Natural wool is the fiber obtained from sheep and other animals. For example cashmere and the mohair of goats, Qiviut of muskoxen, angora of rabbits, and Camelid wool. Sheep wool is the most preferred because it has important physical properties distinguish it from camel hair, goat hair, and others. The wool is consists of protein with a low proportion of fat.
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- Natural Wool: Its Characteristics, Manufacturing Process, and Good Washing of Woolen Fabrics
- What is Wool Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
- The future of wool production
- Ultimate, Free Guide to Processing Wool to Make Wool Roving
- How to wash cashmere sweater during production process in knitwear factory?
- How to Wash and Prepare Fleece
- Production Process
- Industrial Revolution in Australia – impact on the wool industry
- Medieval Methods for Making Fabric From Wool
Natural Wool: Its Characteristics, Manufacturing Process, and Good Washing of Woolen FabricsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Wash Raw Wool Fleece
When you think about the Industrial Revolution steam engines, factory manufacturing and railways all spring to mind. What about the wool industry in Australia? How could sheep grazing on vast tracts of land here and the production of wool be influenced by the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
A surprising amount it would appear. Early days The famous pastoralists, John and Elizabeth Macarthur, established a colonial wool industry in Australia in the early decades of the s with rare Spanish sheep. Compared to growing crops, sheep could be grazed with little labour.
It was the ideal agricultural product that fledgling Australian colonies could export back to England by ship without it perishing. The big challenge was actually selling it in England. The production of wool in Australia was disadvantaged from the start. Transport costs were high as it was half way around the world from markets and there was no infrastructure in place to bring it from the outback stations to waiting ships. The Australian climate and landscape, so much dirtier and dustier than Europe, made our wool grubby and more difficult to sell.
Our droughts made water supply erratic and diseases were prevalent. Yet during the first half of the s an amazing thing happened. In Britain was getting most of its wool for its textile mills from Spain over 3, tons and Germany 1, tons annually with Australia only supplying 33 tons of wool. By , this had completely turned around. The Australian colonies became the dominant suppliers, selling England a staggering 16, tons of wool that year. Throughout most of the s, wool was our most important export increasing many times over.
Australia was a late participant in the Industrial Revolution but benefitted from decades of earlier technological development. At first Australian shepherds tended the colonial flocks but the gold rushes lured them away and fences were erected to keep the sheep from straying.
Fences encouraged selective breeding, disease control and improved the quality and quantity of wool and kept dingos at bay. Initially, crude piles of Mulga wood were used to enclose paddocks but these were later replaced by wire fences. Initially imported from Britain, fencing wire and netting was locally made from Wire fences needed to be kept tight to be effective and wire strainers were developed and manufactured in Australia and New Zealand.
Washing wool Washing sheep before shearing was central to the marketability of wool in England. It reduced transport costs by removing some of the grease, dirt, grass seeds, twigs and burrs so that the fleece.
This meant that Australian wool could compete with the European producers. In the early days sheep were run into streams, washed in tubs of soapy water, and rinsed off. Later, special water runs were built and dams erected for wool washing. The introduction of steam engines to heat the water washed the wool even better.
Larger establishments like wool scouring works , also powered by steam, were erected to remove the grease and clean the wool. Managing water Ensuring a good reliable water supply was essential to extending sheep grazing lands.
Tanks or dams were built to store water. These were dug out with large scoops hauled by teams of horses or bullocks.
As sheep can only walk about 6 km from pasture to water each day, windmills pumped up underground water to drinking troughs or tanks for them. These were initially made in the USA but later manufactured extensively in Australia becoming ubiquitous to the landscape. From the s artesian water, vast underground mineralised water supplies, further opened up enormous tracts of new land for sheep.
Shearing the sheep Australia provided a large market for hand shears made at the English edge steel works around Sheffield. English manufacturers even travelled to Australia to research the needs of Australian shearers. By the late s numerous Australian patents eventuated in the development of sheep shearing machines which shore sheep faster, removed more fleece and required less skill than hand shearing.
Pressing the wool To make wool cheaper and easier to transport it was compressed into bales by wool presses in the shearing shed. Again Australian and overseas inventors and manufacturers worked to develop and refine wool presses during the s. One of the most popular was the Koerstz, made in Sydney.
Transport Most people assume that the first railways in New South Wales were to transport people but the driving force for their construction was pressure from Goulburn graziers. They wanted a cheaper method of transporting their wool rather than the slow bullock drays and wagons travelling overland.
Railways not only transported wool to the coast for transport to England by fast clipper ships but brought back the latest shearing machines and steam and oil engines to run them. As well as goods they transported knowledge through publications such as books, newspapers and journals containing the latest information for graziers about breeding, combating disease and water conservation.
The Australian wool industry developed because of the Industrial Revolution. It spawned local factories to make equipment for Australian conditions from sheep shearing equipment to fencing supplies and from sheep dips for disease control to wagons for transporting the wool to the rail head.
Steam engines powered the shearing machines and heated the water for wool washing and scouring. Rail transport made wool production competitive while the visual success of this industry was reflected in the enormous wool stores erected all over cities like Sydney for its storage. Margaret, thank you for this terrific blog post. It combines two of my fascinations — the Australian wool industry and the Industrial Revolution, and I thoroughly enjoyed reading it — twice.
Great photos, too. It was so intersesting to read , thank you very much. I am a Hungarian wool trader, and I think we also need to make a similar revolution nowadays in Hungary as well. Its incredible to see Ferrier press as vintage, becouse I still use it in my station called Estancia Penitente in Patagonia Chile. Thank you for posting this it is really helping with my history assignment that I have to do for school.
I was having a lot of trouble trying to find websites to get information from, I hope you two get good marks, good luck.
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Next Continue. Inside the Collection. Share: Email this. Thanks for your comments Penny. Tilly, Blog editor. This article did really help thx. Good luck with ur score too!! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Follow Us. Related Australia and the Industrial Revolution — Impact of the first railways. Industrial Revolution in Australia — impact on manufacturing in the s.
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What is Wool Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
Crutching is the removal of wool from around the tail and udder of the sheep to prevent flystrike, to make it easier for newborn lambs to feed and to prevent dags forming. Pre-Lamb - Remove a full or half belly then proceed to the full crutch. Option 1 - With any belly crutch the teats must be properly cleared so lambs can feed easily. Option 2. Full Belly - The full belly is recommended with long woolled sheep. This helps the fleece dry quickly keeping the wool a better colour.
The future of wool production
Wool is a type of fabric derived from the hairs of various animals. To make wool, producers harvest the hairs of animals and spin them into yarn. They then weave this yarn into garments or other forms of textiles. Wool is known for its durability and thermally insulating properties; depending on the type of hair that producers use to make wool, this fabric may benefit from the natural insulative effects that keep the animal that produced the hair warm throughout the winter. Throughout the centuries, wool and cotton have vied for supremacy as the most-used textile in the world. Today, each of these fabrics fills a particular niche, and wool remains prized for its unique attributes. Some types of wool have more crimp than others, and the more crimp there is in a woolen garment, the more insulative it is.
When you think about the Industrial Revolution steam engines, factory manufacturing and railways all spring to mind. What about the wool industry in Australia? How could sheep grazing on vast tracts of land here and the production of wool be influenced by the Industrial Revolution in Britain? A surprising amount it would appear. Early days The famous pastoralists, John and Elizabeth Macarthur, established a colonial wool industry in Australia in the early decades of the s with rare Spanish sheep. Compared to growing crops, sheep could be grazed with little labour. It was the ideal agricultural product that fledgling Australian colonies could export back to England by ship without it perishing. The big challenge was actually selling it in England. The production of wool in Australia was disadvantaged from the start.
Ultimate, Free Guide to Processing Wool to Make Wool Roving
The loss of fibres from synthetic textiles during washing, and the persistence of these fibres in aquatic ecosystems, has in the past few years emerged as an area of major concern. Natural fibres such as wool are biodegradable. They do not accumulate in the environment but break down naturally to harmless compounds.
Don't work with woolen fibers without this free processing wool tutorial by your side! Learn how to wash wool, then card and comb it for DIY roving. Spin Off Editorial Staff 2 years ago. I have seen the light! As in light and fluffy. Never the type of person to even want to process my own fiber, I have recently been convinced. Oh, I'd tried it before—started with a raw fleece, washed, and handcarded and handcarded and got small quickly disappearing rolags. To be honest, it just didn't seem worth it when I could buy prepared fiber in every color of the rainbow and even more blended in ways I never would imagine. And it is so easy—half the work is already done. All you have to do is a little sorting, stripping, and maybe some predrafting. However, the more I am around spinning, the more I learn there is always a price for taking the easy way.
How to wash cashmere sweater during production process in knitwear factory?
After this initial sorting process, the wool is then brought to merchants for detailed classification and is packed into pressed bales. These bales will be marked with the contents, describing the fibre thickness, length, colour and vegetable matter content. Each bale is press packed with over kg of wool to minimise the cost and energy required to transport the wool to the scouring washing plant. At the scouring plant, the bales are opened and the wool is mixed together to produce a particular blend which meets the required specifications. This blend then undergoes a scouring process, whereby the wool is washed in warm water through a series of baths. Upon leaving each successive bath, the wool gradually becomes cleaner until such time as it is entirely clean with all traces of dirt, vegetable matter and lanolin now removed leaving only the raw fibre remaining. The wool is then fully protected using Ionic protect as the wool insulation is being produced. Once dried, the wool is then carded combed , so all of the fibres are running in the same direction. This extremely thin layer of carded wool fibres is now layered numerous times to give the end product it's desired thickness.
How to Wash and Prepare Fleece
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals. The wool of sheep was soon recognized as one of the most practical to use. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, wool trade prospered. The English had become proficient in the raising of sheep, while the Flemish had developed the skills for processing. As a result, the British began to sell their wool to the Flemish, who processed the raw material and then sold it back to the English. The ambitious British soon realized the advantages of both producing and processing their own wool.
Commodity Exchange fee on washed wool raised to encourage final production Society. In June , above mentioned companies put in a request for increasing wool fee of the MCE in order to support wool combing and final production to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry.
Industrial Revolution in Australia – impact on the wool industry
Skirting a fleece The wool from the back end of the sheep, their legs and sometimes their belly is too full of manure to use. These are referred to as "tags" as in the phrase "tag end". These are removed first before washing the fleece; this process is called skirting, as all the edges of the wool coat are removed. The fleeces are also sorted into the various types: fine from coarse and short from long.
Medieval Methods for Making Fabric From Wool
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin.
The cookie settings on this website are set to 'allow all cookies' to give you the very best experience. Please click Accept Cookies to continue to use the site. Working with raw fleece can be both rewarding and frustrating at the same time.