption of meat and milk will be stimulated by economic growth and more disposable income in the growing, more prosperous middle class.
Dependency on and the need for external supplies of formulated feed will be influenced by various factors including the nature of the livestock enterprise, local feed alternatives, land and labour availability, the farming system and economics. Landless systems are exploited particularly for monogastrics, and are most common in developed countries. Such systems are also utilized on occasion for ruminants in both developed countries e. West Asia. Intensive, landless, enterprises might have a high degree of dependency on imported feed, requiring continuous supply of large quantities of known consistent quality.
Local supplies of home-produced protein, in particular, are often less able to provide such a reliable supply of quality feed. Few detailed comparative studies are undertaken, however, between local and purchased external nutrient sources.
There is an increasing trend with large pig and poultry producers to produce and utilize their own feedstuffs in vertically integrated systems. The tendency in Western Europe, due to environmental pressures and animal welfare concerns, is to move away from very intensive production and there are often price premiums for livestock products from more extensive systems.
Concerns about pollution from intensive units are focused particularly on water contamination from nitrogen and phosphorus. Gilbert estimates that about million t of animal feed is produced globally every year, including million t of compound feed.
More than 80 percent of this feed is produced by feed mills, and 60 percent of the world total is from 10 countries. Feed for poultry is the greatest tonnage, followed by pig and cattle feeds. Although feed production for aquaculture is relatively low at 14 million t currently, there is an increasing demand for feed for farmed fish and crustaceans.
International trade of raw materials is the key to the global feed industry. Such feeds are formulated and milled locally. The availability of imported protein materials is often essential for local feed manufacture. Historically, the feed industry has also exploited price-supported inexpensive grain that is traded on the global market.
Considerable efforts are being made to utilize more diverse local sources of feed ingredients, in particular protein materials, in many developing countries e. In some other countries e. Thailand , for poultry enterprises, there is a heavy and increasing reliance on soybean meal and fishmeal.. Increasing concerns are being expressed in some developing countries about the costs of imported soybeans for animal feed formulation.
Greater utilization of indigenous feed materials is being encouraged for resource-poor smallholder farmers for increasing ruminant production. For example, Wanapat reports considerable potential for cassava-based products in Thailand. The value of gaining and then applying a much better understanding of protein nutrition for appropriate protein feed formulation for livestock was emphasized by Miller. The importance of an appropriate available energy supply in a balanced diet for efficient protein use by livestock was stressed, a high energy to protein ratio being needed to optimize the use of the protein.
Different protein requirements for different species and the effects of age and growth stage of animals were noted. Examples included the greater need for protein in fish diets compared to feed for mammals, and the declining requirement for protein with age. The significance of amino acid balance in feeds, of new amino acid synthesis and protein compensation in diets was explained. The significance of protein influences on the immune system, as antigenic factors and anti-nutrition agents, was also stressed, in addition to animal nutrition effects.
The amino acid strengths and weaknesses of different protein feed ingredients was described, such as the lysine limitation in maize, and methionine and cysteine limitations in soybean. These are key issues for appropriate protein use and feed formulation. However, amino acid composition revealed by chemical analysis may not correctly identify the availability of these amino acids at tissue level in the animal. The significance of microbial protein and its digestion in the small intestine of ruminants was stressed as a balanced and good nutritional supply of amino acids.
A large part of the absorbed amino acids are derived from microbial activity in the rumen in ruminants. This supply may be limited, however, by the associated supply of fermented energy. The quantity of protein in a diet may substitute on occasion for protein quality, where perhaps only poorer quality, cheaper feed e. Protein use in such diets, however, is often more inefficient and can lead to excessive nitrogen excretion.
Sources of protein for animal feeds are many and varied, with considerable opportunities for further diversification and substitutions. More research is required on alternative sources before many of the opportunities can be exploited in practice.
Soybean remains the most important and preferred source of high quality vegetable protein for animal feed manufacture. Soybean meal, which is the by-product of oil extraction, has a high crude protein content of 44 to 50 percent and a balanced amino acid composition, complementary to maize meal for feed formulation.
A high level of inclusion percent is used in high performance monogastric diets. A measure of success of this crop is the increase in production of 50 to 60 percent between and , with most grown in the United States, Brazil and Argentina. Over half of the crop is now, however, genetically modified GM mainly for herbicide tolerance.
The potential of soybeans for further nutritional quality enhancement was emphasized by Hard and there are prospects for considerable feed benefits, assuming acceptance of GM sources in the marketplace. Currently, Argentina and Brazil are reported to export 60 percent of their production and the USA about 16 percent. The market for non-GM soya seems to be growing and may be increasingly important in the future. Comments by Hard and others emphasized the potential of soybeans for continuing improvement and possibly wider adaptation to different growing conditions.
Chadd and colleagues mentioned the potential of forage soybeans in a European context, in locations where grain soybeans cannot at present be economically produced. Further development and exploitation of soybean genetics may prove the most appropriate strategy in some regions, rather than developing other alternative plant protein sources. In the European Union soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed and the ban on meat and bone meal has resulted in further imports, reportedly of up to 1.
There are many different potential oil crops in addition to soybean, each with strengths and weaknesses for protein meal supply. Local adaptation to growing conditions and local availability provide distinct advantages for feed production in many developing countries. A continuous supply of protein meal of known quality can be made available, as is the case with palm kernel cake, the by-product of oil palm production e.
According to Speedy, prospects continue to be good for future oil meal crop production. Global projections show increasing demands for vegetable oils of 2. Predictions of future land use suggest that the area of oil crops will increase substantially in some developing countries. Oil palm, sunflower and oilseed rape, in addition to soybeans, will dominate and provide much of the future increase.
Currently, the major net exporters in the developing world are Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brazil and Argentina, but more oil and protein meal may be retained in future years for their own domestic use. Oilseed rape is grown extensively in temperate regions e. Although glucosinolates are present and the lysine content is lower than in soybean, it provides a much higher proportion of sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Glucosinolates can be removed by breeding and GM types of oilseed rape have been developed.
The crop is considered to have a lot of future potential, both for increasing oil content and modifying protein composition. Chadd and colleagues also recommend more studies on the less well known and little grown oil crops such as niger and jojoba, which reportedly have a high crude protein in the extracted cake.
To what extent such crops as oil palm, coconut, sunflower, sesame, crambe or cotton seed can be utilized for meal inclusion in animal feeds depends to a large extent on what price the processor is able to obtain for the extracted oil. With the exception of soybean, the demand for these particular meals is markedly influenced by their vegetable oil price.
This is important for the profitability of intensive livestock enterprises such as poultry production, working on low margins. Protein-rich meal inclusion from oilseed crops currently remains the key; however, to high quality feed supply for intensive enterprise performance. Legumes are a traditional source of plant proteins for animal feed and their production can provide a range of benefits both on farms and for feed manufacturers.
The exploitation of soybean is a classic example of successful development and use.
Domestic animals continue to make important contributions to global food supply and, as a result, animal feeds have become an increasingly critical component of the integrated food chain. Livestock products account for about 30 percent of the global value of agriculture and 19 percent of the value of food production, and provide 34 percent of protein and 16 percent of the energy consumed in human diets. Meeting consumer demand for more meat, milk, eggs and other livestock products is dependent to a major extent on the availability of regular supplies of appropriate, cost-effective and safe animal feeds. Few issues have generated as much public concern in recent times, however, as the protein supply in feeds for livestock production. Not only is the demand for livestock products increasing markedly due to population growth, particularly in the developing world, but feed suppliers also have to cope with increasing safety concerns, epitomized by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE or mad cow disease crisis, associated with the feeding of meat and bone meal MBM. There is also anxiety about the use of genetically modified crops such as soybean and maize and concern about incidents involving chemical contamination e.
Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
Careers in the Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources cluster involve improving the quality and safety of food, cultivating and preserving our natural resources, and caring for animals. Agribusiness is the coordination of all activities that contribute to the production, processing, marketing, distribution, financing and development of agricultural commodities and resources. This includes food, fiber, wood products, natural resources, horticulture, and other plant and animal products and services. Agribusiness is a high-tech industry that uses satellite systems, computer databases and spreadsheets, biotechnology and many other innovations to increase efficiency and profitability. People who work in the Animal Systems pathway work to develop better, more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. They study genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth and development of domesticated farm animals. Some individuals inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock or work in technical sales or marketing.
Without water, many companies and the products they provide would fail to exist. Water use is a fundamental commodity for nearly every step of the manufacturing and production processes around the world. Whether it's deionised water for electronics and pharmaceutical sectors, or softened water for boiler feed applications, water is necessary and comes embedded in the footprint of virtually item created on the planet. Yet, at the same time, many global companies have manufacturing facilities operating in water scarce parts of the world, with over two thirds of companies now reporting exposure to water risks. This article is designed to provide an essential guide to everything you need to know about industrial water and wastewater. Manufacturing and other industries use water during the production process for either creating their products or cooling equipment used in creating their products. According to the United States Geological Survey USGS , industrial water is used for fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product.
NCBI Bookshelf. The United States has abundant forests and croplands, favorable climates, accessible capital, and sophisticated technologies for a strong biobased industry. As agriculture productivity and silviculture productivity continue to increase, more biomass will be available to support a biobased industry. Advances in biotechnology will keep a continuous supply of new crops flowing into the marketplace. The United States has substantial resources to invest in a carbon economy based on renewable resources. Conversion of industrial production to the use of renewable resources will require abundant and inexpensive raw materials. The three potential sources of such materials are agricultural and forest crops and biological wastes e.
Process Technology Food, Feed & Fine Chemicals
We focus on powder synthesis and fluidized bed processes for developing , manufacturing, optimizing, and refining powders and bulk materials such as granulates and pellets. Our challenge is to create solutions for implementing your product ideas. As a pioneer in fluidized bed technology and spouted bed technology, we have more than sixty years experience in path-breaking process solutions. Processes may range from spray granulation of liquids, agglomeration of powders, coating for the functionalization of particles or the encapsulation of liquids to the stabilization of sensitive substances.
To help consumers make informed decisions about the food they eat, IFT has developed IFT Food Facts to provide consumers with news they can use in their daily lives. Food research is the careful, systematic study, investigation, and compilation of information about foods and their components. What is Food Manufacturing? Food manufacturing is the mass production of food products from raw animal and plant materials, using principles of food technology. Both quality assurance and quality control involve the process of ensuring that products are manufactured correctly and that ingredients and finished products are tested and meet safety and quality specifications. Food regulation is the process of determining standards for products, defining safety, and inspecting products. Regulations are set by governments. CRISPR is a defining feature of the bacterial genetic code and its immune system, functioning as a defense system that bacteria use to protect themselves against attacks from viruses. Biotechnology, and the newer methods of genetic modification—genetic engineering and recombinant r deoxyribonucleic acid DNA techniques and technologies can be very useful in pursuing important improvements in food production and the food supply and doing so much more readily and effectively than previously possible. The popularity of Bitcoin and other blockchain technologies reached new heights in Bitcoin is the most prominent in a new type of currency, called cryptocurrency, where transactions are made without an established intermediary i.
Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources
Solutions for sustainable animal feed production
The world production of ABPs derived from the meat and animal production industries is approximately 60 million tons per year. It has been estimated that more than 10 million tons of products not destined for direct human consumption, derived from healthy animals, are produced in the EU every year. A lot of ABPs are commonly used in important productive sectors, such as in the pharmaceutical, feed, wool and leather industries but, notwithstanding, new technologies have widened the possible use of ABPs and derived products. Consequently a wide range of ABPs are not utilized and are destined to disposal. Further studies are required to hone accuracy and to find and define the appropriate application for the countless substances present in the animal reproductive organs. Account Options Sign in.
Food Manufacturing Industry
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About Food Science and Technology
He has also worked as a postdoctoral research staff at the same university. He has worked in large pharmaceutical and multinational food companies in Greece for 5 years and has also got at least 14 years experience in the public sector. Since he serves as Assistant and Associate Professor in the Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese ex Kalamata , Greece specializing in issues of food technology, food processing, food quality and safety. Food Science.
To help consumers make informed decisions about the food they eat, IFT has developed IFT Food Facts to provide consumers with news they can use in their daily lives. Food research is the careful, systematic study, investigation, and compilation of information about foods and their components. What is Food Manufacturing? Food manufacturing is the mass production of food products from raw animal and plant materials, using principles of food technology.
Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock. The practice of agriculture is also known as "farming", while scientists, inventors and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture.