We've made some changes to EPA. Hazardous waste drums stored improperly at an industrial waste facility. Drums must have proper labeling, sufficient aisle space, and be stored no more than two tiers high. Drums of unknown waste at a paint manufacturing facility in the Midwest. Facilities are required to identify and properly label any drums containing hazardous wastes.
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- Good chemistry: helping business to come within REACH rules
- Working in Confined Spaces
- The chemical industry
- Dangerous chemicals hiding in everyday products
- The Top 10 Industrial Chemicals
- 27 Chemical-Free Recipes for DIY Spring Cleaning
- TRI-Covered Industry Sectors
- Light industry
- Industrial vs. Consumer Goods: What’s the Difference?
- Frequently Asked Questions: Household Hazardous Waste
Good chemistry: helping business to come within REACH rulesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Space: The Next Trillion Dollar Industry
The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries.
This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany. By kind permission of BASF. The industry uses a wide range of raw materials, from air and minerals to oil. With increasing competition worldwide, innovation remains crucial in finding new ways for the industry to satisfy its increasingly sophisticated, demanding and environmentally-conscious consumers.
The products of the chemical industry can be divided into three categories:. Several other categorisations are used but this one is simple and helpful in the context of this web site. Outputs range widely, with basic chemicals produced in huge quantities millions of tonnes and some speciality chemicals produced in modest kilogramme quantities but with very high value.
As explained in the unit on Chemical Reactors , the choice of reactor is often goverened by the amount of chemical that is to be produced. The value of sales per category for both Europe and the US are broadly similar, as shown in Table 1. An example is methanol, commonly produced from oil and natural gas in the US and Europe but from coal in China.
Another is ethene, derived from oil and gas in the US and Europe but increasingly from biomass in Brazil. Other examples are described in the units on this web site. Basic chemicals, produced in large quantities, are mainly sold within the chemical industry and to other industries before becoming products for the general consumer.
For example, ethanoic acid is sold on to make esters, much of which in turn is sold to make paints and at that point sold to the consumer. Huge quantities of ethene are transported as a gas by pipeline around Europe and sold to companies making poly ethene and other polymers.
These are then sold on to manufacturers of plastic components before being bought by the actual consumer. Figure 3 shows a plant producing chemicals which it then immediately uses to manufacture other chemicals.
Figure 3 Many companies use some of their chemical products as intermediates in their own manufacturing processes. There are often clusters of processes which use the output of one as the input to another.
This site, at Billingham in the north-east of England, is a good example of such an integrated chemical plant. All the plants are also interconnected by steam pipes to make the most efficient use of energy released during manufacturing processes. Ammonia is made from natural gas which is imported by pipeline from the North Sea. Some ammonia is used to make nitric acid.
Ammonia and nitric acid are used to make the fertilizer, ammonium nitrate. Ammonia is also converted into hydrogen cyanide. Hydrogen cyanide is used in the process to make methyl 2-methylpropenoate , a key monomer for the manufacture of various acrylic polymers.
The tank farm stores imported reactants and products prior to export. The production of chemicals from petroleum and increasingly from coal and biomass has seen many technological changes and the development of very large production sites throughout the world. The hydrocarbons in crude oil and gas, which are mainly straight chain alkanes, are first separated using their differences in boiling point, as is described in the unit Distillation.
They are then converted to hydrocarbons that are more useful to the chemical industry, such as branched chain alkanes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. These processes are described in the unit, Cracking and related refinery processes. In turn, these hydrocarbons are converted into a very wide range of basic chemicals which are immediately useful petrol, ethanol, ethane-1,2-diol or are subjected to further reactions to produce a useful end product for example, phenol to make resins and ammonia to make fertilizers.
Many examples are found in the group of units on this web site devoted to Basic chemicals. The main use for petrochemicals is in the manufacture of a wide range of polymers. Due to their importance of these they are given their own section of units, Polymers. These are relatively low cost chemicals used throughout manufacturing and agriculture. They are produced in very large amounts, some in millions of tonnes a year, and include chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric and nitric acids and chemicals for fertilizers.
As with petrochemicals, many emerging countries are now able to produce them more cheaply than companies based in the US and Europe. This has led to tough competition and producers of these chemicals worldwide work continuously to reduce costs while meeting ever more stringent environmental and safety standards.
The units on basic inorganics can be found within the Basic chemicals section of the site. This category covers a wide variety of chemicals for crop protection , paints and inks, colorants dyes and pigments. It also includes chemicals used by industries as diverse as textiles, paper and engineering. New products are being created to meet both customer needs and new environmental regulations. An everyday example is household paints which have evolved from being organic solvent-based to being water-based.
Another is the latest ink developed for ink-jet printers. Units on selected speciality chemicals can be found within the Materials and Applications section of this site. Consumer chemicals are sold directly to the public. They include, for example, detergents, soaps and other toiletries. The search for more effective and environmentally safe detergents has increased over the last 20 years, particularly in finding surfactants that are capable of cleaning anything from sensitive skin to large industrial plants.
Parallel to this, much work has been done in producing a wider range of synthetic chemicals for toiletries, cosmetics and fragrances. Units on selected consumer chemicals can be found within the Materials and Applications section. The chemical industry is a very important contributor to the wealth of a country. Generally personnel in the industry are among the most well rewarded of all manufacturing industries because the industry has the largest proportion of highly qualified people and generally it is the most productive.
Production in China and other Asian economies is rising rapidly Table 2. China itself in the space of just 10 years has increased its percentage share from 8. In contrast the proportion has shrunk in Europe from Overall they are taking smaller slices of a much larger cake, but the mass of the slice is still growing.
Nevertheless, the manufacturing core of the industry is now decisively in Asia. Table 3 shows the sales of the countries which have large sales. It can be seen Table 5 that the head offices are spread around the world and reflect not only the high growth of chemical markets in the Middle East and in Asia but also the desire of oil producers to participate in making chemicals.
Table 5 Chemical companies: Sales in and the location of their head office. The chemical industry is highly multi-national. This company exemplifies the changes wrought in the chemical industry. In fact there are very good reasons for the choice of sites, reasons which also reflect the industrial and consumer landscape of the day. At first sight it seems strange that what are currently the fourth and seventh largest chemical companies in the world, Dow and DuPont , are situated in two small US cities, Midland, Michigan and Wilmington, Delaware.
However, the reason that Henry Dow founded his company at Midland in was because the salt deposits in the area contain particularly high concentrations of bromide ions, and Dow had patented two methods for obtaining elemental bromine from these deposits. The falling water drove the machinery of the mill and the willow trees on the riverbanks were turned into charcoal, one of the three ingredients of gunpowder. The site was far enough away from Wilmington in case of explosion but near enough to wharves on the river to ship out the powder.
A perfect and entirely logical location. There Friedrich Bayer and Johann Friedrich Weskott, one a salesman and the other a master dyer, set up a factory to manufacture synthetic dyestuffs from coal-tar for the textile industry. BASF, like Bayer, was founded to make dyes but its location was influenced by civic utilities and an early instance of industrial recycling.
In Friedrich Engelhorn built a gasworks in Mannheim and installed the street lighting for the town council. At the same time he seized the opportunity to use the by-product, coal-tar, to make dyes. The company also began to make the other chemicals necessary for dye production, notably alkalis and acids.
With environmental foresight, the city fathers of Mannheim did not want any pollution of their city and so the plant was actually built across the Rhine at Ludwigshafen.
For example, the concentration of the chemical industry in the Northeast of England was influenced by the location of coal mines, the availability of iron ore for the steel industry and the closeness to ports.
Similarly, the strong chlor-alkali industry chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate in the Northwest of England developed because of local coal and salt mines and the proximity of a major canal leading to a main port of England. The great cotton mills in Lancashire gave the obvious location for the dyestuff industry around Manchester, the largest city in Lancashire.
All of the sites mentioned above are flourishing today, although the companies expanded during the subsequent years to make many other chemicals ranging from plastics to pharmaceuticals. They have also added many new plants all over the world to be near their customers. Nevertheless, exactly the same range of factors that influenced locations in the nineteenth century are active today, for example:.
This explains why some installations are sited adjacent to oil fields. For example, there is a cluster of companies adjacent to the oil fields in Texas, and the discoveries and development of gas shale still a controversial process in many countries in places like Texas, Colorado and Pennsylvania are leading to new investment in chemical plants nearby. Shale gas is extracted by a process called 'fracking' which is still a controversial processes in many countres.
Fracking is discussed in detail in the unit Extracting crude oil and natural gas. Access to the sea for transport remains a huge influence. Refineries and chemical companies have been built on the coast of many countries, whether they have their own indigenous oil and gas or whether they import it.
Figures 4 and 5 Refineries are usually located near the sea, allowing for the ready import and export of raw materials and products. By kind permission of BP. Similarly, there are refineries on the coast of mainland Europe, for example near Antwerp Belgium and Rotterdam Netherlands. There are even pipelines that connect refineries, enabling easy transport of the ethene and, in the Netherlands and Belgium, the propene produced by them. Figure 6 Distribution of ethene by pipeline across Europe.
Other examples of very large refineries with chemical plants either integrated into them or nearby can be seen in Saudi Arabia Al-Jubail, which has a large chemical complex built near a deep sea water harbour of Ras Tenura on the east coast near Bahrain , India Jamnagar in the state of Gujarat on the north west coast and South Korea Ulsan on the south-east coast on the Sea of Japan.
Many oil producing countries made a strategic decision not just to sell the crude oil, but also to participate in the higher added value markets downstream. They began to invest in both refineries and petrochemical plants close to the oil fields in their own countries major production facilities now exist, for example, in Saudi Arabia. However, these are far away from the actual markets for the refined oils and chemicals. As it is cheaper to transport crude oil than to distribute many of its end products around the globe, there is now a trend for oil-producing countries to invest in more distant refineries and plants, closer to the consumer market.
Chemicals are essential to our daily lives, but some can pose a risk to human health and the environment. Europe's chemical legislation known as REACH places a high responsibility for chemical management on industry. For small firms using substances and mixtures in their production, dealing with such strict requirements can be tough. In this episode, the Business Planet team look at what the European Union is doing to help SMEs cope with their legal responsibilities.
Working in Confined Spaces
CNN It was long believed that you could acquire "better living through chemistry. In a landmark alliance, known as Project TENDR , leaders of various disciplines have come together in a consensus statement to say that many of the chemicals found in everyday products can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and attention-deficit disorders. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos Where are dangerous toxins lurking in your home? Story highlights Many toxic chemicals are associated with neurodevelopmental issues Experts unite in a landmark alliance to say that the science is clear.
The chemical industry
Spring is finally near please? Luckily, there are alternative ways to keep things fresh and sanitary. Read on for the low-down on cleaning every area of the home, DIY style. Immediate effects of exposure to indoor pollutants can include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as exacerbated symptoms of asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Long-term effects following long or repeated exposure to indoor pollutants include respiratory diseases, heart disease, and even cancer.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Fybots Tertiary Space
The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries. This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany. By kind permission of BASF. The industry uses a wide range of raw materials, from air and minerals to oil. With increasing competition worldwide, innovation remains crucial in finding new ways for the industry to satisfy its increasingly sophisticated, demanding and environmentally-conscious consumers. The products of the chemical industry can be divided into three categories:. Several other categorisations are used but this one is simple and helpful in the context of this web site. Outputs range widely, with basic chemicals produced in huge quantities millions of tonnes and some speciality chemicals produced in modest kilogramme quantities but with very high value.
Dangerous chemicals hiding in everyday products
By John T. Moore, Chris Hren, Peter J. In the final analysis, chemistry is about chemicals.
Wiki Bulk Chemicals Used to purify water, bleach wood pulp, and to make other chemicals. A standard flexible intermediate bulk container can hold 1, to 2, lb to kg and manufacturers offer bags with a volume of cu ft , L. Flight Operations Carriers are Megaships with docking facilities. Due to its oxidising properties, it is used in bleach formulations, disinfection applications and also in the manufacture of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The Elite Dangerous wiki was created to allow a collection of game documentation, how-to articles, theory and game data that pertains to the massively multiplayer space epic Elite Dangerous. Asked in WinCo Foods store. Bulk Carriers Equipment. Cole Chemical differentiates itself by offering value-added services with the products we sell. Unlike chemicals bought from chemical supply companies, when bought locally these common chemicals are unlikely to come with Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS. How to Dispose of Industrial Chemicals.
The Top 10 Industrial Chemicals
Have you ever wondered what causes the smell that we associate with new products? Whether it is a fresh coat of paint or a new carpet, mattress or piece of furniture, you have probably noticed that some manufactured goods typically emit a certain smell when we add them to our homes. The cause of this smell is off-gassing, and it happens when the new products that you bring into your home release potentially-harmful chemicals into the air. Below, learn which products are known for off-gassing and what you can do to keep toxic emissions from impacting the air quality in your home. Some organizations or manufacturers may use the word outgassing instead of off-gassing, but the two terms are both used to describe the release of harmful gases trapped in products and materials during production. However, off-gassing is commonly used when discussing indoor air quality and manufactured household products and furniture. Outgassing, on the other hand, is used more often in an industrial or lab setting.
27 Chemical-Free Recipes for DIY Spring Cleaning
Household Hazardous Waste HHW is any unwanted household product labeled as flammable, toxic, corrosive, or reactive. The most common products include aerosols, anti-freeze, asbestos, fertilizers, motor oil, paint supplies, photo chemicals, poisons, and solvents. Improper disposal of these products is not only illegal, but can contaminate drinking water, pollute the bay, and seriously injure garbage and recycling collection and landfill employees. Stanford Faculty Staff residents have a unique curbside and drop off program for 5 Universal Waste items. Residential identification required.
TRI-Covered Industry Sectors
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-income intensive than heavy industry and is more raw material -oriented than business -oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries. Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry.
Industrial vs. Consumer Goods: What’s the Difference?
Everyday household products found under your kitchen sink or in your garage are household hazardous waste HHW. Such waste can be corrosive, toxic, ignitable, flammable, or reactive and co-mingling them with your refuse could create a dangerous situation. In addition to the dangers this can cause at home, much of your regular refuse goes to landfills where HHW can contaminate soil and seep into ground water. These S.
Frequently Asked Questions: Household Hazardous Waste
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